kalisto (upagrah)

kailisto
Callisto
gailileeyo yaan dvaara li gayi kailisto ke us rukh ki tasveer jo bruhaspati se door hai - upagrah bhar mein prahaar kretaron ke anginat nishaan hain
khoj
khoj karta Galileo Galilei
khoj ki tithi January 7, 1610[1]
upanaam
praavadhaanik naam Jupiter IV
visheshan Callistoan, Callistonian
periyepsis 1 869 000 km[a]
epoaipsis 1 897 000 km[b]
ardh mukhya aksh 1 882 700 km[2]
vikendrata 0.007 4[2]
parikraman kaal 16.689 018 4 d[2]
ausat parikraman gati 8.204 km/s
jhukaav 0.192° (to local Laplace planes)[2]
svaami grah Jupiter
bhautik visheshataaeain
maadhya trijya 2410.3 ± 1.5 km (0.378 Earths)[3]
tal-kshetrafal 7.30saaaincha:Esp km2 (0.143 Earths)[c]
aayatan 5.9saaaincha:Esp km3 (0.0541 Earths)[d]
dravyamaan 1.075 938 ± 0.000 137saaaincha:Esp kg (0.018 Earths)[3]
maadhya ghanatv 1.834 4 ± 0.003 4 g/cm3[3]
vishuvateeya satah gurutvaakarshan 1.235 m/s2 (0.126 g)[e]
palaayan veg 2.440 km/s[f]
ghoornan synchronous[3]
aksheeya naman zero[3]
albedo 0.22 (geometric)[4]
satah ka taapamaan
K[4]
nyoon maadhya adhi
80 ± 5 134 ± 11 165 ± 5
spasht parimaan 5.65 (opposition)[5]
vaayu-mandal
satah par daab 7.5 pbar[6]
sanghatan ~4saaaincha:Esp cm−3 carbon dioxide[6]
up to 2saaaincha:Esp cm−3 molecular oxygen(O2)[7]

kalisto hamaare saur mandal ke paaainchave grah bruhaspati ka doosra sab se bada upagrah hai aur yeh poore saur mandal ka teesara sab se bada chandrama hai (bruhaspati ke hi gainimeed aur shani ke taaitan ke baad). iska vyaas (daayaameetar) lagbhag 4,820 kimi hai, jo budh grah ka 99% hai lekin budh se kaafi ghanatv hone ke kaaran iska dravyamaan budh ka keval ek-tihaai hai.

anukram

anya bhaashaaoain mein

kalisto ko angreji mein "Callisto" likha jaata hai. kalisto praacheen yoonaani dhaarmik kathaaon mein ek tarah ki apsara ("nimpf") thi.

banaavat

ek-ke-andar-ek ghere wala wala prahaar kretar bahut vishaal hai aur kareeb 3,800 kimi ka vyaas rakhata hai

kalisto lagbhag baraabar maatra ke patthar aur paani ki barf ka bana hua hai. mumkin hai ke iske kendra mein ek patthareela gola ho. yeh bhi sambhav hai ke satah se kreeb 100 kimi ki gaharaai par ek paani ka mahaasaagar ho.[8] kalisto ki satah gaadhe rang ki hai aur usapar bahut se prahaar kretar nazar aate hain. vaigyaanik anumaan lagte hain ke yeh satah arabon varshon pehle bani thi aur tab se barakraar hai. kalisto par ek "valahaala" naam ka vishaal prahaar kretar mashahoor hai jika vyaas (daayaameetar) lagbhag 3,800 kimi hai.

vikirn

vaise to bruhaspati se bahut hi bhayankar vikirn (rediyeshan) paida hoti hai, jis se uske aaspaas kabhi bhi manushyon ka rah paana mushkil lagta hai (kyonki is star ki vikirn jaanleva ho sakti hai). lekin bruhaspati ke ird-gird parikrama karte kalisto ki kaksha kuchh aisi hai ke kalisto par vikirn kam hai. isliye vaigyaanik maanate hain ke bhavishya mein yadi maanav baahari saur mandal mein faileinge to kalisto unke liye ek mahatvapoorn adda ho sakta hai.[9][10]

vaayumandal

kalisto ka ek bahut hi patala vaayumandal hai jismein adhiktar kaarban daaioksaaid aur bahut kam maatra mein aanavik aakseejan (O2) maujood hai.

aupaniveshikran

kalisto par ek kaalpanik maanaveeya adda

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Galilei naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  2. a aa i E sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; orbit naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  3. a aa i E u sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Anderson_2001 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  4. a aa sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Moore2004 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  5. "Classic Satellites of the Solar System". Observatorio ARVAL. http://www.oarval.org/ClasSaten.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-07-13.
  6. a aa sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Carlson_1999 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  7. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Liang_2005 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  8. Kuskov, O.L.; Kronrod, V.A. (2005). "Internal structure of Europa and Callisto". Icarus 177 (2): 550–369. Bibcode 2005Icar..177..550K. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.04.014.
  9. Trautman, Pat; Bethke, Kristen (2003). "Revolutionary Concepts for Human Outer Planet Exploration (HOPE)" (pdf). NASA. http://www.nasa-academy.org/soffen/travelgrant/bethke.pdf.
  10. Troutman, Patrick A.; Bethke, Kristen; Stillwagen, Fred; Caldwell, Darrell L. Jr.; Manvi, Ram; Strickland, Chris; Krizan, Shawn A. (28 January 2003). "Revolutionary Concepts for Human Outer Planet Exploration (HOPE)". American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings 654: 821–828. doi:10.1063/1.1541373.

baahari kadiyaaain


sandarbh truti: "lower-alpha" naamak sandarbh-samooh ke liye <ref> taig maujood hain, parantu samooh ke liye koi <references group="lower-alpha"/> taig naheen mila. yeh bhi sambhav hai ki koi samaapti </ref> taig gaayab hai.