kaarkhaanon mein utpaadan ka itihaas

aarambh

praarambh mein vastueain kaareegaron ke ghar par hi bana karti theen, parantu jaise-jaise kaareegaron dvaara nirmit vastuon ka upayog badha vaise-vaise bade paimaane par nirmaanaki aavashyakta bhi badhi. saahasi vyaapaari kaareegaron ke ghar saamaan pahuainchaakar unhein aarthik sahaayata dekar saamagri banavaane lage. parantu kaareegaron tak maal pahuainchaane aur unase nirmit saamagri ikatthi karne mein bahut samay nasht hota tha; kaam baraabar achhe mel ka naheen banta tha, kaareegar bahudha samay par kaam poora naheen karte the aur kaareegaron dvaara maal dabaakar baith jaane ka bada bhaya rahata tha. isliye saahasi vyaapaari bade-bade bhavan banaavaakar vaheen kaareegaron ko bulaane lage aur isi se kaarkhaanon ki utpatti hui. ismein avagun yeh tha ki upayukt bhavan banavaane mein bahut si pooainji fains jaati thi. yadi yantron ki aavashyakta hoti thi to usamein bhi pooainji lagti thi. jab kaareegar door-door se aate the tab unke rahane ka bhi prabandh karna padta tha; fir, kaareegaron ke kaarya ke nireekshan ke liye rakhe gaye vyaktiyon ka vetan bhi dena padta tha. in sab avagunon ke hote hue bhi kaarkhaanon ki sankhya badhne lagi.

aadhunik kaal

great Britain mein kaarkhaanon ka vikaas sabse pehle hua. san 1759 E. tak vahaaain kai chhote-mote kaarkhaane khul gaye the. kaalaantar mein vaashp engine ke aavishkaar (1769 E.) ke baad kaarkhaanon ki vruddhi bahut sheegra hui. isi samay ke lagbhag England ke teen vyaktiyon (haalagraabj, aarkaraait aur kraumpatan) ne kramaanusaar soot kaatane, kapda bunane aur taaga batan ki masheenon ki upajnyaa ki aur tab se kapda bade-bade kaarkhaanon mein banane laga. 19veen shataabdi ke madhya tak anek prakaar ke kaarkhaane sthaapati ho gaye the, jaise kaagaj, pustakon, kaach, mitti ke bartanon, dhaatu ke bartanon, injanon, masheenon, jooton, lakdi ki vastuon, makkhan, dibbaabandi, paavaroti aadi ke. us shataabdi ke ant tak paavaroti, baaisikil, motarakaar, bijli ke saamaan, raasaayanik padaarth, rabar aadi ke bhi kaarkhaane khul gaye.

yadyapi Britain ne masheenon aur kaareegaron ka baahar jaana band kar rakha tha, to bhi chori se kuchh masheenein aur anek kaareegar baahar chale hi gaye aur Europe tatha amareeka mein bhi kaarkhaane banane lage. amareeka mein kaarkhaanon ki vishesh aavashyakta thi, kyonki vahaaain kaareegaron aur shramikon ki kami thi. vahaaain masheenon ke nirmaan mein vishesh vikaas hua aur anek yantr bane jo praaya: svachaalit the.

praarambhik kaarkhaane chhote hote the kyonki ek vyakti adhik pooainji naheen laga sakta tha. lakh do lakh rupae ki pooainji praaya: ek seema thi. parantu 19veen shataabdi ke ant mein saajhe ke kaarkhaane chalne lage aur companiyon ke vishay mein niyam ban jaane par seemit uttaradaayitv ki kanpaniyaaain badi sheeghrata se khulne lageen. shramikon ki kami bhi tab poori hone lagi jab shramikon ke svaasthya aur sukh ke liye kaanoon bane. pehle shramikon ko pratidin 12 ghante kaam karna padta tha. dheere-dheere yeh samay ghatkar aath ghante ya isse bhi kam ho gaya. saath hi, shramikon ke liye nyoonatam vetan, chhuttiyon, aayurvaijnyaaanik upachaar, beema aadi ke bhi niyam ban gaye. baalakon se kaarkhaanon mein kaam karaana band kar diya gaya. inmein se kai suvidhaaon ki praapti ke liye shramikon ko kashtaprad hadtaalein karni padi theen. ab vishv ke adhikaansh kaarkhaanon ke shramik sukh se rahate hain aur vishesh masheenon ke kaaran thode hi maanav shram se bahut adhik saamagri ki utpatti hoti hai, jisse upabhokta ko koi saamagri bahut mahaingi naheen padti.

inhein bhi dekhein