kaavyashaastr

kaavyashaastr kaavya aur saahitya ka darshan tatha vigyaan hai. yeh kaavyakrutiyon ke vishleshan ke aadhaar par samay-samay par udbhaavit siddhaanton ki jnyaaanaraashi hai.

yugaanuroop paristhitiyon ke anusaar kaavya aur saahitya ka kathya aur shilp badalta rahata hai; falat: kaavyashaastreeya siddhaanton mein bhi nirantar parivartan hota raha hai. Bhaarat mein bharat ke siddhaanton se lekar aaj tak aur pashchim mein sukaraat aur uske shishya pleto se lekar adyatan "navaaalochana' (niyo-kritisijm) tak ke siddhaanton ke aitihaasik anusheelan se yeh baat saaf ho jaati hai. Bhaarat mein kaavya naatakaadi krutiyon ko 'lakshya granth' tatha saiddhaantik granthon ko 'lakshan granth' kaha jaata hai. ye lakshan granth sada lakshya granth ke pashchaadbhaavani tatha anugaami hai aur mahaan‌ kavi inki leek ko chunauti dete dekhe jaate hain.

kaavyashaastr ke liye puraane naam 'saahityashaastr' tatha 'alankaarashaastr' hain aur saahitya ke vyaapak rachanaatmak vaaङaamaya ko sametane par ise 'sameekshaashaastr' bhi kaha jaane laga. moolat: kaavyashaastreeya chintan shabdakaavya (mahaakaavya evam muktak) tatha drushyakaavya (naatak) ke hi sambandh mein siddhaant sthir karta dekha jaata hai. arastoo ke "poyatiks" mein kaamedi, traijedi, tatha epik ki sameekshaatmak kasauti ka aakalan hai aur bharat ka naatyashaastr keval roopak ya drushyakaavya ki hi sameeksha ke siddhaant prastut karta hai. Bhaarat aur pashchim mein yeh chintan E.poo. teesari chauthi shati se hi praudh roop mein milne lagta hai jo is baat ka parichaayak hai ki kaavya ke vishay mein vichaar vimarsh kai sadiyon pehle hi shuroo ho chuka tha.

anukram

parichay

kaavyakruti moolat: tihre aayaam se judi hai – kaavya, kaavyakarta (kavi), kaavyaanusheelak. jahaaain tak naatyaroop kaavya ka sambandh hai, kaavyakarta ke saath usamein naatya prayogakarta nataadi ka bhi samaavesh ho jaata hai. kaavyashaastreeya chintakon ka dhyaan in sabhi pakshon ki or sada jaata raha hai. sabse pehla prashn jo kavi ke sambandh mein uthata hai, vah yeh hai ki kavi ya kalaakaar anya maanav, dharmopadeshak, daarshanik, vaigyaanik, raajaneetik vichaarak se kis baat mein vishisht hai aur kyon khaas prakruti ke vyakti hi kavi ya kalaakaar ban paate hain? doosare shabdon mein, kavitvashakti ke hetu kya hai. sukaraat aur pleto kavitvashakti ko daivi aavesh ki den maanate hain, adhyayan aur abhyaas ka pratifl naheen. Bhaarat ke kaavyashaastri kaavyarachana mein pratibha ko pradhaan hetu maanate hue bhi iske saath vyutpatti aur abhyaas ko bhi kam mahatva naheen dete. paranparaavaadi aalochak keval pratibha ko kaavyashakti ka hetu naheen maanate. udhar pashchim ke romaintik vichaarak kalaakruti ki mool prerana ekamaatr pratibha ko hi maanate hain. fir bhi is baat mein sabhi chintak ekamat hain ki kavi vishisht pratibhaasheel vyakti hai jo apni pratibha ke maadhyam se kaavya ke roop mein nai srushti ki udbhaavana karta hai.

doosra mahattvapoorn prashn hai, kavita ka prayojan kya hai? akhir kavi kavita kyon karta hai? is sambandh mein chintakon ke do dal hain– paranparaavaadi chintak kaavya ka lakshya ya prayojan naitik upadesh ki pratishtha maanate hain. kaavya dvaara kavi kinhi moolyon ki sthaapana karna chaahata hai, theek usi tarah jaise dhaarmik upadeshak. kintu fark yeh hai ki usaki kruti shaileeshilp ki drushti se ramaneeya aur rasamaya hone ke kaaran dharmagranthon ya neetigranthon se vishisht ban jaati hai. svachhandataavaadi chintak ise naheen sveekaarata. vah kavi ko upadeshak naheen maanata. uske anusaar kavi sarjak hai, srushtikrta hai, jo brahma se bhi vishisht hai. vah apni srushti, apni kalaakruti ke maadhyam se hamaare saamane rakhata hai. vastut: vah apni anubhootiyon ko kaavya ke dvaara vaani dena chaahata hai. kaavya aur kuchh naheen, usaki samast anubhootiyon ka saarabhat tatv aur uske antas‌ mein umadte-ghumadte bhaavon ka svat: baha hua parivaah maatr hai. poorv aur pashchim ke praaya: sabhi matamataantar in do khevon mein maje se samete ja sakte hain.

kaavya ka sabse mahattvapoorn paksh vah kruti hai, jo hamaare samaksh chaakshush (naatak mein), shraavan tatha bauddhik sannikrsh ka maadhyam banti hai aur is maadhyam se vah hamaare man ya sanvit‌ (chetna) ko prabhaavit karti hai. at: kaavyashaastreeya chintan mein yeh vah pradhaan paksh hai jiske anek pahaluon ko lekar poorv aur pashchim ke vichaarak pichhle adhaai hajaar varsho se oohaapoh karte aa rahe hain. sabse pehla savaal jo kaavya ke kathya ke vishay mein uthata hai, vah yeh hai ki kaavya mein varnit ghatanaaeain aadi kahaaain tak vaigyaanik satya se mel khaati hain. yeh praaya: sabhi sameekshak sveekaar karte hain ki kaavya mein tathya-kathan-pranaali ka aashray naheen liya jaata. usamein jis satya ka samudghaatan hota hai, vah vaastavik satya na hokar sanbhaavya satya hota hai. isi aadhaar par kaavyavirodhi kavi ki kalpana ko bhramit ya satya se bahut door ghoshit karte hain. pleto ne to ise satya se duhara door siddh kiya hai. Bhaarat ke vichaarakon ne kaavyakruti ko bhraanti naheen maana hain, yadyapi ek sthaan par bhatt lollat ne rasasootr ki vyaakhya karte hue naatak ke abhinay mein Ram aadi ka anukaran karte naton mein Ram aadi ke bhraantijnyaaan ka sanket kiya hai. pashchim mein idhar manovijnyaaan ke vikaas ke pariprekshya mein kaavyashaastreeya chintan ne bhraantivaale is paksh ko aur adhik majaboot kiya hai. kaha jaata hai, kala maatr bhraanti hai (Art ij nathing bat ilyoojn). isi se milta julata ek aur mat bhi hai. kala kuchh naheen mahaj sammohan hai (Art ij nathing bat helyoosineshan). idhar nrutatv vigyaan ke adhyayan ke aadhaar par bhi kaavya ki sammohini shakti par jor diya jaane laga hai aur yeh mat prabal ho utha hai ki kaavya ya kala mein puraane aadim samaaj ke ojhaaon ke mantron ki tarah jaadui asar hota hai (Art ij maijik).

yaheen yeh savaal uthata hai ki aakhir yeh bhraanti, sammohan ya jaadui asar, agar ham puraane vidvaanon ke shabd ko udhaar lena chaahein to kaavya ka "chamatkaar', kin tatvon ke kaaran paida hota hai? kaavya moolat: bhaasha mein nibddh hota hai. bhaasha shabd aur arth ka sanshlisht roop hai. at: pehla savaal yeh uthega ki kaavya keval shabdamaya hai ya shabdaarthamaya. hamaare yahaaain ye donon mat prachalit hain. bhaamah, kuntak, mammat jaise chintak shabd aur arth ke sammilit tatv ko kaavya maanate hain, keval shabd ko ya keval arth ko naheen, kyonki kaavya mein donon ko ek doosare se alag naheen kiya ja sakta. is mat ke anusaar kaavya ko chamatkaarashaali ya sammohak banaane ke liye shabd aur arth donon ki ramaneeyata par kavi ko samaan bal dena hoga. doosra mat kaavya ki prabhaavaanviti mein shabd par, arthaat‌ uske bauddhik paksh ki apeksha shravan paksh par, adhik jor deta hai. prasiddh sanskrut kavi panditraaj jagannaath ka yahi mat hai. yeh mat un logon ka jaan padta hai jo kaavya ki laya (ridm), shabdachayan, chhand aur shraavan binbavatta par adhik jor dete hain. pashchim ke svachhandataavaadi sameekshak, visheshat: France ke prateekavaadi kavi aur aalochak, saaf kehte hain ki kaavya arth ya vichaar se naheen banta balki shabdon se banta hai (poyatri ij naat med ov aaidiyaaj bat ov vard‌aas). agar is mat ki tulana ham ojhaaon ke nirrthak shaabarajaal mantron se karein to pata chalega ki yahaaain bhi arth ka koi mahatva naheen, apitu shabdon ki laya, jhaad fooaink karanevaale ojha ke mantrochchaar ka lahaja hi rogi ko prabhaavit kar manashchikitsa karta kaha jaata hai. yahi paddhati manovishleshanaatmak upachaar ki bhi hai.

kaavya ke prabhaav ko paida karne mein shabd aur arth ka vishesh mahatva maana gaya hai, isliye kaavyashaastreeya chintan mein shabd aur arth ke paraspar sambandh par vichaar karna laajami ho jaata hai. shabd ka apne paramparaagat arth se niyat sambandh hota hai. is sambandh ko hamaare yahaaain abhidha vyaapaar kaha gaya hain. kintu bhaasha mein is vyaapaar ke atirikt anya vyaapaar bhi kaarya karta dekha jaata hai, jahaaain shabd apne niyat arth ko chhodkar usase sambaddh kisi doosare arth ki prateeti bhi kara sakta hai, jise lakshana vyaapaar kehte hain. arastoo ne bhi bhaasha ke in donon vyaapaaron ka vivechan apne prasiddh granth "ritoriks' mein kiya hai. kaavyabhaasha mein vastut: shabd abhidhaaparak na hokar laakshanik hote hain. is baat par idhar pashchim mein adhikaadhik jor diya jaane laga hai aur iski shurooaat svachhandataavaadi kavi aur vichaarak kaularij ne ki thi. uske anusaar samast kaavyabhaasha laakshanik (metaafarik) hai. yeh mat I.A.richrd‌aas, empasan aadi anya aadhunik kaavyachintakon ne bhi sveekaar kiya hai. is mat ke anusaar kaavya mein upaatt binb, roopak, prateek aur mithk sabhi bhaasha ki laakshaanik prakriyaaeain hain aur itna hi naheen, kaavya ka chhandovidhaan, laya aur shabdashayya ka prayojan bhi sarvatha laakshanik hai. is mat se milta julata mat hamaare yahaaain dhvanivaadi kaavyashaastri ka hai jo kaavyaarthaprateeti mein lakshana se bhi ek kadam aage badhkar vyanjana ki parikalpana karte hain aur kaavya ke samast avayavon ko anubhooti ya rasaroop vyangya ka vyanjak maanate hain. udhar vakroktivaadi kuntak bhi kaavya mein upaatt shabd aur arth ke vyaapaar ko saadhaaran abhidha na maankar vichitraamidha ya vakrokti kehte hain aur is vakrokti ka viniyog varn, pad, vaakya, arthaprakaran, prabandh jaise kaavyaangon mein nirdisht karte hain. kuntak ke is vibhaajan ki mool neev vastut: vaaman ke reetivaadi siddhaant par tiki hai. yeh kaavya ki sanghatana ya sanrachana ka vishleshan kar uske un angon ke sammohak tatv ko samudghaatit karti hai jo kaavya sunane ya padhnevaale ko prabhaavit karte hain. yeh vishleshan ek or vyaakaran aur bhaashaashaastr se aur doosari aur kalaashaastreeya chintan se juda hua hai. idhar amareeka mein jo sanrachanaavaadi paddhati ki nai kaavyasameeksha chal padi hai, vah usi drushtikon ko lekar chali jiska sootrapaat sanskrut kaavyon ke vivechan ke sambandh mein hamaare yahaaain apne-apne dhang se vaaman, aanandavardhan aur kuntak kar chuke hain.

nibandh ki seema dekhte hue yahaaain kaavya ke vibhinn angon par samay-samay par hue sabhi vichaaron ka vivechan karna sambhav naheen hai. kaavya ke moolat: do paksh hain. ek hai kathyapaksh, jise ham vishyavastu ke vishesh prakaar ke abhidhaan mein aur usase abhivyakt kalaatmak anubhooti ya rasaadi ki aantarik samvedna mein paate hain. doosra hai kaavya ka shaileepaksh jismein laya, chhand, shabdachayan, gun aur alankaar ki yojana ka vivechan hota hai. in tatvon par poorv aur pashchim ke vichaarakon ne vistaar se chintan kiya hai. kintu yahaaain itna samjha lena hoga ki kaavya ki prabhaavaanviti samagr hoti hai. ye sabhi avayav apne apne dhang se us samagr prabhaavaanviti mein yogadaan karte dekhe jaate hain. hamaare yahaaain alankaaravaadi aur reetivaadi sameekshak is samagr prabhaavaanvitivaale mat ko naheen maanate. ve kaavya ka saundarya ya chamatkaar shabd arth ke alankaar mein ya vishisht padarachana mein maanate hain. kintu vakroktivaadi aur dhvanivaadi prabhaav ki drushti se kaavya ki samagrata ko lekar chalte hain, bhale hi vishleshan ki drushti se ve bhi uske tattat‌ ansh ki meemaansa karte hon. pashchim mein paranparaavaadi sameekshak isi tarah kaavya ki samagrata ko prabhaav ki drushti se naheen aaainkate aur kaavya mein alankaar (figrs), uktivaichitrya (vit), dooraaroodh kalpana (fainsi) ko mahatva dete dekhe jaate hain. vahaaain bhi isa ki doosari shati mein ek aisa chintak hua hai jisne kaavya ki is samagrata ke siddhaant ko pratishthaapit kiya tha. longinus ke udaatt sambandhi siddhaant ka mool bhaav yahi hai. pashchim ke romaintik kavi aur aalochak bhi kaavya ka chamatkaar samagrata mein hi maanate hain aur kuchh aisi hi dhaarana hindi ke chhaayaavaadi aur chhaayaavaadottar aalochakon ki hai. hamaare yahaaain alankaar, reeti, vakrokti, ras, dhvani, auchitya, chamatkaar jaise vividh kaavyasiddhaant jo chal pade the, ve sab moolat: kaavya ka saundarya kis ansh mein hai, isi aadhaar par hain. inka vishesh vivechan yahaaain anaavashyak hoga.

kavi aur kaavya ke baad teesara tatv kaavya ka shrota ya paathak aur naatak ka darshak hai jise dhvanivaadi ke shabdon mein sahrudaya kaha jaata hai. sahrudaya ka arth hai samaan hrudayavaala vah vyakti jo kaavyaanusheelan ke samay usamein tanmayeebhoot hokar kavi ke samaan hrudayavaala ban jaae. usaki yeh samaanahrudayata kaavya mein varnit vishisht paatraadi ya naayakaadi se bhi hoti hai. is samaanahrudayata ko sthaapit karne ke liye bhatnaayak ne saadhaaraneekaran vyaapaar ki kalpana ki thi jise abhinvagupt ne bhi maan liya hai. Bhaarat ke in rasavaadiyon ke anusaar kaavyaanusheelak ke maanas mein raag dveshaadi roop raj aur tam gunon ka tirobhaav ho jaata hai tatha satya ke udrek se man ko vishraanti ka anubhav hota hai. abhinvagupt is sthiti ko yogiyon ki samaadhisthiti ke samaan maanate hain. pashchim mein kaavya ki aatma ko ras jaise tatv ke roop mein maananevaala koi siddhaant udit naheen hua hai kintu vahaaain pichhli sadi mein svachhandataavaad ke udaya ke kaaran yeh siddhaant viksit hua hai ki kaavya ka shrota ya paathak kavi ya kavivrnit paatr ke saath samaanubhooti (empaithi) ya sahaanubhooti (simpaithi) ka anubhav karta hai, jaisi hamein sheksapiyr ke haimalet ya maikabeth ke saath tatha shaili ke praumithyus ke saath hoti hai.

apne yahaaain, rasadasha tak ham kaise pahuainchate hain, iska apne dhang se manovaigyaanik vishleshan abhinvagupt ke yahaaain milta hai. par vah dhaaaincha maatr hai. abhi haal mein hue manovijnyaaanagat shodhon ke kaaran is paksh par adhik prakaash pada hai. manovijnyaaan ki ek vishesh shaakha, jismein shareerakriya ke aadhaar par hamaare snaayukeindr ke samuttejan ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai aur shraavan, chaakshush, spaarshan, ghraanaj tatha rasanaj binbon ka athva unki kalpana maatr ka hamaare mastishk par kaise prabhaav padta hai aur usase hamaara maanas kaise aandolit hota hai, ispar khojein hui hain aur hoti ja rahi hain jo kaavya aur kalaakruti ka kaavyanusheelak par kaisa, kyon aur kaise prabhaav padta hai, iske vivechan mein vyast hain.

uparyukt vivechan se spasht hoga ki aaj kaavyashaastreeya chintan ka kshetr kitna vistrut ho gaya hai. vah ek or vyaakaran, bhaashaashaastr, kalaashaastr, darshan aur chhandashaastr ke chhoron ko chhoota hai, to doosari or manovijnyaaan aur shareerakriya vigyaan se bhi ja juda hai. itna hi naheen, jab ham kaavya ke aitihaasik, saamaajik preranaasroton ki or bhi dhyaan dene lagte hain to kaavyashaastr ka daayara aur badh jaata hai aur vah samaajashaastr, itihaas tatha raajaneetik chintan se bhi ja judta hai. yahi kaaran hai ki aaj ke kaavyashaastreeya chintan mein kai drushtibhangimaaeain mileingi. kuchh aisi hain jo paranparaavaadi poorvi ya pashchimi saaainche mein dhali hain, kuchh pashchim ke svachhandataavaadi, kalaavaadi, daadaavaadi, bhavishyavaadi ya astitvavaadi siddhaanton se judi hain aur kuchh ya to fऱaaayad ke manovishleshanavaad athva maarks ke saamaajik yathaarthavaadi darshan se sambaddh hain.

kaavyalakshan

sanskrut ke saahityashaastriyon ne 'kaavya ke lakshan' bataae hai, jinmein se kuchh is prakaar hain:

  1. sankshepaat vaakyamishtaarthavyavachhinna, padaavali kaavyam (agni puraan);
  2. shareeran taavadishtaarthavyavachhinna padaavali (dandi);
  3. nanu shabdaarthon kaayam (rudrat);
  4. kaavya shabdoyan gunalankaar sanskrutayo: shabdaarthayorvartate (vaaman);
  5. shabdaarthashareeran taavat kaavyam (aanandavardhan);
  6. nirdoshan gunavat kaavyan alankaarairalankrutan rasaantitm (bhojaraaj);
  7. tadadoshau shabdaarthon sagunaavanalankruti pun: kvaapi (mammat)
  8. gunaalankaarareetirsasahitau dosharahiti shabdaarthon kaavyam (vaagbhat);
  9. nirdosha lakshanavi sareetirgunabhooshita, saalankaararasaanekavruttirbhaak kaavyashabdabhaak (jayadev);
  10. kaavyan rasaadimdvaakyan shrutan sukhavisheshakrut (aachaarya shauddhodani);
  11. vaakyan rasaatmakan kaavyam (vishvanaath);
  12. gunavadalaङaakrutanyach kaavyam (raajashekhar) .

kaavyashaastr se sambandhit granth

teekaaeain
  • alankaarasarvasv -- ruyyak
  • sanket teeka -- maanikyachandr soori (rachanaakaal 1160 E.)
  • deepika -- chandeedaas (13veen shati)
  • kaavyapradeep -- govind thakkur (14veen shati ka antabhaag)
  • sudhaasaagar ya subodhini -- bheemasen Dixit (rachanaakaal 1723 E.)
  • deepika -- jayantabhatt (rachanaakaal 1294 E.)
  • kaavyaprakaashadarpan -- vishvanaath kaviraaj (14veen shati)
  • vistaarika -- paramaanand chakravarti (14veen shati)
  • avalok -- dhanik (dhananyajaya ke laghu bhraata)
  • lochan -- Abhinav guptapaad (dhvanyaalok ki teeka)
  • kaavyaprakaashasanket -- maanikyachandr (1159 E)
  • alankaarasarvasv -- raajaanak ruyyak
  • chandraalok --
  • alankaarashekhar -- keshav mishr

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh granth

  • dau॰ S.ke. de. : sanskrut poetiks, bhaag 1-2;
  • pan.baladev upaadhyaaya : bhaarateeya saahityashaastr, khand 1-2
  • vimsaar aind bruks : A history ov western kritisijm;
  • I. A. richrd‌aas : prinsipls ov litreri kritisijm;
  • Scott : faain eprochej ov litreri kritisijm;
  • aarthar koyaslar : di aikt ov kriyeshan;
  • rene velak : thiyri ov literature;
  • David decheej : kritikl aiprochej tu literature.