kahaani

kathaakaar (ek praacheen kalaakruti)

kahaani hindi mein gadya lekhan ki ek vidha hai. unneesaveen sadi mein gadya mein ek nai vidha ka vikaas hua jise kahaani ke naam se jaana gaya. bangala mein ise galp kaha jaata hai. kahaani ne angreji se hindi tak ki yaatra bangala ke maadhyam se ki. kahaani gadya katha saahitya ka ek anyatam bhed tatha upanyaas se bhi adhik lokapriya saahitya ka roop hai. manushya ke janm ke saath hi saath kahaani ka bhi janm hua aur kahaani kehna tatha sunana maanav ka aadim svabhaav ban gaya. isi kaaran se pratyek sabhya tatha asabhya samaaj mein kahaaniyaaain pai jaati hain. hamaare desh mein kahaaniyon ki badi lambi aur sampann parampara rahi hai. vedon, upanishdon tatha braahmanon mein varnit 'yam-yami', 'pururava-urvashi', 'saupaneen-kaadrav', 'sanatkumaar- naarad', 'gangaavataran', 'shrrung', 'nahush', 'yayaati', 'shakuntala', 'nal-damayanti' jaise aakhyaan kahaani ke hi praacheen roop hain.

praacheenakaal mein sadiyon tak prachalit veeron tatha raajaaon ke shaurya, prem, nyaaya, gyaan, vairaagya, saahas, samudri yaatra, agamya parvateeya pradeshon mein praaniyon ka astitv aadi ki kathaaeain, jinki kathaanak ghatna pradhaan hua karti theen, bhi kahaani ke hi roop hain. 'gunadhya' ki "vruhatkatha" ko, jismein 'udayan', 'vaasavadatta', samudri vyaapaariyon, Rajkumar tatha raajakumaariyon ke paraakram ki ghatna pradhaan kathaaon ka baahulya hai, praacheenatam rachana kaha ja sakta hai. vruhatkatha ka prabhaav 'dandi' ke "dashakumaar charit", 'baanabhatt' ki "kaadambari", 'subandhu' ki "vaasavadatta", 'dhanapaal' ki "tilkamanjari", 'somadev' ke "yashastilk" tatha "maalateemaadhav", "abhigyaan shaakuntalam", "maalavikaagnimitr", "vikramorvasheeya", "ratnaavali", "mruchhakatikm" jaise anya kaavyagranthon par saaf-saaf parilkshit hota hai. iske pash‍aachaat chhote aakaar waali "panchatantr", "hitopadesh", "betaal pachcheesi", "sinhaasan batteesi", "shuk saptati", "katha saritsaagar", "bhojaprabandh" jaisi saahityik evam kalaatmak kahaaniyon ka yug aaya. in kahaaniyon se shrotaaon ko manoranjan ke saath hi saath neeti ka upadesh bhi praapt hota hai. praay: kahaaniyon mein asatya par satya ki, anyaaya par nyaaya ki aur adharm par dharm ki vijay dikhaai gayi hain.

anukram

paribhaasha

America ke kavi-aalochak-kathaakaar 'edagar elin po' ke anusaar kahaani ki paribhaasha is prakaar hai: "kahaani vah chhoti aakhyaanaatmak rachana hai, jise ek baithak mein padha ja sake, jo paathak par ek samanvit prabhaav utpann karne ke liye likhi gayi ho, jismein us prabhaav ko utpann karne mein sahaayak tatvon ke atirik‍aat aur kuchh na ho aur jo apne aap mein poorn ho." hindi kahaani ko sarvashreshth roop dene vaale 'premachand' ne kahaani ki paribhaasha is prakaar se ki hai: "kahaani vah dhrupad ki taan hai, jismein gaayak mehfil shuroo hote hi apni sampoorn pratibha dikha deta hai, ek kshan mein chitt ko itne maadhurya se paripoorn kar deta hai, jitna raat bhar gaana sunane se bhi naheen ho sakta." hindi ke lekhakon mein premachand pehle vyakti hain jinhonne apne teen lekhon mein kahaani ke sambandh mein apne vichaar vyakt kiye hain – 'kahaani (galp) ek rachana hai jismein jeevan ke kisi ek ang ya kisi ek manobhaav ko pradarshit karna hi lekhak ka uddeshya rahata hai. uske charitra, usaki shaili, usaka katha-vinyaas, sab usi ek bhaav ko pusht karte hain. upanyaas ki bhaaainti usamein maanav-jeevan ka sampoorn tatha bruhat roop dikhaane ka prayaas naheen kiya jaata. vah aisa ramaneeya udyaan naheen jismein bhaaainti-bhaaainti ke fool, bail-boote saje hue hain, balki ek gamala hai jismein ek hi paudhe ka maadhurya apne samunnat roop mein drushtigochar hota hai.' kahaani ki aur bhi paribhaashaaeain uddhrut ki ja sakti hain. par kisi bhi saahityik vidha ko vaigyaanik paribhaasha mein naheen baaaindha ja sakta, kyonki saahitya mein vigyaan ki sunishchitta naheen hoti. isliye usaki jo bhi paribhaasha di jaaegi vah adhoori hogi.

kahaani ke tatv

rochakata, prabhaav tatha vak‍aata evam shrota ya kahaaneekaar evam paathak ke beech yathochit sambaddhata banaaye rakhane ke liye sabhi prakaar ki kahaaniyon mein nimnalikhit tatv mahatvapoorn maane gaye hain kathaavastu, paatr athva charitra-chitran, kathopakathan athva samvaad, deshakaal athva vaataavaran, bhaasha-shaili tatha uddeshya. kahaani ke dhaaainche ko kathaanak athva kathaavastu kaha jaata hai. pratyek kahaani ke liye kathaavastu ka hona anivaarya hai kyonki iske abhaav mein kahaani ki rachana ki kalpana bhi naheen ki ja sakti. kathaanak ke chaar ang maane jaate hain - aarambh, aaroh, charam sthiti evam avaroh. kahaani ka sanchaalan uske paatron ke dvaara hi hota hai tatha paatron ke gun-dosh ko unka 'charitra chitran' kaha jaata hai. charitra chitran se vibhinn charitron mein svaabhaavikta utpann ki jaati hai. samvaad kahaani ka pramukh ang hote hain. inke dvaara paatron ke maanasik antardvand evam anya manobhaavon ko prakat kiya jaata hai. kahaani mein vaastavikta ka put dene ke liye deshakaal athva vaataavaran ka prayog kiya jaata hai. prastuteekaran ke dhang mein kalaatmakata laane ke liye usako alag-alag bhaasha va shaili se sajaaya jaata hai. kahaani mein keval manoranjan hi naheen hota, apitu usaka ek nish‍aachit ud‍aadeshya bhi hota hai.

hindi kahaani ka itihaas

1910 se 1960 ke beech hindi kahaani ka vikaas jitni gati ke saath hua utani gati kisi anya saahityik vidha ke vikaas mein naheen dekhi jaati. san 1900 se 1915 tak hindi kahaani ke vikaas ka pehla daur tha. man ki chanchalata (maadhavaprasaad mishr) 1907 gulabahaar (kishoreelaal Goswami) 1902, pandit aur panditaani (girijaadatt Vajpayee) 1903, gyaarah varsh ka samay (raamachandr shukl) 1903, dulaaivaali (bangamahila) 1907, vidya bahaar (vidyaanaath sharma) 1909, raakheeband bhaai (vrundaavanalaal varma) 1909, gram (jayashankar 'prasaad') 1911, sukhamaya jeevan (chandradhar sharma guleri) 1911, rasiya baalam (jayashankar prasaad) 1912, paradesi (vishvambharanaath jijja) 1912, kaanon mein kangana (raajaaraadhikaaraman prasaad Singh) 1913, rakshaabandhan (vishvambharanaath sharma 'kaushik') 1913, usane kaha tha (chandradhar sharma guleri) 1915, aadi ke prakaashan se siddh hota hai ki is praarambhik kaal mein hindi kahaaniyon ke vikaas ke sabhi chinh mil jaate hain. premachand ke aagaman se hindi ka katha-saahitya aadarshonmukh yathaarthavaad ki or muda. aur prasaad ke aagaman se romantic yathaarthavaad ki or. chandradhar sharma 'guleri' ki kahaani 'usane kaha tha' mein yeh apni poori rangeeni mein milta hai. san 1922 mein ugr ka hindi-katha-saahitya mein pravesh hua. ugr na to prasaad ki tarah romaintik the aur na hi premachand ki bhaaainti aadarshonmukh yathaarthavaadi. ve keval yathaarthavaadi the – prakruti se hi unhonne samaaj ke nange yathaarth ko sashakt bhaasha-shaili mein ujaagar kiya. 1927-1928 mein jainendr ne kahaani likhna aarambh kiya. unke aagaman ke saath hi hindi-kahaani ka naya utthaan shuroo hua. 1936 pragatisheel lekhak sangh ki sthaapana ho chuki thi. is samay ke lekhakon ki rachanaaon mein pragatisheelata ke tattv ka jo samaavesh hua use yugadharm samajhna chaahiye. yashapaal raashtreeya sangraam ke ek sakriya kraantikaari kaaryakarta the, at: vah prabhaav unki kahaaniyon mein bhi aaya. ajnyaeya prayogadharma kalaakaar the, unke aagaman ke saath kahaani nai disha ki or mudi. jis aadhunikta bodh ki aaj bahut charcha ki jaati hai uske pratham puraskarta ajnyaeya hi thaharate hain. ashk premachand parampara ke kahaaneekaar hain. ashk ke atirikt vrundaavanalaal varma, bhagavateecharan varma, ilaachandr Joshi, amrutalaal naagar aadi upanyaasakaaron ne bhi kahaaniyon ke kshetr mein kaam kiya hai. kintu inka vaastavik kshetr upanyaas hai kahaani naheen. iske baad san 1950 ke aaspaas se hindi kahaaniyaaain nae daur se gujarane lageen. aadhunikta bodh ki kahaaniyaaain ya nai kahaani naam diya gaya.

samaalochana

kahaani ek atyant lokapriya vidha ke roop mein sveekrut ho chuki hai. praay: sabhi patra-patrikaaon mein, paathakeeya maaaing ke falasvaroop, kahaaniyon ka chhaapa jaana anivaarya ho gaya hai. is desh ki pratyek bhaasha mein keval kahaaniyon ki patrikaaeain bhi sankhya mein kam naheen hain. rahasya, romance aur saahas ki kahaaniyon ke atirikt unamein jeevan ko gambhir roop mein lene waali kahaaniyaaain bhi chhapati hain. saahityik drushti se inheen ka mahatva hai. ye kahaaniyaaain chaaritrik visheshataaon, 'mood', vaataavaran, jatil sthitiyon aadi ke saath saamaajik-aarthik jeevan se bhi sanbanddh hoti hain. saamaanayat: kahaani meemaansa ke liye chh: tatvon ka ullekh kiya jaata hai – 1.kathaavastu, 2.charitra-chitran, 3. kathopakathan, 4.deshakaal, 5. bhaashaashaili aur 6. uddeshya. kintu in pratimaano ka prayog naatak aur upanyaason ke liye bhi hota hai. aisi sthiti mein bhraanti ki srushti ho sakti hai. lekin iska parihaar yeh kah kar liya jaata hai ki kahaani ki kathaavastu ikahari hoti hai. charitra ke liye kisi pahaloo ka chitran hota hai. kathopakathan apekshaakrut adhik sookshm tatha marmasparshi hota hai. kahaani mein ek desh aur ek kaal ki zaroorat hoti hai. san saath ke baad ki kahaaniyon ka tevar badla hua hai. in kahaaniyon ko saathot‍aatari kahaani kaha jaata hai. is daur mein kai kahaani aandolan chale jinmein akahaani, sahaj kahaani, sachetan kahaani, samaantar kahaani aur sakiya kahaani aandolan pramukh the. baad mein janavaadi kahaani aandolan mein inka samaahaar ho jaata hai. nab‍aabe ke dashak ki kahaani aur 21 veen sadi ke pehle dashak ki kahaani ka abhi tak samuchit mool‍aayaankan naheen ho paaya hai lekin unamein vaish‍aaveekaran, soochana tantr aur baajaaravaad ki anugainj saaf suni ja sakti hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • kathaanak (plaut)
  • kathaanak roodhi

baahari kadiyaaain