kabeer

kabeer
Kabir004.jpg
san 1825 ki is chitrakaari mein kabeer ek shishya ke saath darshit
janm: vikrami samvat 1455 (san 1398 E 0 )
mrutyu: vikrami samvat 1551 (san 1494 E 0 )
magahar, uttar pradesh, Bhaarat
kaaryakshetr: kavi, bhakt, soot kaatakar kapda banaana
raashtreeyata: bhaarateeya
bhaasha: hindi
kaal: bhakti kaal
vidha: kavita
vishay: saamaajik, aadhyaatmik
saahityik
aandolan
:
bhakti aandolan
pramukh kruti(yaaain): beejak
inse prabhaavit: daadoo, naanak, peepa, hajaari prasaad Dwivedi


kabeer hindi saahitya ke bhakti kaaleen yug mein jnyaaanaashrayi- nirgun shaakha ki kaavyadhaara ke pravartak the. inki rachanaaon ne hindi pradesh ke bhakti aandolan ko gahre star tak prabhaavit kiya.

Lahartarab Pragatya Sthal

anukram

kabeer ke 20 mukhya dohe

yeh 20 dohe har kisi vyakti ke jeevan mein sakaaraatmak soch laate hain.

  1. 1 pothi padhi padhi jag muaa, pandit bhaya na koya,

dhaai aakhar prem ka, padhe so pandit hoya.

  1. 2 chaah miti, chinta miti, manava beparavaah,

jisko kuchh naheen chaahiye vah shahanashaah.

  1. 3 bura jo dekhan main chala, bura na miliya koya,

jo dil khoja aapana, mujhse bura na koya.

  1. 4 maati kahe kumhaar se, too kya raunde moye

ek din aisa aayega main raundoongi toya.

  1. 5 dheere-dheere re mana, dheere sab kuchh hoya,

maali seenche sau ghada, riatu aae fal hoya.

  1. 6 du:kh mein sumirn sab kare, sukh mein karai na koya.

jo sukh mein sumirn kare du:kh kaahe ko hoya .

  1. 7 saadhu aisa chaahiye, jaisa soop subhaaya,

saar-saar ko gahi rahai, thotha dei udaaya.

  1. 8 maala ferat jug bhaya, fira na man ka fer,

kar ka manaka daar de, man ka manaka fer.

  1. 9 boli ek anmol hai, jo koi bolai jaani,

hiye taraajoo tauli ke, tab mukh baahar aani.

  1. 10 guru govind donon khade, kaake laagu paae,

balihaari guru aapano, govind diyo milaaya.

  1. 11 makkhi gud mein gadi rahe, pankh rahe liptaaye,

haath male aur sir dhoondhe, laalach buri balaaye.

  1. 12 kabeer sangat saadhu ki, nit prati keejai jaaya,

duramati door bahaavaasi, deshi sumati bataaya.

  1. 13 nindak niyre raakhiye, ongan kuti chhavaaya,

bin paani, saabun bina, nirmal kare subhaaya.

  1. 14 saain itna deejiye, ja mein kutum samaaya,

main bhi bhookha na rahooain, saadhoo na bhookha jaaya.

  1. 15 durlabh maanush janm hai, deh na baarambaar,

taruvar jyon patta jhade, bahuri na laage daar.

  1. 16 bada hua to kya hua jaise ped khajoor,

panthi ko chhaaya naheen fal lage ati door.

  1. 17 tinka kabahuain na nindiye, jo paaainvan tar hoya,

kabahuain udi aaainkhin pade, to peer ghaneri hoya.

  1. 18 maaya mari na man mara, mar-mar gaye shareer,

aasha trushna na mari, kah gaye das kabeer.

  1. 19 jaati na poochho saadhu ki, poochh leejiye gyaan,

mol karo taravaar ka, pada rahan do myaan.

  1. 20 ati ka bhala na bolna, ati ki bhali na choop,

ati ka bhala na barasana, ati ki bhali na dhoop.[1]

mrutyu

kabeer ki drudh maanyata thi ki karmon ke anusaar hi gati milti hai sthaan vishesh ke kaaran naheen. apni is maanyata ko siddh karne ke liye ant samay mein vah magahar chale gaye ;kyonki logon maanyata thi ki kaashi mein marne par svarg aur magahar mein marne par narak milta hai. sadaguroo kabeer saaheb ke jan‍aam ko lekar kai bhraamak sthitiyaan unke saral, sahaj, samaaj ko seedhe chot karne vaale shab‍aadon se aahaat paakhandi braahanon va molaveeyon ne felaayi thi. par vartamaan samay mein vigyaan bhi yeh maanata hai ki jo jan‍aam leta hai, vah sashareer mt‍aayu ko praap‍aat hota hai par sadaguroo kabeer saaheb ke saath aisa naheen hai vah ajan‍aame hai tabhi to un‍aahone hin‍aadu muslim ekta ke liye avatarit hue aur hin‍aadu muslim ekta hetu samaaj ko dharm ki aisi shiksha dene ki sab mein ramane wala Ram aur raheem ek hi hai. un‍aahone magahar mein arn‍aatadh‍aayaan ho sandesh diya aaj bhi vahaan sthit majaar va samaadhi sthit hai. jahaan sadaguroo kabeer ke shareer ke s‍aathaan par sthit push‍aapon se unka nimaarn kiya gaya. arthaat unka shareer tha hi naheen vah ajan‍aame the avataari puroosh the.. http://kabirdharmdasvanshavali.org/

janm sthaan

janm sthaan ke baare mein vidvaanon mein matabhed hai parantu adhiktar vidvaan inka janm kaashi mein hi maanate hain,jiski pushti swayam kabeer ka yeh kathan bhi karta hai. "kaashi mein paragat bhaye ,raamaanand chetaaye "

guru

kabeer ke guru ke sambandh mein prachalit kathan hai ki kabeer ko upayukt guru ki talaash thi. vah vaishnav sant aachaarya raamaanand ko apna apna guru banaana chaahate the lekin unhonne kabeer ko shishya banaane se mana kar diya lekin kabeer ne apne man mein thaan liya ki svaami raamaanand ko hi har keemat par apna guru banaaoonga ,iske liye kabeer ke man mein ek vichaar aaya ki svaami raamaanand ji subah chaar baje ganga snaan karne jaate hain uske pehle hi unke jaane ke maarg mein seedhiyon let jaaooainga aur unhonne aisa hi kiya . ek din, ek pahar raat rahate hi kabeer panyachaganga ghaat ki seedhiyon par gir pade. raamaanand ji gangaasnaan karne ke liye seedhiyaaain utar rahe the ki tabhi unka pair kabeer ke shareer par pad gaya. unke mukh se tatkaal 'Ram-Ram' shabd nikal pada. usi Ram ko kabeer ne deeksha-mantr maan liya aur raamaanand ji ko apna guru sveekaar kar liya.kabeer ke hi shabdon mein- kaashi mein paragat bhaye ,raamaanand chetaaye

vyavasaaya

jeevikopaarjan ke liye kabeer julaahe ka kaam karte the.

bhaasha

kabeer ki bhaasha sadhukkadi hai. inki bhaasha mein hindi bhaasha ki sabhi boliyon ki bhaasha sammilit hain. raajasthaani,harayaanavi, punjabi, khadi boli, avadhi, brajabhaasha ke shabdon ki bahulata hai.

krutiyaaain

shishyon ne unki vaaniyon ka sangrah " beejak evam anuraag saagar" naam ke granth me kiya jiske teen mukhya bhaag hain : saakhi ,sabad (pad ),ramaini 
  • saakhi: sanskrut ' saakshi , shabd ka vikrut roop hai aur dharmopadesh ke arth mein prayukt hua hai. adhikaansh saakhiyaaain dohon mein likhi gayi hain par usamein sorathe ka bhi prayog milta hai. kabeer ki shikshaaon aur siddhaanton ka niroopan adhiktar saakhi mein hua hai.
  • sabad geya pad hai jismein poori tarah sangeetaatmakata vidyamaan hai. inmein upadeshaatmakata ke sthaan par bhaavaavesh ki pradhaanata hai ; kyonki inmein kabeer ke prem aur antarang saadhana ki abhivyakti hui hai.
  • ramaini chaupaai chhand mein likhi gayi hai inmein kabeer ke rahasyavaadi aur daarshanik vichaaron ko prakat kiya gaya hai.

dharm ke prati

saadhu santon ka to ghar mein jamaavada rahata hi tha. kabeer padhe-likhe naheen the- 'masi kaagad chhoovo naheen, kalam gahi nahin haath.'unhonne swayam granth naheen likhe, muainh se bhaakhe aur unke shishyon ne use likh liya. aap ke samast vichaaron mein raamanaam ki mahima pratidhvanit hoti hai. ve ek hi ishvar ko maanate the aur karmakaand ke ghor virodhi the. avataar, moortti, roja, Eid, masajid, mandir aadi ko ve naheen maanate the.

ve kabhi kehte hain-

'harimor piu, main Ram ki bahuriya' to kabhi kehte hain, 'hari janani main baalak tora'.

aur kabhi "bada hua to kya hua jaisai"

us samay hindu janta par muslim aatank ka kahar chhaaya hua tha. kabeer ne apne panth ko is dhang se suniyojit kiya jisse muslim mat ki or jhuki hui janta sahaj hi inki anuyaayi ho gayi. unhonne apni bhaasha saral aur subodh rakhi taaki vah aam aadmi tak pahuainch sake. isse donon sampradaayon ke paraspar milan mein suvidha hui. inke panth musalmaan-sanskruti aur gobhakshan ke virodhi the. kabeer ko shaantimya jeevan priya tha aur ve ahinsa, satya, sadaachaar aadi gunon ke prashansak the. apni saralata, saadhu svabhaav tatha sant pravrutti ke kaaran aaj videshon mein bhi unka samaadar ho raha hai.

usi haalat mein unhonne banaaras chhoda aur aatmanireekshan tatha aatmapareekshan karne ke liye desh ke vibhinn bhaagon ki yaatraaeain keen isi kram mein ve kaalinjar jile ke pithauraabaad shahar mein pahuainche. vahaaain raamakrushn ka chhota sa mandir tha. vahaaain ke sant Bhagwan Goswami ke jijnyaaasu saadhak the kintu unke tarkon ka abhi tak poori tarah samaadhaan naheen hua tha. sant kabeer se unka vichaar-vinimay hua. kabeer ki ek saakhi ne un ke man par gahra asar kiya-

'ban te bhaaga bihre pada, karaha apni baan. karaha bedan kaason kahe, ko karaha ko jaan..'

van se bhaag kar baheliye ke dvaara khoye hue gaddhe mein gira hua haathi apni vyatha kis se kahe ?

saaraansh yeh ki dharm ki jijnyaaasa sein prerit ho kar Bhagwan gosaai apna ghar chhod kar baahar to nikal aaye aur harivyaasi sampradaaya ke gaddhe mein gir kar akele nirvaasit ho kar asanvaadya sthiti mein pad chuke hain.

moortti pooja ko lakshya karte hue unhonne ek saakhi haajir kar di-

paahan pooje hari milain, to main poojaun pahaar. va te to chaaki bhali, PC khaaya sansaar..

kabeer ke Ram

kabeer ke Ram to agam hain aur sansaar ke kan-kan mein viraajate hain. kabeer ke Ram islaam ke ekeshvaravaadi, ekasattaavaadi khuda bhi naheen hain. islaam mein khuda ya Allah ko samast jagat evam jeevon se bhinn evam param samarth maana jaata hai. par kabeer ke Ram param samarth bhale hon, lekin samast jeevon aur jagat se bhinn to kadaapi naheen hain. balki iske vipreet ve to sabamein vyaapt rahane vaale ramata Ram hain. vah kehte hain
vyaapak brahm sabanimain ekai, ko pandit ko jogi. raavan-Rao kavanasoon kavan ved ko rogi.
kabeer Ram ki kisi khaas roopaakruti ki kalpana naheen karte, kyonki roopaakruti ki kalpana karte hi Ram kisi khaas dhaaainche (frem) mein baindh jaate, jo kabeer ko kisi bhi haalat mein manjoor naheen. kabeer Ram ki avadhaarana ko ek bhinn aur vyaapak svaroop dena chaahate the. iske kuchh vishesh kaaran the, jinki charcha ham is lekh mein aage kareinge. kintu iske baavajood kabeer Ram ke saath ek vyaktigat paarivaarik kism ka sambandh jaroor sthaapit karte hain. Ram ke saath unka prem unki alaukik aur mahimaashaali satta ko ek kshan bhi bhulaae bagair sahaj premaparak maanaveeya sambandhon ke dharaatal par pratishthit hai.
kabeer naam mein vishvaas rakhate hain, roop mein naheen. haalaaainki bhakti-samvedna ke siddhaanton mein yeh baat saamaanya roop se pratishthit hai ki 'naam roop se badhkar hai', lekin kabeer ne is saamaanya siddhaant ka kraantidhrmi upayog kiya. kabeer ne Ram-naam ke saath lokamaanas mein shataabdiyon se rache-base sanshlisht bhaavon ko udaatt evam vyaapak svaroop dekar use puraan-pratipaadit braahmanavaadi vichaaradhaara ke khaaainche mein baaaindhe jaane se rokane ki koshish ki.
kabeer ke Ram nirgun-sagun ke bhed se pare hain. daraasal unhonne apne Ram ko shaastr-pratipaadit avataari, sagun, varchasvasheel varnaashram vyavastha ke sanrakshak Ram se alag karne ke liye hi 'nirgun Ram' shabd ka prayog kiya–'nirgun Ram japahu re bhaai.' is 'nirgun' shabd ko lekar bhram mein padne ki jaroorat naheen. kabeer ka aashay is shabd se sirf itna hai ki ishvar ko kisi naam, roop, gun, kaal aadi ki seemaaon mein baaaindha naheen ja sakta. jo saari seemaaon se pare hain aur fir bhi sarvatr hain, vahi kabeer ke nirgun Ram hain. ise unhonne 'ramata Ram' naam diya hai. apne Ram ko nirgun visheshan dene ke baavajood kabeer unke saath maanaveeya prem sambandhon ki tarah ke rishte ki baat karte hain. kabhi vah Ram ko maadhurya bhaav se apna premi ya pati maan lete hain to kabhi daasya bhaav se svaami. kabhi-kabhi vah Ram ko vaatsalya moorti ke roop mein maaain maan lete hain aur khud ko unka putr. nirgun-niraakaar brahm ke saath bhi is tarah ka saras, sahaj, maanaveeya prem kabeer ki bhakti ki vilkshanata hai. yeh duvidha aur samasya doosaron ko bhale ho sakti hai ki jis Ram ke saath kabeer itne ananya, maanaveeya sanbandhaparak prem karte hon, vah bhala nirgun kaise ho sakte hain, par khud kabeer ke liye yeh samasya naheen hai.
vah kehte bhi hain
“asantau, dhokha kaasoon kahiye. gunamain nirgun, nirgunamain gun, baat chhaandi kyoon bahise!” naheen hai.

profesar mahaaveer saran jain ne kabeer ke Ram evam kabeer ki saadhana ke sambandh mein apne vichaar vyakt karte hue kaha hai : " kabeer ka saara jeevan sat‍aaya ki khoj tatha asat‍aaya ke khandan mein v‍aayateet hua. kabeer ki saadhana ''maanane se naheen, ''jaanane se aaram‍aabh hoti hai. ve kisi ke shish‍aaya naheen, raamaanan‍aad dvaara chetaaye hue chela hain. unke liye Ram roop naheen hai, dasharathi Ram naheen hai, unke Ram to naam saadhana ke prateek hain. unke Ram kisi sam‍aapradaaya, jaati ya desh ki seemaaon mein kaid naheen hai. prakruti ke kan-kan mein, ang-ang mein raman karne par bhi jise anang s‍aaparsh naheen kar sakta, ve alakh, avinaashi, param tat‍aav hi Ram hain. unke Ram manush‍aaya aur manush‍aaya ke beech kisi bhed-bhaav ke kaarak naheen hain. ve to prem tat‍aav ke prateek hain. bhaav se oopar uthakar mahaabhaav ya prem ke aaraadh‍aaya hain :-

'prem jagaavai virh ko, virh jagaavai peeu, peeu jagaavai jeev ko, joi peeu soi jeeu' - jo peeu hai, vahi jeev hai. isi kaaran unki poori saadhana ''hans ubaaran aae ki saadhana hai. is hans ka ubaarana pothiyon ke padhne se naheen ho sakta, dhaai aakhar prem ke aacharan se hi ho sakta hai. dharm odhne ki cheej naheen hai, jeevan mein aacharan karne ki satat sat‍aaya saadhana hai. unki saadhana prem se aaram‍aabh hoti hai. itna gahra prem karo ki vahi tum‍aahaare liye paramaat‍aama ho jaae. usako paane ki itni ut‍aakan‍aatha ho jaae ki sabse vairaag‍aaya ho jaae, virh bhaav ho jaae tabhi us dh‍aayaan samaadhi mein peeu jaagrat ho sakta hai. vahi peeu tum‍aahaare arn‍aataman mein baithe jeev ko jaga sakta hai. joi peeu hai soi jeeu hai. tab tum poore sansaar se prem karoge, tab sansaar ka prat‍aayek jeev tum‍aahaare prem ka paatr ban jaaega. saara ahankaar, saara dvesh door ho jaaega. fir mahaabhaav jagega. isi mahaabhaav se poora sansaar piu ka ghar ho jaata hai.

sooraj chan‍aadr ka ek hi ujiyaara, sab yahi pasara brahm pasaara.

........................................................................................................................

jal mein kum‍aabh, kum‍aabh mein jal hai, baahar bheetar paani

foota kum‍aabh jal jalaheen samaana, yeh tath kathau giyaani."

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain