kaaunti

inglaind ki kaauntiyaaain (jile)

County (angreji: County) kai angreji-bhaashi deshon samet vishv ka bahut se deshon ke ek prashaasanik vibhaag ko kehte hain jo lagbhag jile ke baraabar hote hain. Britain, sanyukt raajya America, Canada, Australia, new jeelaind, laaiberiya, norve, sveedan aur kuchh anya deshon mein kaauntiyaaain ek aham prashaasanik vibhaag hain. cheen jaise bhi kuchh desh hain jinmein sthaaneeya bhaasha mein to jilon ko kuchh aur kaha jaata hai lekin angreji-anuvaad mein inhein County kehte hain. cheen mein jilon ka cheeni naam 'shian' (县 ya 縣, xiàaan) hai lekin inhein angreji mein 'County' kehte hain.

anukram

shabd ki jadein

"County" shabd puraani fraansisi bhaasha ke "conté" shabd se aaya hai, jiska arth hai vah kshetr jo kisi vaaikaaunt (viscount) ke adhikaar mein ho. vaaikaaunt Europe ke kuchh bhaagon mein ek prashaasanik aur shaahi upaadhi hua karti thi. jab Britain par fraans se aaye William vijayi ne san 1066 isavi mein kbja kar liya aur naurman raaj ki sthaapana curry to bahut se naurman prashaasanik shabd angreji bhaasha mein prachalit hue, jinmein se ek yeh tha. Britain mein pehle se bas rahe ainglo-saiksan log jilon ko 'shaayar' (shire) bulaaya karte the aur yeh shabd ab angreji mein kabhi 'County' aur kabhi 'basti' ke paryaayavaachi ki tarah bacha hua hai.[1] yahi vajah hai ki inglaind ki bahut-si kaauntiyon ke naam ke aakhir mein 'shaayar' aata hai, masalan gloostarashaayar, gloosestar aur vorsestar, vorsestarashaayar.

Canada

Canada ke das mein se paanch praant County ka upayog kshetreeya upakhand ke roop mein karte hain. inmein sabhi chaar mool praant, new braaunashvik, nova skotiya, ontaariyo aur kyoobek aur saatavaan praant prince Edward shaamil hain. kaauntiyon ke alaava, ontaariyo bhi kshetreeya jilon, jila nagar paalikaaon, mahaanagareeya nagar paalikaaon, nagar paalikaaon aur kshetreeya mein vibhaajit hai. alabarta mein, County nagar nigam ka rutaba rakhata tha; lekin jab madhya-1990 mein County adhiniyam radd kiya gaya tha, tab munisipl gavarmeint act ke antargat "nagar nigam jila" mein badal diya gaya tha, isi samay unhonne adhikaarik naamon mein County ke upayog ko banaae rakhane ki anumati bhi di thi.[2] mainitoba nyoofaaundalaind aur lebraadaar aur saaskaachavain, County ke bajaay janaganana vibhaajan ka upayog karte hain aur british Columbia kshetreeya jilon ka upayog karta hai. County ko sankshipt naam co ya cty se bhi sambodhit kiya jaata hai.

cheen

shabd "County" cheeni shabd 'shian' (县 ya 縣, xiàaan) ka anuvaad hai. logon ke ganaraajya cheen, ke tahat mukhyabhoomi cheen mein, County sthaaneeya sarkaar ka teesara star hote hain, jo ki praant star aur prashaasak praant star donon ke antargat aata hai.

mukhyabhoomi cheen mein kul 2,862 County stareeya prabhaagon mein se 1,464 kaauntiyaan hain. kaauntiyon ki sankhya haan raajavansh (206 isa poorv -. 220 isa pashchaat) se lagbhag niyat bani hui hai. County cheen mein sarkaar ke praacheenatam staron mein se ek hai aur yuaan raajavansh (1279-136) mein praanton ki sthaapana se pehle bane the. County sarkaar vishesh roop se shaahi cheen mein mahatvapoorn tha kyonki yeh shaahi sarkaar ke kaarya ka nimnatam star tha. shaahi samay ke dauraan County ke pramukh magistrate hua karte the.

praacheen sandarbh mein, cheen ganaraajya ki sthaapana se pehle "prashaasak praant" aur "jila" vaikalpik roop se jiyaan ka sandarbh dene vaale do shabd the. angreji naamakaran "County" ko aaraoseeROC) ki sthaapana ke baad apnaaya gaya tha.

Denmark

Denmark 1662 se 2006 tak kaauntiyon (amter) mein vibhaajit tha. 1 January 2007 ko kaauntiyon ko paanch kshetron se pratisthaapit kiya gaya. isi samay, nagar paalikaaon ki sankhya ko ghataakar 271 se 98 tak kar diya gaya tha.

County sabse pehle 1662 mein astitv mein aae the, jab Denmark-Norway mein 49 faaif len) ko itne hi kaauntiyon mein badal diya gaya tha. is sankhya mein dachi of skelsavig ke up-vibhaajan shaamil naheen the, keval yahi aanshik denish niyantrit ke adheen tha. Denmark mein kaauntiyon ki sankhya (Norway ko chhodkar) 1793 tak ghatkar 20 rah gayi thi. 1920 mein south jutalaind ke Denmark ke saath pun: ekeekaran ke baad, chaar kaauntiyon ko rasiyn kreis se pratisthaapit kar diya gaya. aabenara aur sondeborg County ko 1932 mein vilay kar diya gaya aur 1942 mein skaindaraborg aur aarahoos ko alag kar diya gaya tha. 1942 se 1970 tak, yeh sankhya 22 par bani rahi.[3] 1970 ke denish nagarapaalika durusti ke samay is sankhya mein giraavat I thi, jab 14 kaauntiyon aur do shaharon: kopenahegan aur fredariksabarg ko County se asanbaddh kar diya gaya tha.

2003 mein, bornaholm County ka vilay chaar nagarapaalikaaon ke saath kar diya gaya aur bornaholm kshetreeya nagarapaalika ka gathan kiya gaya. shesh 13 kaauntiyon ko 1 January 2007 ko samaapt kar diya gaya, jinhein paanch nae kshetron dvaara pratisthaapit kiya gaya tha. usi durusti mein, nagar paalikaaon ki sankhyaa270 se ghataakar 98 kar diya gaya aur ab sabhi nagarapaalikaaen kikshi kshetr ke adheen hain.

Germany

Germany ki sthiti ke liye kreis ki tulana karein. pratyek prashaasanik jile mein ek nirvaachit parishad aur ek kaaryakaari hote hain aur jinke kaaryon ki tulana sanyukt raajya America ke County kaaryakaariyon se ki ja sakti hai, jo sthaaneeya sarkaar ke prashaasan ki dekharekh karte hain.

Hungary

Hungary ke prashaasanik ikaai ko megye (megye) kaha jaata hai (aitihaasik roop se, inhein vaamegye (váaarmegye) ya laitin mein komitetas (Comitatus) bhi kaha jaata tha), jiska anuvaad shabd County se kiya ja sakta hai. 19 kaauntiyaan rajdhani budaapest ke saath desh ke prashaasanik up-vibhaajan ke sarvochch star ka gathan karti hain, haalaanki kaauntiyon aur rajdhani ko saat saankhyikeeya kshetron mein samooheekrut kiya gaya hai.

County ko nagar paalikaaon mein upavibhaajit kiya jaata hai, jiske do prakaar nagar aur gaanv hain, yahaan inke apne svanya ke nirvaachit mahaapaur aur parishad hote hain. 23 shaharon ke paas County ke adhikaar hain haalaanki ve kaauntiyon ki tarah svatantr kshetreeya ikaaiyaan naheen hain. nagar paalikaaon ko upakshetr (Hungary mein kistéaarséaag) ke saath samooheekrut kiya gaya hai, jinmein keval saankhyikeeya aur sangathanaatmak prakaarya hote hain.

vamaagye Hungary ke shaasan mein aitihaasik prashaasan ikaai bhi thi, jismein Hungary ke aaj ke padosi deshon ke kshetr shaamil the. iska laitin naam (Comitatus) French komte ke samakaksh hai. kaauntiyon ke vaastavik raajaneetik aur prashaasanik bhoomikaaen itihaas ke saath badal gaye hain. moolat: ye shaahi prashaasan ke up vibhaajan the, lekin 13 veen shataabdi isa pashchaat ye raison ki apni - sarkaaron mein tabdeel ho gaye aur aisa 19 veen sadi tak chalta raha, jiske falasvaroop aadhunik sthaaneeya sarkaar mein parivrtit ho gaye.

Iran

Iran ke kaauntiyaaain

Iran ke praanton ko 'shaharestaan' (faarasi: شaaهaaرaaسaaتaaاaaن shahrestāaan) kahe jaane vaale kaauntiyon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai, jo ki ostaan ke bheetar ka ek kshetr hai aur jahaan ek nagar kendra, kuchh bakhsha​ (faarasi: بaaخaaش bakhsh) hain aur iske chaaron or kai gaanv hote hain. aam taur par pratyek County mein kuchh shahar (faarasi: شaaهaaر shahr) aur graameen sankulan (faarasi: دaaهaaسaaتaaاaaن dehestāaan, jo 'dehaat sthaan' ka hi ek roop hai) hote hain. graameen sankulan kuchh gaanvon ke samooh ko kehte hain. County ke shaharon mein se ek ko County ki rajdhani niyukt kiya jaata hai.

pratyek shaharastan mein ek sarkaari kaaryaalaya hota hai, jise faramaanadaari kehte hain, jo vibhinn iveinton aur sarkaari kaaryaalayon ko samanvit karte hain. faramaanadaar, ya faramaanadaari pramukh, shaharastan ka raajyapaal hota hai. faars praant mein sabse adhik 23 shaharastan hain, jabki semanaan aur dakshin khoraasan mein keval 4-4 sharastan hain; kom hi ekamaatr praant hai, jahaan keval ek shaharastan hai, apne keval naam ke County ke saath sah-vistrut ho raha hai. 2005 mein Iran mein 324 shaharastan the.

Ireland

Ireland ke dweep aitihaasik roop se 32 kaauntiyon mein vibhaajit the, jismein se 26 ko milaakar baad mein Ireland ganaraajya ka nirmaan kiya gaya aur 6 ko milaakar uttari Ireland banaaya gaya.

in kaauntiyon ko paaramparik roop se 4 praanton mein samooheekrut kiye gaye hain - laininstar (12), munstar (6)) konnaach (5 aur alastar (9). aitihaasik roop se, meeth, vestameeth ke kaauntiyon aur aaspaas ke kaauntiyon ke chhote chhote bhaagon se milkar maaid ka praant bana hai, jo ki Ireland ke "paanch jaageeron" mein se ek hai (aayarish bhaasha mein praant ke shabd, kuije (Cuige), kuij (Cuig) se vyutpann, paanch lka arth hai " paachavaan "); haalaanki, kyonki ye laininstar praant ke teen uttari kaauntiyon mein aa jaane ke kaaran ye lambe hain. ganatantr mein pratyek County ek nirvaachit "County parishad" dvaara prashaasit hote hain aur puraane praanteeya prabhaagon ka naam paaramparik hain, jinka koi raajaneetik mahatva naheen hai.

Ireland ganaraajya mein prashaasanik kaauntiyon ki seemaaon ki sankhya 1990 ke dashak mein bane the. udaaharan ke liye, County dabalin teen bhaagon mein tode gaye the: dan laoghayar-rathadaaun, fingal aur south dabalin - city of dabalin sadiyon se astitv mein hai. iske atirikt, "County tipperari" vaastav mein do prashaasanik kaauntiyaan hain, jinhein uttari tipperari aur dakshin tipperari ke naam se jaana jaata hai, jabki mukhya shahari kendra kork, gaulave, limerik aur vautaraford hain. at:, Ireland ganaraajya mein chauntees "County-stareeya" adhikaari hain, yadyapi mool chhabbees kaauntiyon ki seema adhikaarik roop se abhi bhi usi sthaan par hain.[4]

uttari Ireland mein, chhah County parishdon aur chhote shahar ke parishdon ko 1973 mein samaapt kar diya gaya aur unhein sthaaneeya sarkaar ke ekal taayar se pratisthaapit kar diya gaya. haalaanki, uttar mein saath hi dakshin mein, paaramparik 32 kaauntiyaan aur 4 praant abhi bhi kai khel, saanskrutik aur anya uddeshyon ke liye saamaanya upayog hain. County ki pehchaan harling aur gelik football ki County teemon ki raajyanishtha ki sthaaneeya sanskruti mein atyadhik prabalit hai. pratyek GAA County ka ek apna dhvaj/rang (aur aksar ek upanaam bhi) hota hai aur County apna ek hota / rang aur aksar (ek aur County ki raajyanishtha ko kaafi gambheerta se liya jaata hai. Ireland ke County aur gelik ethaletik association dekhein.

laaiberiya

laaiberiya mein 15 County hain, jahaan laaiberiyaai senate ke liye do senator nirvaachit kiye jaate hain.

lithuaaniya

apsakritis Apskritis (pl. apskritys) County ke liye lithuaaniyaai shabd hai. 1994 ke baad se lithuaaniya mein 10 County hain; 1950 se pehle tah yeh sankhya 20 thi. County banaane ka ekamaatr uddeshya raajya ke raajyapaal ka kaaryaalaya hai, jo County mein kaanoon aur vyavastha ka sanchaalan kar sake. lithuaaniya ke County dekhein.

nyoojeelaind

1876 mein New Zealand ke apne praanton ko samaapt karne ke baad, anya deshon ke pranaaliyon ke samaan kaauntiyon ki pranaali sthaapit ki gayi thi, jo 1989 tak astitv mein rahi. vahaan cheyaramen the, mayor naheen jaise ki nagaron aur shaharon mein the; kai vaidhaanik praavadhaan (jaise ki kabr aur bhoomi upavibhaajan niyantran) kaauntiyon se bhinn the.

20 veen sadi ki doosari chhamaahi ke dauraan, kai kaauntiyon mein paas ke shaharon se log aakar basane lage. parinaamasvaroop do kaauntiyon ka vilay ek "jile"(uda. rotoruaa) mein ho gaya ya unka naam badalkar "jila" (uda. vaaimairi) ya "shahar" (uda. mainukaau city) rakh diya gaya.

sthaaneeya sarkaar adhiniyam 1974 ne ek hi prashaasanik dhaanchein mein shahari, mishrit aur graameen parishdon ko laane ki prakriya shuroo ki. 1989 shek-ap ke parinaami adhiniyam ke tahat paryaapt punarsangathan, jo desh shaharon aur jilon aur kaitham aailaind County ke alaava sabhi kaauntiyon (gair-ativyaapi) mein desh ko kavar karta hai, jo ki aage 6 varshon ke liye naam ke antargat astitv mein raha lekin baad mein "kaitham aailaind parishad" ke antargat "kshetr" ban gaya.

Norway

1972 ke baad se Norway 19 kaauntiyon (sing. faayalke, plar,. faayalke/ faayalkar) mein vibhaajit hai. us varsh tak barjen ek pruthak County tha, lekin vah aaj hordaalaind ke County mein nagar paalika hai. County nagarapaalika (sing, faayalsakomune, plar, faayalskemunar/faayalskemuner) ke naam se jaane jaane waali sabhi kaauntiyaan firm prashaasanik sansthaaen, aage chalakar nagarapaalikaaon mein upavibhaajit (sing, komune, plar, komunaar/komuner). ek County, oslo, nagar paalikaaon mein vibhaajit naheen hai, balki yeh oslo nagar paalika ke baraabar hai.

pratyek County ka ek apna County parishad (faayalkesting) hota hai, jiske pratinidhiyon ko chunaav pratyek chaar saal mein nagarapaalika parishad ke pratinidhiyon ke saath hi kiya jaata hai. County uchch vidyaalaya aur sthaaneeya sadkon jaise maamale sanbhaalati hai aur 1 January 2002 tak aspataal bhi iske kaarya kshetr mein the. iski jimmedaari ab raajya-niyantrit svaasthya adhikaariyon aur svaasthya traston ko saunp di gayi hai aur prashaasanik ikaai ke roop mein County nagarapaalika ke bhavishya par ek bahas jaari hai. kuchh log aur paartiyon, jaise ki roodhivaadi aur pragati party, ne ek baar sabhi County nagar paalikaaon ko hataane ki maang ki thi, jabki anya, lebar party sahit, keval itna chaahate the ki kuchh ka vilay karke bade kshetron mein kar diya jaae.

Poland

Poland mein dvi-stareeya prashaasanik prabhaag ko poviyt (powiat) kaha jaata hai. (yeh voivodeship, ya praant, ka up-vibhaajan hai aur ise aage chalakar gminaas mein upavibhaajit kiya jaata hai) aksar is shabd ko angreji mein County (ya kabhi kabhi jile) ke roop mein anuvaadit kiya jaata hai.

romaaniya

romaaniya 41 kshetraadhikaaron mein vibhkt hai. ek kshetraadhikaar ko judet (judeţ) kaha jaata hai. ab County ke liye romaaniyaai shabd komitet (Comitat), ka upayog romaaniyaai prashaasanik prabhaagon mein naheen kiya jaata.

sveedan

kaauntiyon ka sveedish vibhaajan 1634 mein kiya gaya tha aur jo praanton ke pehle ke vibhaajan par aadhaarit tha. sveedan aaj 21 kaauntiyon mein vibhkt hai aur pratyek County ko nagar paalikaaon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai. County star par ek County prashaasanik board hai, jiska netrutv sveedan ke keindreeya sarkaar dvaara niyukt raajyapaal, anya muddon, vishesh roop se aspataal aur saarvajanik parivhan, ka sanchaalan karne vaale nirvaachit County parishad ke saath karta hai.

upayog kiya jaane wala sveedish shabd "läan, hai, jiska shaabdik arth "jaageer" hai.

cheen ganaraajya (taaivaan)

County meindaarin shabd 县 ka saamaanya angreji anuvaad hai jo taaivaan ke vartamaan pratham stareeya raajaneetik vibhaajan ki or ishaara karta hai. County (cheen ganaraajya) dekhein

United kingadam

United kingadam kai mahaanagareeya aur gair mahaanagareeya kaauntiyon mein vibhaajit hai. kai aupachaarik kaauntiyaan bhi hain, jo chhote gair mahaanagareeya kshetron ko England ke aitihaasik County par aadhaarit bhaugolik kshetron mein samooheekrut karta hai. 1974 mein mahaanagareeya aur gair mahaanagareeya County prashaasanik deshon aur County nagaron ki ek pranaali se pratisthaapit kar diye gaye the, jinhein 1889 mein prastut kiya gaya tha.

England ke adhikaansh gair mahaanagareeya County County parishad dvaara chalaae jaate hain aur gair mahaanagareeya jilon mein vibhaajit hain, pratyek ka ek apna svanya ka parishad hai. Britain ke sthaaneeya adhikaariyon par aamtaur par shiksha, aapaatkaaleen sevaaen, yojana, parivhan, saamaajik sevaaen chalaane aur anya kai kaarya karne ki jimmedaari hoti hai.

England mein, englo saiksan avadhi mein, shaayar ko aise kshetron ke roop mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha jahaan se kar ugaahi ki ja sake aur aamtaur par unke kendra mein ek aarakshit shahar hua karta tha. ye aage chalakar shaayar taaun ya baad mein County taaun ke roop mein jaana jaane laga. adhikaansh maamalon mein, shaayar ka naam unke shaayar nagar ke naam par rakha jaata tha (udaaharan ke liye bedafordashaayar), haalaanki kuchh apavaad bhi maujood hain, jaise ki kumbaralaind, norfolk aur safolk. kai anya maamalon mein, jaise ki bakinghamashaayar, County taaun ke roop mein jo naam shahare kje liye sveekrut hai, ve shaayar ke naam se bhinn hain. (United kingadam ki kaauntiyon ki toponikl soochi dekhein)

'County' naam normans dvaara pesh kiya gaya tha aur yeh kaaunt (Lord) dvaara prashaasit kshetr ke liye ek norman shabd se vyutpit hua tha. ye norman 'kaauntiyon' saamaanyat: sakson shaayar the aur unke sakson naam rakhe gaye the. saseks, eseks aur kaint sahit, kai paaramparik County, great alfred dvaara kiye gaye England ke ekeekaran se pehle ban chuke the aur mool roop se svatantr raajyon ke roop mein astitv mein the.

uttari Ireland mein, chhah County parishdon, yadi unke County naheen the, ko 1973 mein samaapt kar diya gaya aur unhein 26 sthaaneeya sarkaari jilon se pratisthaapit kar diya gaya. paaramparik chhah County ab bhi kai saanskrutik aur anya prayojanon ke liye aam rojamarra ke upayog mein hain.

vels ke terah aitihaasik kaauntiyon ko 1539 mein sanvidhi dvaara banaaya gaya tha (haalaanki pembrokeshaayar jaise County 1138 se sthit the) aur Scotland ke adhikaansh shaayar kam se kam itne puraane hain. gelik roop mein, skautish paaramparik County naam saamaanyataya "siorraamaichd" - shaabdik arth "sherifdam" uda. siorraamaichd iera-ghaaidaheel (argil ka County) ke pad se bhinn hote hain. yeh shabd skautish kaanooni pranaali ke kshetraadhikaar ke sangat hai.

England ke County ki seemaaen samay ke saath thode badal gaye hain. madhyakaaleen avadhi mein, kai mahatvapoorn shaharon ko County ka darja diya gaya tha, jaise ki London, Bristol aur koveintri aur kai chhote eksaklev jaise aailaindashaayar banaae gaye the. agala bada parivartan 1844 mein hua, jab inmein se kai eksalev ko unke aaspaas ke County mein pun: vilay kar diya gaya (udaaharan ke liye, koveintri ka vilay vaarvikshaayar mein kar diya gaya tha.

1965 aur 1974-1975 mein, sthaaneeya sarkaar ke mukhya punarsangathan ne England aur vels mein kai nae prashaasanik County banaae jaise ki hereford aur vorsestar aur saath hi kai nae mahaanagareeya County bhi banaae gaye jisne ekal prashaasanik ikaai ke roop mein bade shahari kshetron mein sevaaen di. Scotland mein County ke aakaar ke sthaaneeya sarkaar ko bade kshetron se pratisthaapit kar diya gaya, yeh 1996 tak astitv mein raha. Scotland, vels, uttari Ireland aur England ke ek bade bhaag mein aadhunik sthaaneeya sarkaar chhote ekaatmak adhikaari ke avadhaarana par aadhaarit the (1960 ke dashak mein adhikaansh Britain ke liye prastaavit redaklif-maaud report se milti julati ek pranaali).

sanyukt raajya America

vartamaan mein 3143 County aur sanyukt raajya America ke samakaksh County hain

englo saiksan England ke shaayar ki tarah, America ke County raajya ke prashaasanik prabhaag hote hain jinki seemaaen tay hoti hain. jahaan ve maujood hain, ve raajyavyaapi star aur taatkaalik sthaaneeya sarkaar ke beech ekaatmak raajya sarkaar ke madhyavarti star hain. County 50 me6 se 48 ekaatmak raajyon mein upayog mein hain; anya do raajya (Connecticut aur road aailaind) ne apne kaauntiyon ko samaapt kar kaaryaatmak ikaaeyaan banaai hain, maisaachusets aisa karne ki prakriya mein hai. in shesh 48 raajyon mein, 46 "County" shabd ka upayog karte hain, jabki alaaska aur luisiyaana anuroop kshetraadhikaar ke liye kramash: "nagar" aur "pairish" shabdon ka upayog karte hain.

vyaktigat raajya par nirbhar karte hue, County ya iske bhinn samakaksh naam prashaasakeeya roop se apne aap ko civil taaunaship mein vibhaajit kar sakte hain, uda., Michigan, jahaan civil taaunaship aur chaartar taaunaship hain (ya kuchh raajyon mein "taaunaship ko "taaun" bhi kaha jaata hai, jahaan "taaunaship ka arth hai koi nagar ya "gaaainv", uda. New York); ya ho sakta hai ki County mein bade nagarapaalika na ho, uda. varjeeniya, jahaan sabhi shahar svatantr shahar hain,; ya vahaan shahar aur anigmit kshetr ho sakte hain, uda. California, jahaan aitihaasik roop se County ko taaunaship mein vibhaajit kiya gaya lekin baad mein samaapt kar diya gaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein]luisiyaana mein kaauntiyon ke samakaksh ikaaiyaan hain, jinhein paarishon kaha jaata hai. alaaska nagaron mein vibhaajit hai, jo vishesh roop se America ke kaauntiyon ki tulana mein kam sthaaneeya sevaaen pradaan karte hain, kyonki adhikaansh sevaaon par raajya sarkaar seedhe niyantran rakhati hain alaaska ke kuchh nagaron ka vilay unke mool (aur keval kabhi kabhi) shahar ke saath bhaugolik seemaaon aur prashaasanik kaaryon mein kar diya gaya; inhein ekeekrut shahar-nagar ke roop mein jaana jaata hai aur parinaamasvaroop alaaska ke kuchh shaharon ko bhaugolik roop se duniya ke sabse bade "shaharon" mein jagah di gayi hai. fir bhi, alaaska mein aisi ikaaiyon ko nagar kaha jaata hai, na ki shahar. alaaska is baat se bhi adviteeya hai ki iske raajya ka aadhe se adhik bhaugolik kshetr "asangathit nagar" ki shreni mein aata hai, jo ki ek kaanooni ikaai hai, jahaan raajya bhi sthaaneeya sarkaar ki tarah kaarya karte hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]New York mein adviteeya pranaali hai jahaan 62 mein se 57 County raajya ke prashaasanik prabhaag ke adheen hain aur unke paas saamaanya County adhikaar hain; jabki shesh paanch greater New York ke shahar ke prashaasanik prabhaag hain. in paanchon ko shahar sarkaar ke sandarbh mein nagar kaha jaata hai - mainahattan, bronks, kveens, brukaleen aur staaten aailaind (poorv naam richmand); lekin inhein ab bhi "County " kaha jaata hai jahaan raajya shaamil prakaarya shaamil hai uda. " New York County kortahaaus", mainahatan" naheen. County ke naam nagaron ke naam kramash: New York County, bronks County, kveens County. kings County aur richmand County se paraspar sambandhit hain.

do raajyon aur teeasare ke ek hisse mein, County sarkaar ki tarah kuchh bhi maujood naheen hai aur County bhaugolik kshetr ya jile ka sandarbh deta hai. Connecticut,[5] road aailaind[6] aur maisaachusets ke kuchh hisson mein[7][8] kaauntiyaan keval aise raajya star ke kaaryon jaise park jile (Connecticut) ya nyaayik kaaryaalaya (Connecticut aur maisaachusets) ke liye seemaaen nirdhaarit karne hetu maujood hain. aise raajyon mein jahaan County sarkaar maujood naheen hai ya kamjor hai (jaise, new haimpashaayar, varamont), shahar ke sarkaar kuchh ya sabhi sthaaneeya sarkaari sevaaen pradaan kar sakte hain.

adhikaansh kaauntiyon mein County seat, aamtaur par shahar hote hain, jahaan iske prashaasanik kaarya keindrit hote hain. apavaadon mein raashtra ke chhote County, arlingatan County, varjeeniya, shaamil hai, jahaan koi nagarapaalika naheen hai; sain fraansiskon ka shahar ya County, ek mahaanagareeya nagarapaalika jahaan shahar aur kaaunti sarkaar ka vilay karke ek kshetraadhikaar banaaya gaya hai, isliye County seat sampoorn County ke saath samakaaleen hai; aur, vaastav mein, nyooyork city, jo ki paanch kaauntiyon ke saath samakaaleen hai, jis kaaran in sabhi ka County seat ek hi hai - jo ki prashn nirrthak banaata hai. England ke kuchh nae raajyon mein "County seat" ke sthaan par shaayar taaun shabd ka upayog kiya jaata hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh