kalachuri kaaleen bundeli samaaj aur sanskruti

bundelakhand ke kalachuriyon ke samaaj mein neeti, maryaada, dharmanishtha ke saath yuddhon ki adhikta thi at: anishchaya ka vaataavaran tha. shaivopaasana ka prasaar Yuvraj Dave ke samay mein hua. is samay shon nadi ke tat par mattamayoor shaivon ka bahut bada math banaaya gaya. itihaasakaaron ke vichaar se yuvaraajadev ke raaj mein shaiv siddhaant, shaivaagam, shaivaachaarya, shaivamath mandiron ki baadh si aa gayi thi. bundelakhand mein gyaan saadhana ke kendron ke rup mein anek mathon ka nirmaan kiya gaya. gurgi aur bilhaari ke math aur mandir is samay mein saahitya aur anya vidyaaon ki abhootapoorv unnati. shaivon ke saath siddh bhi jude hue hain. kadamb guha shaiv-siddhon ka mahatvapoorn sthaan raha hai tatha golaki math ke saath to anek graamon ki aay bhi judi thi. Yuvraj Dave ke samay mein saahitya ke kshetr mein kavi "raajashekhar' ka bundelakhand mein aana aur "vidvashaal bhanjika' naatak, karpooramanjari tatha baalaraamaayan ki rachana tatkaaleen saahityik vaataavaran ko prastut karti hai. gyaaraveen shataabdi mein karn ne kaashi mein "karnameh' naam se Shiv ka prasiddh prasaad banavaaya tha. aisa hi amakantak mein chitrakoot devaalaya ke naam se nirmaan kiya gaya. sthaapatya aur vaastukala ki drushti se yeh utkrusht kalaakruti hai. baarahaveen shataabdi mein chandelon ki badhti hui shakti ke samaksh kalachuriyon ka paraabhav hua. kalachurivansh lagbhag teen sau varsh tak dakshin bundelakhand ka shaasak raha. inke madiron mein Shiv mandir adhik hai saath hi saamaanyatayar tridevon ki pooja bhi hoti thi. moortiyon mein alankaran ka praavadhaan aur praadhaanya tha. samaaj mein vibhinn vargon mein upajaatiyon ka nirmaan isi kaal mein hua tha. kshatriya yuddhon mein, vaishya vyaapaar mein aur braahman apni jeevika ke saadhanon ke liye saamanton ke aashrit to ye hi saath hi aachaar-vichaar aur reetirivaajon ke kathorakaar rahe the. kalachuriyon ke baad chandelakaal mein iska vistaar hi hua.


chandel kaal :

aathaveen naveen shataabdi ke uparaant bundelakhand ke samaaj mein vishesh parivartan aaya. videshi aakramanakaariyon ke sanskrut ke kaaran hindu samaaj mein kattarata ki bhaavana badhi. aara0 see0 majoomadaar ne braahmanon ki nirankushata ko ek anivaarya kaaran maana jiske kaaran shesh samaaj ko unke adheen ban jaana pad. dasveen gyaarahaveen shataabdi ke itihaasakaar ibnashurdadv ke lekhon mein bhi is ka samarth naheen milta hai. chandelakaal mein jaati vibhaajan ke do pahaloo the - vyaavasaayik aur vivaah janm jo baarahaveen shataabdi ke ant tak sthir na rah sake. jaateeya varg vishrankhalan sabhi varnon mein ghatit hua. saamaajik pratishtha ke liye samaaj ko braahmanon ki or dekhna padta tha. alaberuni ne likha hai Mehmood ne bhaaratavarsh ki sabhi arjit ghaati aur usaka saundarya solah aane nasht kar diya. hinduon ke vichaar kramash: sankeernata ki or badhte gaye. is samay parivaar ki dasha vyaavasaayik thi aur upajeevika se sambandh rakhati thi. madhyayug tak vaishya keval krushi ka kaarya karte the parantu is kaal mein ve krushi kaarya se ek dam virkt ho gaye aur boodhon ke saath braahmanon aur kshatriyon ne is hastagat kar liya.

keshav prasaad mishr ke anusaar vivaah jaise sanskaar mein bhi braahmanon ko anya jaati (kshatriyon, vaishya) ki kanya se vivaah varjit tha. madhyayug ke uttar mein baal-vivaah bhi prachalit hue aur uske nirmit manu-samruti aur paraashar sanhita ki vyavasthaaon ko duharaaya gaya -

asht varsha bhavegauri nav varsha tu rohini.

dash varsha bhavetkanya tat urdoo rajasvala..

praapteshu dvaadash varshe kanyaan yo na prayachhati.

masi masi rajastasya: pivnti pitr: swayam..

(paraashar sanhita)

baalyavivaah ka ek kaaran musalmaanon athva videshiyon ke atyaachaar bhi tha. vidhva vivaah mana kiya gaya. bahuvivaah pratha prachalit rahi. dheere-dheere jaati ke baahar ka sambandh nishiddh hua. chandel raajaaon ne samakulasheel vaalon ke yahaaain bhi vivaah sambandh kiye hain. naariyon ki dasha isi ke saath saath giri aur kanya utpann karne par us hi drushti se dekha gaya. naariyon ke abhishpt dasha mein pahuainchane par paarivaarik vishrankhalata aani svaabhaavik thi.

bhojan aur peya mein shoodron ko chhod kar shesh sabhi varn aapas mein milte julate the. shoodr ki sthiti din-pratidin girti gayi. braahman se shoodr ka yeh nirdesh "toore taavatstheeyataam. braahman prasved kanika prasaranti' unki sthiti ka gyaapan karaata hai. madyapaan yadyapi ghrunit tha parantu yeh prachalit tha. vasron mein paijaam, pagadi, mirjai ka chalan tha. aabhooshan praaya: sabhi sri-purush pahanate the.

saamaajik reet-rivaajon mein parishuddhata ka vishesh dhyaan rakha jaata tha. krushi kaarya mein baisaakh sudi teej ko krushi varsh ka aarambh maana jaata tha. devashayan aashaadh sudi 11 ko aur Dave jaagaran kaartik sudi 11 ko maanana krushi sambandhi pooja ki reeti thi. saamaanya logon mein karm aur unke falon ka vishvaas tha (praaya: sukrutinaamarthe devaayaanti sahaayataam prabodh chandodayaya pru0 141) par anaarya jaatiyon mein visheshakar gaud aur sauron mein bhootapret mein vishvaas drudh tha. falasvarup ye anek kaalpanik devataaon ki pooja karke dharm bhaavana ki trupti karte the. bhaav-jagatam, javaar, jhaad fooaink par logon ko aushadhiyon se bhi adhik vishvaas tha. yeh taantrikon aur aghorapanthiyon ka yug tha. vartamaan bundelakhand mein jim gram devataaon (kheramaata, bhidohiya, ghatoiya, gaud Bob, masaanabaaba, nat Baba, chheet) ka prachalan hai tatha jin mahaamaariyon ki deviyon aur shaktiyon ki pooja prachalit hai vah inheen ki den hai.

manoranjan ke kshetr mein uchchastareeya vargon mein gaayan, vaadan aur nrutya, abhinay aadi the to shesh vargon mein paryatanasheel sapere, abhichaar aur aindrajaalik kaarya the. is prakaar jin buraaiyon ka shri ganesh in shataabdiyon mein hua vah kaalaantar mein praudh ho gayi. aarthik dasha saamaanyat: achhi thi par dhaarmik vivaad aur sanpradaayagat sangharsh badhte hi gaye. hathayog #aur tantr ka prasaar bhi hua. dhaarmik anaikya ke rahate hue bhi bauddhadharm ka tirohan hua parantu kumaaril aur shankar ke abhiyaan ke baavajood jain dharm pallavit hota raha. khajuraaho aur mahoba mein bane jain mandir iske pramaan hain. chandeh shaasakon ka dharm hindu tha par ve jain dharm ke prati udaar the. dharm mein vaishnav sampradaaya ke svarup mein parivartan aaya. buddh vishnu ke avataar ke rup mein ghoshit ho chuke the. ahinsa ke samaadaar se vaishnav dharm ne jain dharm ko aasant kiya hai shaiv mat prasaar vaishnav mate ke samaanatar hi raha parantu shaakt ko bhi log maanate rahe. is prakaar vishnu, devi, ganesh, soorya aadi ki pooja prachalit thi parantu vaidik vidhiyaan tapann, sooryopaasana aur havan kramash: mahatvaheen hoti gayi. pratyek hindu gruh mein kisi na kisi Dave ki laghu moorti pratishthit hoti gayi. hinduon ke panchaang tyauhaar se bhare pade the. teerth yaatra ki mahima sthaapit hui. mandiron ka jeernoddhaar, taalaab khudavaana dhaarmik krutya ban gaya. jahaan tak islaam ki baat hai bundelakhand mein iska prabhaav mugalakaal mein bhi praaya: naganya raha hai.

deshi raajyon ke udaya se pradesheeya bhaashaaon ka udaya bhi hua. chandel saamraajya ke antargat bundeli ki vikaas hua. anya bhaashaaon mein gauni, bagheli ka vikaas ho raha tha. bundeli saahitya ka nirmaan isi samay praarambh hua. sanskrut mein upadeshaatmak saahitya, somadevakrut katha saritsaagar, trivikram bh krut nal champoo, Krishna mishr rachit prabodh chandrodaya (naatak) tatha dhaarmik saahitya par bhaashya likhe gaye. lalit kalaaon, jyotish, aayurved aadi par granthon ka pranayan hua.

chandelon ne jalaashayon aur durgon ke nirmaan mein vishesh shakti lagaai kaalanjar ka durg yadyapari 7veen shati ka nirmit maana jaata hai par yeh chandel saamraajya ka vishesh aakarshan tha. ajayagadh, baareegadh, matiyaagadh maaraf, maudha, marahar, devagadh aadi isi yug ka smaran karaate hain. mudraaon mein chandel aur kalachuriyon ke sikke milte julate hain.

chandelon ne us sankraman kaal mein shaasan kiya hai jismein musalmaan kramash: vijay ki or aur hindu patan ki or badh rahe the. shaasakon ki raajanitik drushti mein sankeernata hone ke kaaran raashtreeyata ka saarvabhaum bhaav praaya: lupt tha. desh baahar aur bheetar se sangharsh ki bhatti mein tha. kul milaakar dharm, samaaj, sanskruti aur saahitya mein paristhitiyon se saakshaat karne waali drushtiyon ko apnaaya gaya. dhaarmik udaarata to rahi par bheetar se samaaj dharm aur sanskruti mein ek kathor vyavastha ka taana baana bun rahi thi. taantrikon aur aghorapanthiyon ke udaya ke saath maithun aur madira ka usi prakaar praabalaya ho gaya jis prakaar vajrayaaniyon aur mantrayaaniyon mein tha. hindudharm mein upaasana ke aur anek maadhyam sthaapit ho gaye. dharm yaatra, teerth, daan, tyauhaar aur vraton ki maanyata adhik ho gayi. yahi chandel kaaleen bundeli samaaj ka svarup aur sanskruti thi.