kala

raaja ravi varma dvaara chitrit 'gopika'

kala (Art) shabd itna vyaapak hai ki vibhinn vidvaanon ki paribhaashaaeain keval ek vishesh paksh ko chhookar rah jaati hain. kala ka arth abhi tak nishchit naheen ho paaya hai, yadyapi iski hajaaron paribhaashaaeain ki gayi hain. bhaarateeya parampara ke anusaar kala un saari kriyaaon ko kehte hain jinmein kaushal apekshit ho. Europeeya shaastriyon ne bhi kala mein kaushal ko mahattvapoorn maana hai.

kala ek prakaar ka krutrim nirmaan hai jisme shaareerik aur maanasik kaushalon ka prayog hota hai.

anukram

paribhaasha

maithili sharan gupt ke shabdon mein,

abhivyakti ki kushal shakti hi to kala hai -- (saaket, pancham sarg)

itihaas

kala shabd ka prayog shaayad sabse pehle bharat ke "naatyashaastr" mein hi milta hai. peechhe vaatsyaayan aur ushanas ne kramash: apne granth "kaamasootr" aur "shukraneeti" mein iska varnan kiya.

"kaamasootr", "shukraneeti", jain granth "prabandhakosh", "kalaavilaas", "lalitvistar" ityaadi sabhi bhaarateeya granthon mein kala ka varnan praapt hota hai. adhiktar granthon mein kalaaon ki sankhya 64 maani gayi hai. "prabandhakosh" ityaadi mein 72 kalaaon ki soochi milti hai. "lalitvistar" mein 86 kalaaon ke naam ginaae gaye hain. prasiddh Kashmiri pandit kshemeindr ne apne granth "kalaavilaas" mein sabse adhik sankhya mein kalaaon ka varnan kiya hai. usamein 64 janopayogi, 32 dharm, arth, kaam, moksh, sambandhi, 32 maatsarya-sheel-prabhaavamaan sambandhi, 64 svachhakaarita sambandhi, 64 veshyaaon sambandhi, 10 bheshaj, 16 kaayasth tatha 100 saar kalaaon ki charcha hai. sabse adhik praamaanik soochi "kaamasootr" ki hai.

Europeeya saahitya mein bhi kala shabd ka prayog shaareerik ya maanasik kaushal ke liye hi adhiktar hua hai. vahaaain prakruti se kala ka kaarya bhinn maana gaya hai. kala ka arth hai rachana karna arthaat vah krutrim hai. praakrutik srushti aur kala donon bhinn vastueain hain. kala us kaarya mein hai jo manushya karta hai. kala aur vigyaan mein bhi antar maana jaata hai. vigyaan mein gyaan ka praadhaanya hai, kala mein kaushal ka. kaushalapoorn maanaveeya kaarya ko kala ki sanjnyaa di jaati hai. kaushalaviheen ya bhonde dhang se kiye gaye kaaryo ko kala mein sthaan naheen diya jaata.

vargeekaran

kalaaon ke vargeekaran mein mataikya hona sambhav naheen hai. vartamaan samay mein kala ko maanaviki ke antargat rakha jaata hai jismein itihaas, saahitya, darshan aur bhaashaavijnyaaan aadi bhi aate hain.

paashchaatya jagat mein kala ke do bhed kiye gaye hain- upayogi kalaayein (Practice arts) tatha lalit kalaaeain (Fine arts) . paramparaagat roop se nimnalikhit saat ko 'kala' kaha jaata hai-

aadhunik kaal mein inmein fotograafi, chalachitran, vigyaapan[1] aur comics jud gaye hain.

uparokt kalaaon ko nimnalikhit prakaar se bhi shreneekrut kar sakte hain-

kuchh kalaaon mein drushya aur nishpaadan donon ke tattv mishrit hote hain, jaise film.

kala ka mahatva

jeevan, urja ka mahaasaagar hai. jab antash‍aachetana jaagrut hoti hai to urja jeevan ko kala ke rup mein ubhaarati hai. kala jeevan ko sat‍aayam shivm sun‍aadaram se samanvit karti hai. iske dvaara hi buddhi aat‍aama ka sat‍aaya s‍aavarup jhalakata hai. kala us kshitij ki bhaaainti hai jiska koi chhor naheen. itni vishaal itni vis‍aatrut. anek vidhaaon ko apne mein samete. tabhi to kavi man kah utha-

saahit‍aaya sangeet kala vi‍aheen: saakshaat pashu: puch‍aachh vishaanaheen: .

rabeendranaath thaakur ke mukh se nikla “akala mein manush‍aaya apne bhaavon ki abhiv‍aayakti karta hai ” to pleto ne kaha - “akala sat‍aaya ki anukruti ke anukruti hai.”

taalas‍aataaya ke shab‍aadon mein apne bhaavon ki kriya, rekha rang dh‍aavani ya shab‍aad dvaara is prakaar abhiv‍aayakti karna ki use dekhne ya sunane mein bhi vahi bhaav ut‍aapan‍aan ho jaae kala hai. hrudaya ki gairaaiyon se nikli anubhooti jab kala ka rup leti hai kalaakaar ka an‍aatarman maano moort le uthata hai chaahe lekhani usaka maadh‍aayam ho ya rangon se bhi toolika ya suron ki pukaar ya baadhon ki jhankaar. kala hi aatmik shaanti ka maadh‍aayam hai. yeh ‍akathin tapas‍aya hai. saadhana hai. isi ke maadh‍aayam se kalaakaar sunahari aur in‍aadradhanush aat‍aama se s‍aavapnil vichaaron ko saakaar rup dena hai.

kala mein aisi shakti honi chaahiye ki vah logon ko sankeern seemaaon se oopar uthaakar use aise unche s‍aathaan par pahuncha de jahaan manush‍aaya keval manush‍aaya rah jaata hai. kala v‍aayakti ke man mein bani s‍aavaarth, parivaar, kshetr, dharm, bhaasha aur jaati aadi ki seemaaen mitaakar vis‍aatrut aur v‍aayaapakata pradaan karti hai. v‍aayakti ke man ko udaat‍aat banaati hai. vah v‍aayakti ko “as‍ava” se nikaalkar “avasudhaiv kutum‍abakama” se jodti hai.

kala hi hai jismein maanav man mein samvedanaaen ubhaarane, pravruttiyon ko dhaalane tatha chintan ko modne, abhiruchi ko disha dene ki adbhut kshamata hai. manoranjan, saun‍aadaye, pravaah, ul‍aalaas na jaane kitne tat‍aavon se yeh bharpoor hai jismein maanaveeyata ko sam‍aamohit karne ki shakti hai. yeh apna jaadoo tat‍aakaal dikhaati hai aur vyakti ko badalne mein loha pighlaakar paani bana dene waali bhatti ki tarah manovruttiyon mein bhaari rupaan‍aataran pras‍aatut kar sakti hai.

jab yeh kala sangeet ke rup mein ubharati hai to kalaakaar gaayan aur vaadan se s‍aavayan ko hi naheen shrotaaon ko bhi abhibhoot kar deta hai. manush‍aaya aat‍aamavis‍aamrut ho uthata hai. deepak raag se deepak jal uthata hai aur mal‍aahaar raag se megh barasana yeh kala ki saadhana ka hi charamot‍aakarsh hai. sangeet ki saadhana. suron ki saadhana. milna hai aat‍aama se paramaat‍aama ka. abhiv‍aayakti hai anubhooti ki.

bhaat aur chaaran bhi jab yuddhas‍aathal mein umang, josh se sarobaar kavita-gaan karte the to veer yoddhaaon ka ut‍aasaah doguna ho jaata tha to yuddhakshetr kaheen haathi ki chinghaad, to kaheen ghodon ki hinhinaahat to kaheen shatru ki cheet‍aakaar se bhar uthata tha yeh gaayan kala ki parinti hi to hai.

sangeet keval maanavamaatr mein hi naheen apitu pashu-pakshiyon va ped paudhon mein bhi amrut ras bhar deta hai. pashu pakshi bhi sangeet se prabhaavit hokar jhoom uthate hain to ped-paudhon mein bhi s‍aapan‍aadan ho uthata hai. tarangein foot padti hain. yahi naheen maanav ke anek rogon ka upachaar bhi sangeet ki tarangon se sam‍aabhav hai. kaha bhi hai:

sangeet hai shakti ish‍aavar ki, har sur mein base hain Ram.
raagi to gaae raagini, rogi ko mile aaraam..

sangeet ke baad ye lalit-kalaaon mein s‍aathaan diya gaya hai to vah hai- nrut‍aayakala. chaahe vah bharatanaatyam ho ya kat‍aathak, manipuri ho ya kuchipudi. vibhin‍aan bhaav-bhangimaaon se yuk‍aat hamaari saans‍aakruti va pauraanik kathaaon ko ye nrut‍aaya jeevan‍aatata pradaan karte hain. shaas‍aatreeya nrut‍aaya ho ya lokanrut‍aaya inmein khokar tan hi naheen man bhi jhoom uthata hai.

kalaaon mein kala, shresh‍aath-kala vah hai chitrakala. manush‍aaya s‍aavabhaav se hi anukaran ki pravrutti rakhata hai. jaisa dekhta hai usi prakaar apne ko dhaalane ka prayat‍aan karta hai. yahi usaki aat‍aamaabhiv‍aayanjana hai. apni rangon se bhari toolika se chitrakaar jan bhaavanaaon ki abhiv‍aayakti karta hai to darshak hataprabh rah jaata hai. paashaan yug se hi jo chitr praaij hote rahe hain ye maatr ek vidha naheen, apitoo ye maanavata ke vikaas ka ek nishchit sopaan pras‍aatut karte hain. chitron ke maadh‍aayam se aakhet karne vaale aadim maanav ne na keval apne sanvegon ko balki rahas‍aayamaya pravrutti aur jungle ke khoonkhaar pravaasiyon ke viruddh apne astitv ke liye kiye gaye sangharsh ko bhi abhiv‍aayak‍aat kiya hai. dheere-dheere chitrakala shil‍aapakala sopaan chadhi. sin‍aadhughaati sabh‍aayata mein paae gaye chitron mein pashu-pakshi maanavaaakruti sun‍aadar pratimaaen, jyaada namoone Bhaarat ki aadisbh‍aayata ki kalaapriyta ka dyotak hai.

ajan‍aata, baadh aadi ke gufa chitron ki kalaakrutiyon poorv bauddhakaal ke an‍aatargat aati hai. bhaarateeya kala ka uj‍aajval itihaas bhitti chitron se hi praaram‍aabh hota hai aur sansaar mein inke samaan chitr kaheen naheen bane aisa vidvaanon ka mat hai. ajan‍aata ke kala mandir prem, dhairya, upaasana, bhakti, sahaanubhooti, t‍aayaag tatha shaanti ke apoorv udaaharan hai.

madhubani shaili, pahaadi shaili, tanjaur shaili, mugal shaili, Bengal shaili apni-apni visheshataaon ke kaaran aaj janashakti ke man chihint hai. yadi bhaarateeya sans‍aakruti ki moorti kala va shilp kala ke darshan karne ho to dakshin ke mandir apna vishish‍aat s‍aathaan rakhate hain. jahaan ke meenaakshi mandir, vruhadeesh‍aavar mandir, konaark mandir apni anoothi pehchaan ke liye prasiddh hai.

yahi naheen bhaarateeya sans‍aakruti mein lok kalaaon ki khushboo ki mahak aaj bhi apni praacheen param‍aapara se samruddh hai. jis prakaar aadikaal se ab tak maanav jeevan ka itihaas kramabaddh naheen milta usi prakaar kala ka bhi itihaas kramabaddh naheen hai paran‍aatu yeh nishchit hai ki sahachari ke rup mein kala sada se hi saath rahi hai. lok kalaon ka jan‍aam bhaavanaaon aur param‍aaparaaon par aadhaarit hai k‍aayonki yeh janasaamaan‍aaya ki anubhooti ki abhivyakti hai. yeh vartamaan shaastreeya aur v‍aayaavasaayik kala ki prush‍aathabhoomi bhi hai. bhaaratavarsh mein pruth‍aavi ko dharati maata kaha gaya hai. maatrubhooti to iska saanskrutik va parishkrut rup hai. isi dharati maata ka shrruddha se alankaran karke lokamaanav mein apni aat‍aameeyata ka parichay diya vibhin‍aan naamon se dharati ko alankrut kiya jaata hai. Gujarat mein “asaathiyaa” raajas‍aathaan mein “amaan‍adanaa”, mahaaraash‍aatr mein “arangolee” ut‍aatar pradesh mein “achauk pooranaa”, Bihar mein “aahapana”, Bengal mein “aal‍apanaa” aur gadhvaal mein “aaapanaa” ke naam se prasiddh hai. yeh kala dharmaanupraagit bhaavon se preshar hoti hai. jismein shrruddha se rachana ki jaati hai. vivaah aur shubh avsaron mein lokakala ka vishish‍aat s‍aathaan hai. dvaaron par alankrut ghadon ka rakhana usamein jal va naariyl rakhana van‍aadanavaar baandhana aadi ko aaj ke aadhunik yug mein bhi ise aadarabhaav, shrruddha aur upaasana ki drushti se dekha jaata hai.

aaj Bhaarat ki vaas‍aatukala ka sarvar udaaharan “ataajamahala” hai jisne vish‍aav ki apoorv kalaakruttiyaaain ke saat aash‍aacharya mein sheershas‍aath s‍aathaan paaya hai. laalakila, aksharadhaam mandir, kutubameenaar, jaama masjid bhi bhaarateeya vaas‍aatukala ka anupam udaaharan rahi hai. moortikla, saman‍aavayavaadi vaas‍aatukala tatha bhittichitron ki kala ke saath-saath parvateeya kalaaon ne bhi bhaarateeya kala se samruddh kiya hai.

sat‍aaya, ahinsa, karuna, saman‍aavaya aur sarvadharm samabhaav ye bhaarateeya sans‍aakruti ke aise tat‍aat hain jin‍aahonne anek baadhaaon ke ‍abeech bhi hamaari sans‍aakruti ki nirn‍aatarata ko akshun banaae rakha hai. in visheshataaon ne hamaari sanskruti mein vah shakti utpan‍aan ki ki vah Bhaarat ke baahar Asia, dakshin poorv Asia mein apni jade faila saki.

hamaari sans‍aakruti ke in tat‍aavon ko praacheen kaal se lekan aaj tak ki kalaaon mein dekha ja sakta hai. in‍aaheen lalit kalaaon ne hamaari sans‍aakruti ko sat‍aaya, Shiv, saun‍aadarya jaise anek sakaaraat‍aamak pakshon ko chitrit kiya hai. in kalaaon ke maadh‍aayam se hi hamaara lokajeevan, lokamaanas tatha jeevan ka aan‍aatarik aur aadh‍aayaatmik paksh abhiv‍aayak‍aat hota raha hai hamein apni is param‍aapara se katana naheen hai ‍aapitu apni param‍aapara se hi ras lekar aadhunikta ko chitrit karna hai.

bhaarateeya maneeshiyon ke anusaar kalaaon ki soochi

kaamasootr ke anusaar

"kaamasootr" ke anusaar 64 kalaaeain nimnalikhit hain :

(1) gaayan, (2) vaadan, (3) nartan, (4) naataya, (5) aalekhya (chitr likhna), (6) visheshak (mukhaadi par patralekhan), (7) chauk poorana, alpana, (8) pushpashayya banaana, (9) angaraagaadilepan, (10) pachcheekaari, (11) shayan rachana, (12) jalatanrag bajaana (udak vaadya), (13) jalakreeda, jalaaghaat, (14) roop banaana (mekaap), (15) maala gooainthana, (16) mukut banaana, (17) vesh badalna, (18) karnaabhooshan banaana, (19) itr yaadi sugandhadravya banaana, (20) aabhooshanadhaaran, (21) jaadoogari, indrajaal, (22) asundar ko sundar banaana, (23) haath ki safaai (hastalaaghav), (24) rasoi kaarya, Pak kala, (25) aapaanak (sharbat banaana), (26) soocheekarm, silaai, (27) kalaabat, (28) paheli bujhaana, (29) antyaakshari, (30) bujhauval, (31) pustakavaachan, (32) kaavya-samasya karna, naatakaakhyaayika-darshan, (33) kaavya-samasya-poorti, (34) beint ki bunaai, (35) soot banaana, turk karm, (36) badhigari, (37) vaastukala, (38) ratnapareeksha, (39) dhaatukarm, (40) ratnon ki rangapareeksha, (41) aakar gyaan, (42) baagavaani, upavanavinod, (43) medha, pakshi aadi ladvaana, (44) pakshiyon ko boli sikhaana, (45) maalish karna, (46) kesh-maarjan-kaushal, (47) gupt-bhaasha-gyaan, (48) videshi kalaaon ka gyaan, (49) deshi bhaashaaon ka gyaan, (50) bhavishyakathan, (51) kathaputali nartan, (52) kathaputali ke khel, (53) sunakar dohara dena, (54) aashukaavya kriya, (55) bhaav ko ulata kar kehna, (56) dhokha dhadi, chhalik yog, chhalik nrutya, (57) abhidhaan, koshajnyaaan, (58) nakaab lagaana (vastragopan), (59) dyootavidya, (60) rassaakashi, aakarshan kreeda, (61) baalakreeda karm, (62) shishtaachaar, (63) man jeetna (vasheekaran) aur (64) vyaayaam.

shukraneeti ke anusaar

"shukraneeti" ke anusaar kalaaon ki sankhya asankhya hai, fir bhi samaaj mein ati prachalit 64 kalaaon ka usamein ullekh hua hai. "shukraneeti" ke anusaar ganana is prakaar hai :-

nartan (nrutya), (2) vaadan, (3) vastrasajja, (4) roopaparivrtan, (5) shaiyya sajaana, (6) dyoot kreeda, (7) saasan ratijnyaaan, (8) madya banaana aur use suvaasit karna, (9) shalya kriya, (10) Pak kaarya, (11) baagavaani, (12) paashaanu, dhaatu aadi se bhasm banaana, (13) mithaai banaana, (14) dhaatvoshadhi banaana, (15) mishrit dhaatuon ka pruthakkaran, (16) dhaatumishran, (17) namak banaana, (18) shastrasanchaalan, (19) kushti (mallayuddh), (20) lakshyavedh, (21) vaadyasanket dvaara vyooharachana, (22) gajaadi dvaara yuddhakarm, (23) vividh mudraaon dvaara devapoojan, (24) saarathya, (25) gajaadi ki gatishiksha, (26) bartan banaana, (27) chitrakala, (28) taalaab, praasaad aadi ke liye bhoomi taiyaar karna, (29) ghataadi dvaara vaadan, (30) rangasaaji, (31) bhaap ke prayog-jalavaatavagni sanyoganirodhai: kriya, (32) nauka, rathaadi yaanon ka gyaan, (33) yagya ki rassi batane ka gyaan, (34) kapda bunana, (35) ratnapareekshan, (36) svarnapareekshan, (37) krutrim dhaatu banaana, (38) aabhooshan gadhna, (39) kalai karna, (40) charmakaarya, (41) chamada utaarana, (42) doodh ke vibhinn prayog, (43) choli aadi seena, (44) tairana, (45) bartan maaainjana, (46) vastraprakshaalan (sambhavat: paalish karna), (47) kshaurakarm, (48) tel banaana, (49) krushikaarya, (50) vrukshaarohan, (51) sevaakaarya, (52) tokari banaana, (53) kaaainch ke bartan banaana, (54) khet seenchana, (55) dhaatu ke shastr banaana, (56) jeen, kaathi ya hauda banaana, (57) shishupaalan, (58) dandakaarya, (59) sulekhan, (60) taanboolarakshan, (61) kalaamarmajnyaata, (62) natakarm, (63) kalaashikshan aur (64) saadhane ki kriya.

anya

vaatsyaayan ke "kaamasootr" ki vyaakhya karte hue jayamangal ne do prakaar ki kalaaon ka ullekh kiya hai – (1) kaamashaastr se sambandhit kalaaeain, (2) tantr sambandhi kalaaeain. donon ki alag-alag sankhya 64 hai. kaam ki kalaaeain 24 hain jinka sambandh sanbhog ke aasanon se hai, 20 dyoot sambandhi, 16 kaamasukh sambandhi aur 4 uchchatar kalaaeain. kul 64 pradhaan kalaaeain hain. iske atirikt katipya saadhaaran kalaaeain bhi bataai gayi hain.

pragat hai ki in kalaaon mein se bahut kam ka sambandh lalit kala ya faain Arts se hai. lalit kala – arthaat chitrakala, moortikla aadi ka prasang inse bhinn aur saundaryashaastr se sambandhit hai.

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain