kaansa

kaanse ki praacheen dhalaai.

kaansa ya kaansya, kisi taanbe ya taamr-mishrit dhaatu mishran ko kaha jaata hai, praay: jaste ke sang, parantu kai baar faasaforas, mainganeej, alyuminiym ya silikaun aadi ke sang bhi hote hain. (dekhein adholikhit saarani.) yeh puraavastuon mein mahatvapoorn tha, jisne us yug ko kaansya yug naam diya. ise angrejee mein bronj kehte hain, jo ki faarasi mool ka shabd hai, jiska arth peetal hai.[1]

kaaainsa (sanskrut kaansya) sanskrut koshon ke anusaar shvet taaainbe athva ghanta banaane ki dhaatu ko kehte hain. vishuddh taaainba laal hota hai; usamein raaainga milaane se safedi aati hai. isliye taaainbe aur raaainge ki mishradhaatu ko kaaainsa ya kaansya kehte hain. saadhaaran bolachaal mein kabhee–kabhi peetal ko bhi kaaainsa kah dete hain, ja taaainbe tatha jaste ki mishradhaatu hai aur peela hota hai. taaainbe aur raaainge ki mishradhaatu ko 'fool' bhi kehte hain. is lekh mein kaaainsa se abhipraaya taaainbe aur raaainge ki mishradhaatu se hai. angreji mein ise brauj (bronze) kehte hain.

kaaainsa, taaainbe ki apeksha adhik kada hota hai aur kam taap par pighlata hai. isliye kaaainsa suvidhaapoorvak dhaala ja sakta hai. 16 bhaag taaainbe aur 1 bhaag raaainge ki mishradhaatu bahut kadi naheen hoti. ise naram gan-metal (gun-metal) kehte hain. raaainge ka anupaat duguna kar dene se kada gan-metal banta hai. 7 bhaag taaainba aur 1 bhaag raaainga rahane par mishradhaatu kadi, bhangur aur susvar hoti hai. ghanta banaane ke liye raaainge ka anupaat aur bhi badha diya jaata hai; saadhaaranat: 3 se 5 bhaag tak taaainbe aur 1 bhaag raaainge ki mishradhaatu is kaam mein liye prayukt hoti hai. darpan banaane ke liye lagbhag 2 bhaag taaainba aur ek bhaag raaainge ka upayog hota tha, parantu ab to chaaaindi ki kalaivaale kaaainch ke darpanon ke aage iska prachalan mit gaya hai. masheenon ke dhureedharon (bearings) ke liye kaaainse ka bahut prayog hota hai, kyonki gharshan (friction) kam hota hai, parantu dhaatu ko adhik kadi kar dene ke uddeshya se usamein kuchh anya dhaatueain bhi mila di jaati hain. udaaharanat:, 24 athva adhik bhaag raaainga, 4 bhaag taaainba aur 8 bhaag aintimni prasiddh 'baibit' metal hai jiska naam aavishkaarak aaijk (Issac Babiitt) par pada hai. iska dhureedharon ke liye bahut prayog hota hai. kaaainse mein lagbhag 1 pratishat faasforas mila dene se mishradhaatu adhik kadi aur chimdi ho jaati hai. aisi mishradhaatu ko fausfr brauj kehte hain. taaainbe aar ailyuminiym ki mishradhaatu ko ailyuminiym braunyaj kehte hain. yeh dhaatu bahut pusht hoti hai aur hava ya paani mein iska apaksharan naheen hota.

anukram

itihaas

Chinese cheeni aalekh ka draigan bana hua pyaala (722 BC-481 BC)
ivar 7veen sadi ke Iran se


gun

taanba evam uske mishranon ka vargeekaran[2]

jaati pradhaan mishran avayav UNS sankhya
taanbe ke mishran peetal jasta (Zn) C1xxxx–C4xxxx,C66400–C69800
fausfar bronjej raanga (Sn) C5xxxx
alyuminiym bronjej alyuminiym (Al) C60600–C64200
silikaun bronjej silikaun (Si) C64700–C66100
taanba nikal, nikal silver nikal (Ni) C7xxxx


dekhein

  • Aluminum bronze
  • Brass, a subset of the copper alloys in which zinc is the principal additive
  • Bronze medal
  • Bronze sculpture, the use of bronze for artistic representations
  • Bronzing, a process by which an object is coated in bronze
  • Cupronickel, an alloy used on ships
  • Florentine bronze, an alloy which is not standardised (in proportions) worldwide
  • Gunmetal, various copper-zinc-tin alloys, some including phosphorus
  • Lost-wax casting
  • Luristan bronze - Bronze Age artifacts recovered from areas of present day Iran
  • Phosphor bronze, with properties useful in making corrosion-resistant springs
  • Seagram Building, with a record 3.2 million pounds of bronze used in its façaade
  • Speculum metal, a high-tin bronze

sandarbh

Wikisource-logo.svg
vikisors mein is lekh se sambandhit, mool paathya upalabdh hai:
  1. Online Etymological Dictionary http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=bronze
  2. Machinery's Handbook, Industrial Press Inc, New York, ISBN 0-8311-2492-X, Edition 24, page 501

baahya kadiyaan