kaarl maarks

kaarl maarks
Karl Marx 001.jpg
maarks ka 1875 mein liya gaya chitr
janm kaarl henarikh maarks
5 May 1818
triyer, prashiya
nidhan 14 March 1883(1883-03-14) (umr 64)
London, Britain
dhaarmik maanyata isaai; baad mein dharm tyaag diya (naastik)
School maarksavaad, saamyavaad, samaajavaad, bhautikvaad
abhiruchi raajaneeti, arthashaastr, darshan, samaajashaastr, itihaas, varg sangharsh,
ullekhaneeya vichaar fredarik engels sang maarksavaad ka pratipaadan, atirik‍aat moolya, aitihaasik bhautikvaad
hastaakshar Karl Marx Signature.svg

kaarl henarikh maarks (1818 - 1883) jarman daarshanik, arthashaastri aur vaigyaanik samaajavaad ka praneta. 5 May 1818 ko treves (prasha) ek yahoodi parivaar mein utpann hua. 1824 mein uske parivaar ne isaai dharm sveekaar kar liya. 17 varsh ki avastha mein maarks ne kaanoon ka adhyayan karne ke liye baun vishvavidyaalaya mein pravesh kiya. tatpashchaat‌ usane barlin aur jena vishv-vidyaalayon mein saahitya, itihaas aur darshan ka adhyayan kiya. isi kaal mein vah heegel ke darshan se bahut prabhaavit hua. 1839-41 mein usane dimaukrits aur epeekyooras ke praakrutik darshan par shogh-prabandh likhkar daaktaret praapt ki.

shiksha samaapt karne ke pashchaat‌ 1842 mein maarks usi varsh kolon se prakaashit 'raainishe jeetung' patra mein pehle lekhak aur tatpashchaat‌ sampaadak ke roop mein sammilit hua kintu sarvahaara kraanti ke vichaaron ke pratipaadan aur prasaar karne ke kaaran 15 maheene baad hi 1843 mein us patra ka prakaashan band karva diya gaya. maarks peris chala gaya, vahaaain usane 'dyoos fraanjosish' jaarabooshar patra mein heegel ke naitik darshan par anek lekh likhe. 1845 mein vah France se nishkaasit hokar broosels chala gaya aur vaheen usane Germany ke majadoor saganthan aur 'communist league' ke nirmaan mein sakriya yog diya. 1847 mein ejeinls ke saath 'antaraashtreeya samaajavaad' ka pratham ghoshanaapatr (communist maunifesto) prakaashit kiya

1848 mein maarks ne pun: kolon mein 'neve raainishe jeetung' ka sanpaadan praarambh kiya aur uske maadhyam se Germany ko samaajavaadi kraanti ka sandesh dena aarambh kiya. 1849 mein isi aparaagh mein vah prasha se nishkaasit hua. vah peris hote hue London chala gaya jeevan paryant vaheen raha. London mein sabse pehle usane 'communist league' ki sthaapana ka prayaas kiya, kintu usamein foot pad gayi. ant mein maarks ko use bhang kar dena pada. usaka 'neve raainish jeetung' bhi keval chhah anko mein nikal kar band ho gaya.

1859 mein maarks ne apne arthashaastreeya adhyayan ke nishkarsh 'jur kritik dar politishen ekaanaami' naamak pustak mein prakaashit kiye. yeh pustak maarks ki us bruhattar yojana ka ek bhaag thi, jo usane sanpurn raajaneetik arthashaastr par likhne ke liye banaai thi. kintu kuchh hi dino mein use laga ki upalabdh saamragi usaki yojana mein poorn roopen sahaayak naheen ho sakti. at: usane apni yojana mein parivartan karke nae sire se likhna aanrabh kiya aur usaka pratham bhaag 1867 mein das kaipitl (the kaipitl, hindi mein poonji sheershak se pragati prakaashan maas‍aako se chaar bhaagon mein) ke naam se prakaashit kiya. 'the kaipitl' ke shesh bhaag maarks ki mrutyu ke baad enjels ne sanpaadit karke prakaashit kiye. 'vargasangharsh' ka siddhaant maarks ke 'vaigyaanik samaajavaad' ka meroodand hai. iska vistaar karte hue usane itihaas ki bhautikvaadi vyaakhya aur beshi moolya (surplus vailyoo) ke siddhaant ki sthaapanaaeain keen. maarks ke saare aarthik aur raajaneetik nishkarsh inheen sthaapanaaon par aadhaarit hain.

1864 mein London mein 'antararaashtreeya majadoor sangh' ki sthaapana mein maarks ne bahut mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai. sangh ki sabhi ghoshanaaeain, neetish aur kaaryakram maarks dvaara hi taiyaar kiye jaate the. koi ek varsh tak sangh ka kaarya suchaaroo roop se chalta raha, kintu baakunin ke araajakataavaadi aandolan, fraanseesi jarman yuddh aur peris kamyoonon ke chalte 'antararaashtreeya majadoor sangh' bhang ho gaya. kintu usaki pravruti aur chetna anek deshon mein samaajavaadi aur shramik paartiyon ke astitv ke kaaran kaayam rahi.

'antararaashtreeya majadoor sangh' bhang ho jaane par maarks ne pun: lekhani uthaai. kintu nirantar asvasthata ke kaaran uske shodhakaarya mein anek baadhaaeain aain. March 14, 1883 ko maarks ke toofaani jeevan ki kahaani samaapt ho gayi. maarks ka praaya: saara jeevan bhayaanak aarthik sankaton ke beech vyateet hua. usaki chhah santaano mein teen kanyaaeain hi jeevit raheen.

pooainji

mehanatakashon ki tahareek mein ek nae toofaan ki peshabeeni karte hue maarks ne koshish ki ki apni arthashaastreeya rachanaaeain karne ki raftaar tej kar de. athaarah maah ki taakheer ke baad jab us ne apne arthashaastreeya adhyayan ka fir se aagaaj kiya to us ne is rachana ko aj nae sire se tarteeb dene ka faisala kiya. aur us ko 1859 mein prakaashit jur kritik dar politishen ekaanaami mein hisse ke roop mein na chhaapa jaaye, balki ye ek alag kitaab ho. 1862 mein us ne il kajalameen ko matala kiya ki is ka naam the kaipitl aur tahati naam raajaneetik arthavyavastha ki aalochna hoga. the kaipitl intihaai mushkil haalaat mein likhi gayi. Amreeki khaanaajangi ki vajah se maarks apni aamdani ka bada jreeya kho chuka tha. ab vo New York ke rojnaama the tribyoon ke liye naheen likh sakta tha. us ke baal bachchon ke liye intihaai mushkilon ka jmaana fir aa gaya. aisi soorat-A-haal mein agar engalaj ki taraf se mutavaatir aur begraj maali imadaad na milti to maarks kaipitl ki takameel na kar sakta. kaipitl mein kaarl maarks ka prastaav hai ki poonjeevaad ke prerit bal shram, jiska kaam avaitanik laabh aur adhishesh moolya ke param srot ke shoshan karne mein hai.


sandarbh


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