kaashi ka vistaar

Varanasi kshetr ke vistaar ke anek pauraanik uddharan upalabdh hain.[1] krutyakalpataru mein diye teerth-vivechan va anya praacheen granthon ke anusaar[2]:

anukram

puraanon mein

  • brahm puraan mein Bhagwan Shiv paarvati se kehte hain ki- he suravallabhe, varana aur asi in donon nadiyon ke beech mein hi Varanasi kshetr hai, uske baahar kisi ko naheen basana chaahiye.
  • matsya puraan ke anusaar yeh kshetr pashchim ki or dhaai yojan takatha.
  • ling puraan mein is kshetr ka vistaar kuchh aur badhaakar kaha gaya hai. iske anusaar krutivaas se aarambh hokar yeh kshetr ek-ek kos chaaron or faila hai.
  • matsya puraan[3] mein iski lambaai-chaudaai adhik spasht rup se varnit hai. poorv-pashchim dhaai (2½) yojan bheeshmachandi se parvateshvar tak, uttar-dakshin aadha (1/2) yojan, shesh hua hai. uske beech mein madhyameshvar naamak svayanbhoo ling hai. yahaan se bhi ek-ek kos chaaron or kshetr ka vistaar hai. yahi Varanasi ki vaastavik seema hai. uske baahar vihaar na karna chaahiye.[2]
  • agni puraan[4] ke anusaar varana aur asi nadiyon ke beech basi hui Varanasi ka vistaar poorv mein do yojan aur doosari jagah aadha yojan bha faila tha aur dakshin mein yeh kshetr varana se ganga tak aadha yojan faila hua tha. matsya puraan mein hi anyatr nagar ka vistaar batalaate hue kaha gaya hai- poorv se pashchim tak is kshetr ka vistaar do yojan hai aur dakshin mein aadha yojan nagar bheeshmachandi se lekar parvateshvar tak faila hua tha.[2]
  • brahm puraan ke anusaar is kshetr ka pramaan paanch kos ka tha usamein uttaramukhi ganga hai[5] jisse kshetr ka mahaatmya badh gaya. uttar ki or ganga do yojan tak shahar ke saath-saath bahti thi.
  • skand puraan ke anusaar us kshetr ka vistaar chaaron or chaar kos tha.
  • ling puraan mein is kshetr ka vistaar krutivaas se aarambh hokar yeh kshetr ek-ek kos chaaron or faila hua hai. uske beech mein madhyameshvar naamak svayanbhoo ling hai. yahaan se bhi ek-ek kos chaaron or kshetr ka vistaar hai. yahi Varanasi ki vaastavik seema hai. uske baahar vihaar na karna chaahiye.[2]
  • agni puraan[6] ke anusaar varana aur asi nadiyon ke beech basi hui Varanasi ka vistaar poorv mein do yojan aur doosari jagah aadha yojan hai.
  • matsya puraan[7] mein iski lambaai-chaudaai adhik spasht rup se varnit hai. poorv-pashchim dhaai (2 1/2) yojan bheeshmachandi se parvateshvar tak, uttar-dakshin aadha (1/2) yojan, shesh bhaag varuna aur assi ke beech.[2]

uparokt uddharanon se gyaat hota hai ki praacheen Varanasi ka vistaar kaafi door tak tha. varuna ke pashchim mein raajaghaat ka kila jahaan praacheen Varanasi ke base hone mein koi sandeh naheen hai, ek meal lamba aur 400 gaj chauda hai. ganga nadi uske dakshin-poorv mukh ki raksha karti hai aur varuna nadi uttar aur uttar-poorv mukhon ki raksha ek chhichhli khaai ke rup mein karti hai, pashchim ki or ek khaali naala hai jismein se hokar kisi samay varuna nadi bahti thi. raksha ke is praakrutik saadhanon ko dekhte hue hi shaayad praacheen kaal mein Varanasi nagar ke liye yeh sthaan chuna gaya. san 1857 E. ke pratham bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ke samay angrejon ne bhi nagar raksha ke liye varuna ke peechhe oonchi jameen par kachchi mitti ki deevaarein uthaakar kilebandi ki thi. puraanon mein aayi Varanasi ki seema raajaghaat ki ukt lambaai-chaudaai se kaheen adhik hai. un varnanon se lagta hai ki vahaan keval nagar ki seema hi naheen varnit hai, balki poore kshetr ko sammilit kar liya gaya hai.[2] varuna ke us paar tak praacheen basaavaton ke avashesh kaafi door tak milte hain. at: sambhav hai ki puraanon mein mile varnan ve sab bhaag bhi aa gaye hon. is kshetr ko yadi nagar mein juda hua maanein, to puraanon mein varnit nagar ki lambaai-chaudaai lagbhag sahi hi bataayi gayi hai.

buddh kaal

Gautam buddh ke janm poorv mahaajanapad yug mein Varanasi kaashi janapad ki rajdhani thi.[2] kintu praacheen kaashi janapad ke vistaar ke baare mein yathaarth aadi se anumaan lagaana kathin hai. jaatakon mein[8] kaashi ka vistaar 300 yojan diya gaya hai. kaashi janapad ke uttar mein kosal janapad, poorv mein magadh janapad aur pashchim mein vats tha.[9] itihaasavetta dau॰ oltekar ke mataanusaar kaashi janapad ka vistaar uttar-pashchim ki or 250 meal tak tha, kyonki iska poorv ka padosi janapad magadh aur uttar-pashchim ka padosi janapad uttar paanchaal tha. jaatak (151) ke anusaar kaashi aur kosal ki seemaaen mili hui thi. kaashi ki dakshin seema ka sahi varnan upalabdh naheen hai, shaayad isaliye ki vah vindhya shrrunkhala tak gayi hui thi va aage koi aabaadi naheen thi. jaatakon ke aadhaar par kaashi ka vistaar vartamaan baliya se Kanpur tak faila raha hoga.[10] yahaan shri Rahul saankrutyaayan kehte hain, ki aadhunik banaaras kamishnari hi praacheen kaashi janapad raha tha. sambhav hai ki aadhunik Gorakhpur kamishnari ka bhi kuchh bhaag kaashi janapad mein shaamil raha ho.

bhoogol

vartamaan Varanasi se praacheen Varanasi nishchaya hi bahut bhinn raha hoga. aaj ke banaaras jile ke jin bhaagon mein ghani basti baseen hain un bhaagon mein gahadvaal yug tak van faile the. praacheen shahar mein asankhya taalaabon aur pushkariniyon ka bhi bhi varnan aata hai, jinmein bahut si to 19veen shataabdi tak bach gayi theen, kintu ab lagbhag sabhi nasht praaya: ho gayi hai. ek samay Varanasi ki bhoomi ko kaatate rahane vaale naale bhi ab pat chuke hain. brahmanaal kabhi chauk tak pahunchati thi, vahaan shahar ki ghani aabaadi hai aur naalon ke to ab keval naam hi bach gaye hain. jaatakon se gyaat hota hai ki banaaras ke aaspaas ghane jungle faile the. kaashi janapad ke jin graamon ityaadi ka varnan aata hai, unamein adhiktar aadhunik banaaras tahaseel ke athva jaunapur ke the jo praacheen kaashi janapad ka ang tha. praacheen mrugadaav aur isipttan jiska vartamaan naam saaranaath hai, banaaras tahaseel mein hai tatha machhikaakhand (vartamaan machhali shahar) aur keetagiri (keraakat) jaunapur mein hai.[11] sambhavat: chandauli tahaseel madhyakaal mein basi ho, kintu kam-se-kam is tahaseel mein abhi tak guptakaal ya uske pehle ke bhagnaavashesh naheen mile hain par gahadvaal yug (11-12veen shataabdi) mein chandauli tahaseel poori tarah se bas chuki thi. banaaras jile mein raamanagar ki bhootapoorv deshi riyaasat bhi sammilit hai- ganga ke donon kinaaron par 25 0 80' aur 25 0 35' uttari akshaansh tatha 78 0 56' aur 79 0 52' poorveedeshaantar tak faila hai. sampoorn banaaras jila ganga ki ghaati mein sthit hai aur iske bhoo-garbhik staron se mitti ke siva aur kuchh naheen niklata, kyonki vindhyaachal ki pahaadiyaan mirjaapur jile tak seemit hain. jile mein mitti ki gaharaai gyaat naheen, par gahre kuon ki khudaai se 35 foot tak lom, uske baad 27 foot jami mitti aur uske neeche paani ke soton waali laal baaloo milti hai.

praakrutik banaavat ke aadhaar par banaaras ko do bhaagon mein vageekrut kar sakte hain:

  • uparavaar
  • tari

ye donon bhaag ganga ke oonche-neeche karaaron se vibhaajit hai. in karaaron ki bhinnata jameen prakruti aur nadi ke bahaav par bhi avalanbit hain. banaaras ke donon bhaag mukhyat: jameen ka tala aur dhaal mein ek-doosare se bhinn hain.

jile ke pashchimi bhaag mein banaaras tahaseel aur gangaapur tatha bhadohi sammilit hain aur ye poorv ki chandauli tahaseel se upekshaakrut ooncha hain. banaaras tahaseel mein jameen ki satah poorv aur dakshin-poorv ki taraf dhlavaan hai. jal sroton ka bahaav ganga ki or ko hai isi liye jile ka pashchimi bhaag neecha-ooncha pathaar hai. jaunapur va aajamagadh ki sadkein jahaan uttar se banaaras paar karti hain vahaan unki oonchaai kramash: 238 aur 250 foot hai. banaaras ki oonchaai samudri satah se 252 foot hai aur yeh ganga ki sabse kam oonchaai 197 foot hai. uttar-poorv arthaat paragana jaalhoopur mein yeh satah kramash: dhlati hui nadi ke us paar baaluon mein aakar 238 foot rah jaata hai. satah ki is oonchaai-nichaai ke kaaran jile ke pashchimi bhaag ki samatal jameen utkrusht hai. jal vibhaajakon ke paas yeh moor sabai kahalaati hai, baad manl yeh moor arthaat balui ho jaati hai. jile ki nichli jameen matiyaar kahalaati hai aur usamein jheelon aur taalaabon ki sinchaai se dhaan ki achhi paidaavaar hoti hai.

banaaras tahaseel ki praakrutik banaavat ke uparyukt vivran dvaara aaryon ke aane par is sthaan ko apna kendra banaane ka kaaran spasht ho jaata hai. achhi jameen, paani ki sulabhata tatha aayaat-niryaat ke saadhan iske mukhya kaaran the. praacheen yug ka raajamaarg bhi Varanasi se Gazipur hokar Bihar ki or jaata tha kyonki vartamaan grand trank maarg par us samay ghanaghor van the. ganga paar ke kshetron mein vartamaan chandauli tahaseel mein jameen neechi hone se barasaati paani chhoti nadiyon mein baadh laakar kaafi nuksaan pahunchata hai aur paani ke bahaav ka theek raasta na hone se sinchaai mein kathinaai aati thi. yahaan ki jameen neechi hone ke kaaran yahaan maleriya ka bhi adhik prakop hota raha hai. atharv ved ki paippalaad shaakha mein Varanasi mein base anaaryon se aprasann hokar sooktakaal kaashi janapad par takma ka dhaava karne ko kehta hai. sambhavat: praacheen kaal mein takma arthaat maleriya se log bahut darate the aur unka darna svaabhaavik bhi tha kyonki kunain ke avishkaar ke pehle maleriya bhaari praan sanhaarak hota tha.[12]

sandarbh

  1. ayyangar, ke.vi. rangasvaami (1942). krutyakalpataru ke teerth vivechan kaand sanpaadit. Baroda. pp. 39-40.
  2. a aa i E u oo A Varanasi vaibhav ya kaashi vaibhavkaasheevishvanaath. deenadayaal mani. 27 August 2009
  3. mtsya puraan, ki mudrit prati (184/51)
  4. agni puraan (3520)
  5. ayyangar, ke.vi. rangasvaami (1942). krutyakalpataru. Baroda. pp. 39, pankti 4 se 9 tak.
  6. agni puraan (3520)
  7. mtsya puraan, ki mudrit prati (184/51)
  8. jaatak kathaaen 3/181, 5/41, 3/304, 361
  9. "bhaag-6". keinbrij history oaif India. pp. 14.
  10. altekar, A.S. (1939). history oaif banaaras. pp. 12.
  11. laaha, bi.si.. "bhaag-6". India ej diskraaibd is arli teksats oaif budhijm end jainijm. pp. 42.
  12. (paippalaad shaakha mein kaashi likha hai par shaunakaadi sab shaakhaaon mein kaasheemyaan ki jagah angebhyon likha hai, isse prateet hota hai ki is beech aarya kaashi aa gaye the.)