kaarbanik yaugik

mithen sabse saral kaarbanik yaugik

kaarban ke raasaayanik yaugikon ko kaarbanik yaugik kehte hain. prakruti mein inki sankhya 10 lakh se bhi adhik hai. jeevan paddhati mein kaarbanik yaugikon ki bahut hi mahatvapoorn bhoomika hai. inmein kaarban ke saath-saath haaidrojan bhi rahata hai. aitihaasik tatha parampara gat kaaranon se kuchh kaarban ke yaugakon ko kaarbanik yaugikon ki shreni mein naheen rakha jaata hai. inmein kaarbanadaaioksaaid, kaarban monooksaaid pramukh hain. sabhi jaiv anu jaise carbohydrate, ameeno aml, proteen, aaraenae tatha DNA kaarbanik yaugik hi hain.

anukram

hydrocarbon

kaarban aur haaidrojan ke yaugiko ko hydrocarbon kehte hain. mithen (CH4) sabse chhote anusootr ka hydrocarbon hai. ithen (C2H6), propen (C3H8) aadi iske baad aate hain, jinmein kramash: ek ek praangaar judta jaata hai. hydrocarbon teen shreniyon mein vibhaajit kiye ja sakte hain: ithen shreni, ethileen shreni aur aiseetileen shreni. ithen shreni ke hydrocarbon santrupt hain, arthaat‌ inmein haaidrojan ki maatra aur badhaai naheen ja sakti. ethileen mein do kaarbanon ke beech mein ek dvibandh (=) hai, aiseetileen mein trigun bandh (º) vaale yaugik asthaayi hain. ye aasaani se okseekrut evam hailojaneekrut ho sakte hain. haaidrokaarbanon ke bahut se vyutpann taiyaar kiye ja sakte hain, jinke vividh upayog hain. aise vyutpann kloraaid, bromaaid, aayodaaid, ailkohaal, sodiym ailkauksaaid, aimin, marakaiptan, naaitret, naaitraait, naaitraait, jalajan faasfet tatha jalajan salfet hain. asatrupt hydrocarbon adhik sakriya hota hai aur anek abhikaarakon se sanyukt ho saralata se vyutpann banaata hai. aise anek vyutpann audyogik drushti se bade mahatva ke siddh hue hain. inse anek bahumoolya vilaayak, plastic, kruminaashak oshadhiyaaain aadi praapt hui hain. haaidrokaarbanon ke okseekaran se ailkohaul ithar, keeton, aildeehaaid, vasa aml, estar aadi praapt hote hain. ailkohaul praathamik, dviteeyak aur truteeyak ho sakte hain. inke estar drav sugandhit hote hain. anek sugandhit dravya inse taiyaar kiye ja sakte hain.

kaashth ka bhanjak aasavan

lakdi ya kaashth mein do padaarth mukhyataya hote hain, selulos aur lignin. selulos ka saadhaaran sootr [(C6H10O5)n] hai. (n) ka maan is sootr mein 3,000 tak ho sakta hai. is prakaar selulos ke anu bade lambe aakaar ke hote hain aur selulos ke dhaage ban sakte hain. lignin plastic bandhak ka kaam karta hai. iski rachana agyaat hai. ismein bainjeen valaya, methauksi moolak, (-OCH3), paarshv shrrunkhalaaeain hain. lakdi ko 380°aC tak garam karein to ismein se kaafi maatra mein ek drav niklata hai, jismein aiseetik aml, methil ailkohaul, aiseeton aadi padaarth hote hain. ye padaarth selyoolos aur lignin ke vibhaajan se bante hain (dekhein, kaathakoyala). kaashth ke bhanjak aasavan se nimn yaugik pruthak‌ kiye ja sakte hain : faurmik aml, kai vasa aml, asantrupt aml, aisetaildihaaid, selil ailkohaul, methil ethil keeton, farafaraul, methilaal, daaimethil aiseetaul, benjeen, jaaileen, kyoomeen, saayameen, finaaail aadi. aiseetik aml, methil elkohaul aur aiseeton, ye teen padaarth paairolignias aml se vishesh roop se praapt kiye jaate hain.

paairolignias aml se praapt methil ailkohaul ke aakseekaran se faurmeldihaaid banta hai, jiska aavishkaar haufaman ne san 1867 i• mein kiya tha. faarmeldihaaid vyaapaarik maatra mein taiyaar karne ki vidhi parkin ne nikaali aur is padaarth ki upayogita ka mahatva uttarottar badhta hi gaya.

ailkohaleeya kinvan

sura, aasav, madya, maireya aadi maadak padaarthon ko kinvan vidhi se taiyaar karne ki pratha bahut puraani hai aur achhi suraaon ke liye vishesh beej-kinv taiyaar kiye jaate the, jinki upasthiti mein yav (jau), mahuaa, gud, angoor ke ras aadi se sharaabein taiyaar hoti theen. in kinvon ke jo sharaab banaane vaale prerakaanu hote hain, unhein saadhaaran bhaasha mein yeest kaha jaata hai.

koyala, alakatara aur usase praapt padaarth

airomaitik haaidrokaarbanon ke vyutpann

benjeen ke klorineshan se kloro vyutpann, bromeeneshan se bromo vyutpann, naaitreshan se mononaaitret, daainaaitret aur traainaaitro vyutpann tatha salfoneekaran se salfonik aml vyutpann praapt hote hain. fir inse ainileen, finol, aildihaaid, kaarboksilik aml, sailisilik aml, sailol, aispirin ityaadi anek bade upayogi padaarth praapt ho sakte hain.

ek aur prasiddh yaugik sodiym aiminosailisilet (PAS) hai, jiska upayog streptomaaiseen ke saath raajayakshma (teebi) ke upachaar mein karte hain.

benjeen valaya mein ek se adhik haaidrauksimoolak bhi sansthaapit kiye ja sakte hain aur is prakaar daaihaaidrik, traaihaaidrik feenolein taiyaar ki ja sakti hain.

kaitikol katthe mein hota hai. aaloo, seb aur bahut si tarakaariyon chaakoo se kaatne par kaali pad jaati hain. in sab mein kuchh kaitikol ki maatra hoti hai, jo hava ke sampark mein aakseekrut aur bahuleekrut hokar shyaam varn ke yaugik deta hai.

ailkelauid (Alkaloid)

paudhon mein se praapt kshaareeya pravrutti ke yaugikon ko pehle to ailkelauid kaha jaata tha. ab un sab padaarthon ko ham ailkelaaid kaheinge jinki pravrutti kshaareeya ho, jo vanaspatijgat‌ se upalabdh kiye gaye hon aur jinmein kam se kam ek naaitrojan wala vishmachakreeya valaya ho. kvineen, maurfeen, sinkoneen aadi oshadhiyaaain ailkelauid ke udaaharan hain (dekhein ailakaalauyad).

proteen, paalipeptaaid aur emino aml

vaanaspatik aur jantav jagat‌ se praapt ye upayogi padaarth hain aur bhojan ke param aavashyak ang hain. proteenon ke jal apaghatan se aiminon aml milte hain. kai aiminon aml milkar polipeptaaid (bahu peptaaid) banaate hain.

daaiaijo yaugik aur aijo ranjak

1858 E. mein Peter grees (Peter Griess) ne yeh dekha ki airomaitik aimino naaitras aml ka prabhaav usase bhinn hai jo ailifaitik aimino par saadhaaranataya dekha jaata hai. usane dekha ki ainileen naaitras aml (athva sodiym naaitraait aur haaidroklorik aml) se kriya karke ek naveen yaugik deta hai, jiska naam venjeen daaiaijoniym kloraaid hai. (dekhein daayajoyaugik tatha aijoyaugik ranjak (krutrim).

sanshleshit aushidhiyaaain

kaarbanik rasaayan ke kshetr mein sanshleshit yaugikon ka bada safal prayog aushadhiyon ke roop mein hua. vruksh aur vanaspatiyon se praapt oshadhiyaaain vastut: kaarbanik hi hain. in aushadhiyon ke sakriya avayavon ki rasaayanajnyaon ne pareeksha ki. inki raasaayanik sanrachana jaanane ke anantar unhonne inka sanshleshan kiya aur fir inke vyutpannon ki oshadhi ki drushti se pareeksha ki. ham keval kuchh aitihaasik sanshleshanon ka yahaaain ullekh kareinge.

pootinaashak' (antisepic)

1867 E. mein listar (Lister) ne feenol mein pootinaashak, ya rogaanunaashak, gun dekhe. shauchaalayon mein "finaayal' ka, jismein kolataar se praapt avayavon ka mishran hai, jaise krisol, kresilik aml, kriosot, klorojaaileenol ityaadi, aaj tak upayog kiya jaata hai. detol (Dettol) mein, jiska itna prachaar hai, klorojaaileenol, tarpiniol, elkohaul aur thoda arandi ke tel ka saabun hai. di si M ex (DCMX) naam se daaikloro-jaaileenol ka upayog 1952 E. se bahut hone laga hai. kuchh rangon ka upayog bhi chikitsa mein pootinaashakon ke roop mein hota hai, jaise jenashiym vauyalet (kristal vaayalet), briliyent green, melekaait green aadi, jo traaifeenil methen varg ke rang hain.

kaashth, selulos aadi se bane padaarthon ko yadi keetaanuon or fafooaindiyon s bachaana he, to sailisit ainilaaid (vyaapaarik naam shirlaan (Shirlan)) ka upayog karein, athva dhaatu saabunon ka upayog karein, jaise jing naiftheenet aur paarad ke yaugik, peintaakloraafeenol, daaiklorofeen [di di di M (DDDM) ya di di M (DDM): daaihaaidrauksi daaikloro-daaifenil methane] aadi

saamaanya aur sthaanik nishchetak, ya moorchhotpaadi

ithar naamak drav ka nishchetak ke roop mein pehli baar prayog hua aur isne prasav aur shalyakarm donon mein badi sahaayata di. ithar ka kvathanaank kam, arthaat‌ 35°aasein. hai. yeh iska avagun hain. 1953 E. mein traaifloro ethil vinil ithar, CF3. CH2. OCH=CH2, ko ithar se kaheen adhik shreshth paaya gaya. klorofaarm, (CHCl3), ethilkloraaid (CH3CH2Cl) aur saaiklopropen, [(CH2)3], to prasiddh hai hi.

saamaanaya nishchetana ya moorchha paida karne ki apeksha sthaanik nishchetana saadhaaran shalyakarm mein badi upayogi hain. 1884 E. mein kolar (Koller) aur frauyad (Freud) ne koken ka is drushti se prayog kiya. yeh dekha gaya ki peraaaimino benjoik aml ke vyutpann achhe sthaanik nishchetak hain. venjoken, oken (novoken), emeethoken aadi isi varg ke yaugik hain.

nidraakaari

rogi ko adhik kasht ke samay nidraakaariyon ka sevan karaaya jaata hai, jisse rogi so jaae. kloralahaaidret, [CCl3. CH(OH)2], ka upayog is kaarya mein sabse puraana hai. klorokyootol [(CH3)2 C (CCl3) OH.] ke gun bhi kloral haaidret ke samaan hi hain. sabse prasiddh nidraakaari baarvityoorik aml ke vyutpann hain (yeh aml yooriya aur mailonik aml ke sanghanan se banaaya jaata hai).

iska dvi aimil vyutpann vaarviton naam se vikhyaat hai aur ethil fenil vyutpann feenovaarviton (lyoominaal) naam se. kodeen, maurfeen aadi ailkailaayad bhi nidraakaari hain, jo afeem se nikaale jaate hain. maurfeen se peeda ki anubhooti kam ho jaati hai aur kodon shamanakaari hai.

tantrottejak

snaayuon aur mastishk ki tantrikaaon ko uttejan denevaali cheejon mein chai, kaafi aadi prasiddh hain. inmein kaifeen, jaintheen aur inse milte julate pyooreen (Purine) varg ke yaugik paae jaate hain. kola ke beejon mein kaifeen aur thiobromeen hota hai. eragot (Ergot) varg ke ailkailaayadon mein peshiyon ko uttejit karne ka gun hai. ye ailkailauid lisrgik aml (lysergic acid) ke vyutpann hain. yeh aml ab sanshleshit kar liya gaya hai. mastishk ke vikaaron ke upachaar mein isse sahaayata milti hai.

jvaranaashi aur vedanaanaashi

jvar se grast rogi ke shareer ka taap jin oshadhiyon se kam ho jaae (jvar ka kaaran chaahe door na ho), ve is varg mein aati hain. kuchh oshadhiyaaain keval vedana door karti hain. sailisilik aml, jvarahaariyon mein, sabse puraana hai. iska ek aiseetil vyutpann aispirin hai, jo shir peeda ki anubhooti door karne mein bada upayogi siddh hua hai. finaiseetin mein jvar ke taap ko kam kar dene ke achhe gun hain. finaisiteen aiseeto ainilaaid ka vyutpann hai.

salfonaimaaid aur salfon

1930 E. mein yeh dekha gaya ki prontosil (prontosil) naamak laal rang mein shaakaanu ya vaikteeriya ke maarane ke gun vidyamaan hain. baad ko dekha gaya ki ek saral yaugik salfaainilaimaaid mein bhi vaikteeriya maarane ke gun hain. tab se is varg ke saikadon yaugikon aur vyutpannon ki is drushti se pareeksha ki gayi. ye sab yaugik salfonaimaaid varg ke kahe jaate hain.

efeedrin (ephedrine), [C6H5. CH(OH). CH(NHCH3). CH3] aur aidrinailin (adrenaline), [(OH)2 C6H4-CH (OH) CH2. NH. CH3], ka upayog bhi tantrottejana ke salfa piridin, (M & B 693) naam se vikhyaat hai. pirimidin vyutpann bhi (jaise salfadaaiaijeen) bade gunakaari siddh hue hain.

maleriyaanaashi

kuchh oshadhiyaaain maleriya jvar door karne mein badi gunakaari siddh hui hain. sinkona ki chhaal se praapt kvineen ka naam to vikhyaat hai hi, iska prachaar ab bhi bahut hai. 1920 E se is baat ka prayatn Germany mein hota raha ki maleriya jvar ko door karne ki aur bhi oshadhiyaaain praapt ki jaaeain. falat: pemaakvin naamak yaugik is baat mein safal paaya gaya (1924 E.). yeh pratham sanshleshit maleriyaanaashi tha. 1930 E. mein etreebinsh (mepaakin aur kvinaakrin) bhi achhe paae gaye. pemaakvin kvinolin varg ka yaugik hai aur mepaakrin peela ekridin rang hai.

dviteeya mahaayuddh mein jin maleriyaanaashiyon par amareeka mein vishesh anusandhaan hue, unamein primaakvin aur klorokvin vishesh mahatva ke paae gaye. pailoodrin (Paludrine) progvaanil haaidrokloraaid ka vyaapaari naam hai, yeh bhi maleriya rog mein kaam aata hai.

entibaayotik

1928 E. mein sar ailegjeindar fleming (A.Fleming) ne dekha ki kuchh vaikteeriya vishesh fafooaindiyon ki vidyamaanata mein marne lagte hain. isi parampara mein penisilin ka aavishkaar hua. 1946 E. mein penisilin ke benjil vyutpann (penisilin-g) ka sanshleshan bhi kar liya gaya. iski raasaayanik sanrachana nimn hai:

penisilin-ji mein, (R=C6H5 CH2), benjil moolak hai. doosare moolak bhi pratisthaapit kiye ja sakte hain. bhoomi, ya mitti ke bheetar paae jaanevaale anek sookshm jeevaanuon ka pareekshan kiya gaya. sabse pehli baar 1939 E. mein dyoobaus (Dubos) ko safalta mili aur usane vaisils brevis (Bacillus brevis) naamak jeevaanu mein se graimisidin (Gramicidin) naamak padaarth praapt kiya jo paulipeptaaidon ka mishran tha. 1944 E. mein streptomaaiseej grisiys (Streptomyces griseus) naam jeevaanu ka pata chala, jo raajayakshma ke prati bhi kriyaasheel tha. 1947 E. mein venijveela mein ek jeevaanu ka pata chala, jisse kloraifenikol (Chloramphenicol) naak yaugik praapt kiya gaya. is prakaar aise eeintibaayotik dravya ka pata chala jo anek rogon mein akele hi ka aa sakta tha. in sab adhyayanon ke falasvaroop kloromaaisetin ka sanshleshan kiya gaya. professor duggar (Duggar) ne us jeevaanu ka pata chalaaya jo ek sunahare rang ka padaarth bhi deta tha aur jiska naam streptomaaiseej oriofesiyns (Streptomyces aureofaciens) tha. is jeevaanu se jo padaarth mila use aariomaaiseen (Aureomycin) naam se prayog mein laaya gaya. 1949 E. mein neomaaiseen (Neomycin) ki khoj vaiksamain aur lekeveliyr (Waksman and Lechevalier) ne ki. teraamaaiseen (Terramycin) ka aavishkaar baad mein fijr samudaaya ki prayogashaalaaon mein hua. is prakaar penisilin yag ka aarambh hua.

inhein bhi dekhein