kaapeesa praant

afgaanistaan mein kaapeesa praant (laal rang mein)
kaapeesa praant mein ek praathamik vidyaalaya
sardiyon mein kaapeesa praant mein gasht lagte ameriki aur afgaan sainik

kaapeesa (pashto: کaaاaaپaaيaaسaaا) afgaanistaan ke 34 praanton mein se ek hai.[1] yeh desh ke uttar-poorvi kshetr mein sthit hai. kaapeesa ki rajdhani Mehmood-A-raaki (مaaحaaمaaوaaد رaaاaaقaaی) naamak shahar hai. is praant ki aabaadi 4,06,200 hai aur iska kshetrafal 1,842 varg kimi hai.[2]

anukram

itihaas

kaapeesa ka sab se pehla zikr sanskrut ke prasiddh vaiyaakaran paanini ki likhaaiyon mein paaainchavi shataabdi isaapoorv se milta hai. unhonne kaapeeshi naamak nagar ki charcha ki aur kaha ki yeh kaapeesa raajya ki rajdhani hai.[3] unhonne ek kaapeeshayaan naamak madira ka bhi ullekh kiya jo kaapeesa se aati thi.[4][5] is kshetr ke hind-yavan (yoonaani) raajyon ke apolodotas pratham (Αaaπaaοaaλaaλaaόaaδaaοaaτaaοaaς) aur yookraateedi (Εaaυaaκaaρaaαaaτaaίaaδaaηaaς) raajaaon ke sikkon par bhi kaapeesa ka "kaavishiye" naam se ullekh paaya gaya hai.[6] mahaabhaarat mein is nagar mein das (gulaam) rakhane ki pratha ka bhi varnan aata hai. yahaaain ke angoor (kaapeeshayaani draaksh) aur madira (kaapeeshayaani madhu) ka varnan kai praacheen bhaarateeya granthon mein milta hai.[7] yahaaain par puraatan vastuon ki khoj mein kai sheeshe ke bane madira ke baasan aur machhali ke roop mein bane pyaale mile hain.[8]

log

yahaaain ke lagbhag 4 lakh logon mein se 80% taajik hain, jo ek prakaar ki faarasi bhaasha bolte hain. 8% pashto bolne vaale pashtoon (pathaan) log hain. 10% paashaai bhaasha bolne vaale log hain. hajaara aur nooristaani samudaaya ke log bhi yahaaain basate hain.

vyavasaaya aur arthavyavastha

kaapeesa ke adhiktar log krushi mein jute hue hain. kesar yahaaain ki ek pramukh paidaavaar hai. har nagar-basti mein ek saaptaahik mela lagta hai jismein vyaapaar bhi hota hai aur saamajik mel-milaap bhi. is praant mein al-beruni vishvidyaalaya (پaaوaaهaaنaaتaaوaaن اaaلaaبaaیaaرaaوaaنaaی, pohantoon alabirooni) bhi sthit hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. "CIA - The World Factbook - Afghanistan" (angreji mein). si aai A. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/af.html. abhigman tithi: 27 December 2011.
  2. AREU "The Afghan Research Newsletter" Issue 25. April/May 2010
  3. ashtaadhyaayi, sootr 4:2.99
  4. ashtaadhyaayi, sootr 4:2.29
  5. Dr S. Chattopadhyaya 1974: 58; India as Known to Panini, 1953, p 71, Dr V. S. Aggarwala; Foreign Elements in Ancient Indian Society, 2nd Century BC to 7th Century AD, 1979, p 86, Dr Uma Prasad Thapliyal.
  6. Notes on Indian coins and Seals, Part IV, E. J. Rapson in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 1905, p 784, (Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland).
  7. Jaya Goswami. "Cultural history of ancient India: a socio-economic and religio-cultural survey of Kapiśaa and Gandhāara". Agam Kala Prakashan, 1979. http://books.google.com/books?id=So4BAAAAMAAJ.
  8. A Grammatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic), 1953, p 118, Dr Peggy Melcher, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala, Surya Kanta, Jacob Wackernagel, Arthur Anthony Macdonell.