kamaal ataaturk

kamaal ataaturk
kamaal paasha ke angreji mein hastaakshar

kamaal ataaturk urf mustafa kamaal paasha (1881 - 1938) ko aadhunik Turkey ka nirmaata kaha jaata hai. Turkey ke saamraajyavaadi shaasak sultaan abdul hameed dviteeya ka paasa palat kar vahaaain kamaal ki saamaajik, raajaneetik va aarthik vyavastha kaayam karne ka jo kraantikaari kaarya unhonne kiya us aitihaasik kaarya ne unke naam ko saarthak siddh kar diya.

anukram

janm aur bachapan

kamaal paasha ka janm 19 May san 1881 mein salonika (sailonika) ke ek kisaan parivaar mein hua tha. inki maata ka naam juvaida va pita ka Ali raja tha. Ali raja salonika ke chungi daftar mein klark the. unka bachapan ka naam mustafa tha. janm ke kuchh varsh baad hi pita ki mrutyu ho gayi. maata jubaida ne majahabi taaleem dilaane ke uddeshya se madarase mein daakhil kara diya jahaaain unke senior chhaatro ke tang (rainging) karne par vah marne maarane par utar aaye. maatr 11 saal ki umr mein hi vah itne durdaant (maar pitaai karne vaale) ho gaye the ki unhein maktab se nikaalna pada. baad mein unhein monaasteer (mainistar) ke sainik school mein bharti karaaya gaya. parantu vahaaain bhi unka mar mitne wala ugravaadi svabhaav bana raha lekin sainya-shiksha mein dilchaspi ke kaaran unki padhaai badastoor jaari rahi, usamein koi vyavadhaan naheen aaya.

sainya shiksha

baalak mustafa ugr avashya tha parantu ganit mein usaki gati aashcharya janak thi. adhyaapak ke black board par savaal likhte hi vah use muainhajabaani hal kar diya karta tha. usamein kamaal ki kaabiliyt dekhkar school ke ganit adhyaapak captain mustafa ufaindi ne naam badal kar kamaal rakh diya. uske baad hi vah kamaal paasha ke naam se jaana jaane laga. 17 saal ki umr mein monaasteer ke primary sainik school mein praarambhik sainya shiksha praapt karne ke baad unhein kustuntuniya (kaanstenteenopil) ke staaf kaalej (vaar ekedami) mein uchch sainya shiksha hetu bhej diya gaya. un dinon kustuntuniya mein abdul hameed (dviteeya) ki saltanat thi aur uske raajyaadhipti ko sultaan kaha jaata tha.

vatan se dosti

vahaaain vah adhyayan ke saath-saath buri sangat mein ghoomate rahe. kuchh kaal tak uddandataapoorn jeevan bitaane ke baad vah vatan naamak ek gupt kraantikaari dal ke pehle sadasya bane aur thode hi dinon baad uske neta ho gaye. vatan ka uddeshya ek taraf sultaan ki taanaashaahi aur doosari taraf videshi shadyantron ko jad se mitaana tha. ek din dal ki baithak chal rahi thi ki kisi guptachar ne sultaan ko khabar de di aur sabke sab shadyantrakaari afsar giraftaar karke jail bhej diye gaye. prachalit kaanoon ke anusaar un sabko mrutyudand diya ja sakta tha, par durbalachitt sultaan ko bhaya tha ki kaheen aisa karne par desh mein vidroh na bhadak uthe, at: usane sabakon kshamaadaan dene ka nishchaya kiya.

kshamaadaan ke pashchaat fir vahi kaarya

is prakaar anya sanikon ke saath kamaal bhi kshamaadaan mein chhod diye gaye. tatpashchaat sultaan ne drooj jaati ke vidroh ko dabaane ke liye unhein damishk bhej diya. vahaaain kamaal ne kaam to kamaal ka hi kiya, par svabhaav ke anusaar kustantuniya vaapas lautate hi unhonne staambool (staimbol) mein ek kamara lekar vatan-O-hurriyat party ka kaaryaalaya kholkar usamein aajaadi ki gupt sanstha ka kaarya aarambh kar diya. isi beech unhein yeh gyaat hua ki makadooniya mein sultaan ke viruddh khula vidroh hone wala hai. mauke ki najaakat ko bhaaainpate hue kamaal ne sultaan ki sena se chhutti le li aur jaafa, mirua va Athens hote hue vesh badalkar vidroh ke kendra salonika ja pahuainche. parantu vahaaain par unhein pehchaan liya gaya.

palaayanaavastha

fir vah grees hote hue jaafa ki or bhaage. par tab tak unki giraftaari ka aadesh vahaaain bhi pahuainch chuka tha. Ahmad be naamak ek afsar par kamaal ko pakadne ka bhaar tha, par chooainki Ahmad swayam vatan ka sadasya tha, isliye usane kamaal ko giraftaar karne ke bajaay gaaja morche par bhej diya aur yeh sultaan ko yeh report bhej di ki vah chhutti par gaye hi naheen the.

yadyapi kamaal salonika mein bahut thode samay tak hi rah paaye, fir bhi unhonne yeh bhali-bhaaainti samajh liya tha ki salonika ko hi vidroh ka kendra banaana theek rahega, isaliye bade prayatnon ke baad san 1908 mein unhonne apna sthaanaantaran salonika hi karva liya.

Anwar paasha ka kraanti-prayaas

yahaaain Anwar ke netrutv mein do saal pehle hi ekta aur pragati samiti ke naam se ek kraantikaari dal ki sthaapana ho chuki thi. kamaal tatkaal uske sadasya ban gaye, parantu dal ke netaaon se unki naheen bani. fir bhi ve samiti ka kaam nirntar karte rahe. is dal ke ek neta niyaaji ne keval kuchh sau aadamiyon ko lekar Turkey sarkaar ke viruddh vidroh bol diya. yadyapi thi to yeh badi moorkhata ki baat, parantu chooainki saara desh taiyaar tha, isliye jo sena usase ladne ke liye bheji gayi thi, vah bhi Anwar se ja mili. is prakaar desh mein Anwar ka jaya-jayakaar ho gaya.

Anwar ki asafal kraanti

ab sah sammilit sena rajdhani par aakraman karne ki taiyaari kar rahi thi. sultaan ne inheen dinon kuchh shaasan-sudhaar bhi kiye. fir bhi vidroh ki shaktiyaaain apna kaam karti raheen, par jab vidroh safal ho chuka tab sultaan abdul hameed ne sena ke kuchh logon ko yathesht ghoos dekar apne saath mila liya, jisse sainikon ne vidroh karke apne afsaron ko maar daala aur fir ek baar islaam, sultaan aur khaleefa ki jaya ke naare buland hue.

Anwar ka paasha palat punarprayaas

in dinon Anwar barlin mein the. vah jaldi hi laute aur unhonne abdul hameed ko gaddi se utaar kar anek pratikriyaavaadi netaaon ki faaainsi par chadha diya. is prakaar Anwar ki kraantikaari samiti ke haath mein prashaasanik shakti aa gayi. aam janta ko digbhramit karne ke liye sultaan ke bhaanje ko sinhaasan par bitha diya gaya.

kamaal va Anwar mein satta-sangharsh

idhar kamaal paasha Anwar ke viruddh nirntar shadyantr karte rahe kyonki unke vichaar se Anwar beshak aadarshavaadi the kintu avyaavahaarik adhik vyakti the. baavajood is sabke Anwar ne us samay hone vaale videshi aakramanon ko ek ke baad ek lagaataar vifal kiya isse janta mein Anwar ki khyaati aur adhik badhi.

Anwar ke islaameekaran ke viruddh kamaal ka aandolan

kamaal paasha sainik vesh mein (1918 ka chitr)

iske baad Anwar ne apne sarv islaami svapn ko satya karne ke liye kaarya aarambh kiya aur unhonne iske liye sabse pehla kaam yeh kiya ki Turkey sena ko sangathit karne ka bhaar ek jarman general ko diya. kamaal ne iske viruddh yeh kehte hue aandolan praarambh kiya ki yeh to Turkey jaati ka apamaan hai. is par kamaal ko sainik doot banaakar sofiya bhej diya gaya.

mahaayuddh ke bhainvar-jaal mein

isi beech mahaayuddh chhid gaya. ismein Anwar safal naheen ho sake, par kamaal ne ek yuddh mein kustantuniya par adhikaar karne ki briaatish chaal ko vifal kar diya aur uske baad unki jeet par jeet hoti chali gayi. fir bhi mahaayuddh mein Turkey haar gaya. kamaal din raat parishram karke videshiyon ke viruddh aandolan karte rahe. 1920 mein sevra ki sandhi ki ghoshana hui parantu iski shartein itni kharaab theen ki kamaal ne fauran hi ek sena taiyaar kar kustuntuniya par aakraman ki taiyaari ki.

grees ka aakraman

isi beech grees ne Turkey par hamla kar diya aur smarana mein sena utaar di jo kamaal ke pradhaan kendra angaara ki taraf badhne lagi. ab to kamaal ke liye badi samasya paida ho gayi, kyonki is yuddh mein yadi ve haar jaate to aage koi sambhaavana na rahati. isaliye unhonne badi taiyaari ke saath yuddh kiya jiska parinaam yeh hua ki dheere-dheere greek sena ko peechhe hatna pada.

France va roos ki sahaayata

is beech France aur roos ne bhi kamaal ko gupt roop se sahaayata dena shuroo kiya. thode dinon mein hi greek nikaal baahar kiye gaye. greekon ko bhagaane ke baad hi angrejon ke haath se baaki hisse nikaalne ka prashn tha. desh unke saath tha, iske atirikt briaaten ab ladne ke liye bilkul taiyaar naheen tha. is kaaran yeh samasya bhi sulajh gayi.

Turkey mein prajaatantr

Turkey bhaasha mein likhi hui Quraan ki puraani prati

kamaal ne desh ko prajaatantr ghoshit kiya aur swayam pratham raashtrapati bane. ab raajya lagbhag nishkantak ho chuka tha, par mullaaon ki or se unka nirntar virodh ho raha tha. ispar kamaal ne sarkaari akhbaaron mein islaam ke viruddh prachaar shuroo kiya. ab to dhaarmik netaaon ne unke viruddh fatwe jaari kar diye aur yeh kehna shuroo kiya ki kamaal ne angora mein striyon ko parde se baahar nikaal kar desh mein aadhunik nrutya ka prachaar kiya hai, jismein purush striyon se satakar naachate hain, iska ant hona chahiye. har masjid se yeh aavaaj uthaayi gayi. tab kamaal ne 1924 ke March mein khilaafat pratha ka ant kiya aur Turkey ko dharm-nirpeksh raashtra ghoshit karte hue ek vidheyak sansad mein rakha. adhikaansh sansad sadasyon ne iska virodh kiya, par kamaal ne unhein kasake dhamakaaya. unki is dhamaki ka purajor asar hua aur vidheyak paarit ho gaya.

mulla maulaviyon par nakel

par bheetar-bheetar mullaaon ke vidroh ki aag baraab sulagati rahi. kamaal ke kai bhootapoorv saathi mullaaon ke saath mil gaye the. in logon ne videshi pooainjeepatiyon se dhan bhi liya tha. kamaal ne ek din inke mukhya netaaon ko giraftaar kar faaainsi par chadha diya. kamaal ne dekha ki keval faaainsi par chadhaane se kaam naheen chalega, desh ko aadhunik roop se shikshit karna hai tatha puraane reeti rivaajon ko hi naheen, pahanaave aadi ko bhi samaapt karna hai.

saamaajik vyavastha mein aamool chool parivartan

kamaal ne pehla hamla Turkey topi par kiya. is par vidroh hue, par kamaal ne sena bhej di. iske baad inhonne islaami kaanoonon ko hataakar unke sthaan par ek nai sanhita sthaapit ki jismein svitjralaind, Germany aur Italy ki sab achhi-achhi baatein shaamil theen. bahu-vivaah gairkaanooni ghoshit kar diya gaya. iske saath hi patiyon se yeh kaha gaya ki ve apni patniyon ke saath dhoron ki tarah-vyavahaar na karke baraabari ka bartaav rakhein. pratyek vyakti ko vote ka adhikaar diya gaya. sevaaon mein ghoos lena nishiddh kar diya gaya aur ghoosakhoron ko bahut kadi sajaaeain di garin. striyon ke pahanaave se parda utha diya gaya aur purush puraane dhang ke parichhed chhodkar soot pahanane lage.

bhaashaayi kraanti se raashtreeya ekta ki sthaapana

isse bhi bada sudhaar yeh tha ki arabi lipi ko hataakar poore desh mein roman lipi ki sthaapana ki gayi. kamaal swayam sadkon par jaakar roman varn-maala mein Turkey bhaasha padhaate rahe. iska parinaam yeh hua ki saara Turkey sangathit hokar ek ho gaya aur alagaav ki bhaavana samaapt ho gayi.

sainya vyavastha mein sudhaar

iske saath hi kamaal ne Turkey sena ko atyant aadhunik dhang se sangathit kiya. is prakaar turk jaati kamaal paasha ke kaaran aadhunik jaati bani. san 1938 ke November maas ki 10 taareekh ko mustafa kamaal ataaturk ki mrutyu hui tab tak aadhunik Turkey ke nirmaata ke roop mein unka naam sansaar mein sooraj ki tarah chamak chuka tha.

vyaktigat jeevan

mustafa kamaal paasha va usaki patni lateefi

vaise to kamaal paasha ke jeevan mein chaar striyon ke saath usaka prem prasang chala kintu shaadi usane keval lateefi ussaaki se hi ki. yadyapi usase kamaal ko koi santaan naheen hui aur vah nissantaan hi mar gayi. beebi ke marne ke baad mustafa kamaal paasha ne kabhi vivaah naheen kiya. jeevan ke ekaakeepan ko door karne ke liye usane terah anaath bachchon ko god liya aur unki behtar dhaing se paravarish ki. in terah bachchon mein bhi baarah ladkiyaaain theen aur keval ek hi ladka tha.

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain