kaandhaar

The final phase of the battle of Kandahar on the side of the Murghan mountain

kaandhaar ya kandahaar afgaanistaan ka ek shahar hai.[1] yeh Afghanistan ka teesara pramukh aitihaasik nagar evam kandahaar praant ki rajdhani bhi hai. iski sthiti 31 degree 27mi u.a. se 64 degree 43mi poo.de. par, Kabul se lagbhag 280 meal dakshin-pashchim aur 3,462 foot ki ooainchaai par hai. yeh nagar taranaak evam argndaab nadiyon ke upajaaoo maidaan ke madhya mein sthit hai jahaaain naharon dvaara sinchaai hoti hai, parantu iske uttar ka bhaag ujaad hai. sameep ke nae dhang se sinchit maidaanon mein fal, gehooain, jau, daalein, majeeth, heeng, tanbaakoo aadi lagaai jaati hain. kandahaar se nae chaman tak relamaarg hai aur vahaaain tak Pakistan ki rel jaati hai. praacheen kandahaar nagar teen meal mein basa hai jiske chaaron taraf 24 foot chaudi, 10 foot gahari khaai evam 27 foot ooainchi deevaar hai. is shahar ke chhah darvaaje hain jinmein se do poorab, do pashchim, ek uttar tatha ek dakshin mein hai. mukhya sadkein 40 foot se adhik chaudi hain. kandahaar chaar spasht bhaagon mein vibhkt hai jinmein alag-alag jaati (kabeele) ke log rahate hain. inmein chaar-durraani, ghiljaai, paarsivn aur kaakaar-prasiddh hain.

yahaaain varsha keval jaade mein bahut kam maatra mein hoti hai. garmi adhik padti hai. yeh sthaan falon ke liye prasiddh hai. Afghanistan ka yeh ek pradhaan vyaapaarik kendra hai. yahaaain se Bhaarat ko fal niryaat hote hain. yahaaain ke dhani vyaapaari hindu hain. nagar mein lagbhag 200 masjidein hain. darshaneeya sthal hain ahamadashaah ka makabara aur ek masjid jismein muhammad saahab ka kurta rakha hai.

anukram

itihaas

kandhaar ka itihaas uthal-puthal se bhara hua hai. paaainchaveen shataabdi E. poo. mein yeh faaras ke saamraajya ka bhaag tha. lagbhag 326 E. poo. mein makadooniya ke raaja sikndar ne Bhaarat par aakraman karte samay ise jeeta aur uske marne par yeh uske senaapati selyookas ke adhikaar mein aaya. kuchh varsh ke baad selyookas ne ise chandragupt maurya ko saunp diya. yeh ashok ke saamraajya ka ek bhaag tha. usaka ek shilaalekh haal mein is nagar ke nikat se mila hai. maurya vansh ke patan par yeh baiktriya, paarthiya, kushaan tatha shak raajaaon ke antargat raha. dashavi shataabdi mein yeh afgaanon ke kbje mein aa gaya aur muslim raajya ban gaya. gyaarahaveen shataabdi mein sultaan Mehmood, terahaveen shataabdi mein changej khaaain tatha chaudahaveen shataabdi mein taimoor ne is par adhikaar kar liya.

1507 E. mein ise baabar ne jeet liya aur 1625 E. tak Delhi ke mugl baadshah ke kbje mein raha. 1625 E. mein faaras ke shaah Abbas ne is par dakhl kar liya. shaahajahaaain aur aurangajeb dvaara is par dubaara adhikaar karne ke saare prayaas vifal hue. kandhaar thode samay (1708-37 E.) ko chhodkar 1747 E. mein naadirshaah ki mrutyu ke samay tak faaras ke kbje mein raha. 1747 E. mein ahamadashaah abdaali ne afgaanistaan ke saath is par bhi adhikaar kar liya. kintu uske pautr jamaanashaah ki mrutyu ke baad kuchh samay ke liye kandhaar Kabul se alag ho gaya. 1839 E. mein british bhaarateeya sarkaar ne shaahashuja ki or se yuddh karte hue is par dakhl kar liya aur 1842 E. tak apne kbje mein rakha. british sena ne 1879 E. mein is par fir se dakhl kar liya, kintu 1881 E. mein khaali kar dena pada. tab se yeh afgaanistaan raajya ka ek bhaag hai.

kandahaar pradesh

Afghanistan ka ek praant hai. iske uttar mein taaimaani tatha Kabul, poorv tatha dakshin mein baloochistaan aur pashchim mein faraah hai. yadi Kabul se faraah tak ek seedhi rekha mila di jaae to yeh pradesh do spasht bhaagon mein vibhkt ho jaata hai. is rekha ke uttar ka bhaag pahaadi hai. dharaataleeya ooainchaai 4,000 foot se 10,000 foot tak hai. dakshini bhaag neecha hai. Afghanistan ka ekamaatr maidaan haraut, faraah evam helamand nadi dvaara nirmit hai. kandahaar nagar ke dakshin tatha pashchim mein kramash: registaan evam Afghan-seestaan ki marubhoomi hai. helamand registaani nadi hai jo uttar ke ooainche pahaadon se nikalkar seestaan ki marubhoomi mein samaapt ho jaati hai. praacheen kaal mein Kabul ke neeche ke desh evam kandahaar ko gaandhaar desh kehte the. dhrutaraashtr ki patni gaandhaari yaheen ki theen. yeh samraat ashok ke seemaant raajyon mein tha. 11veen sadi mein Mehmood gajnavi ne kandahaar ko Afghaanon se chheen liya tha aur 200 varshon tak uske vanshajon ka yahaaain saamraajya raha. tadanantar yeh changekh khaaain, taimoor lang, baabar aur uske paravarti mugal samraaton (1625 E. tak), Iran ke shaah Abbas pratham, naadir shaah, ahamadashaah durraani tatha angreji saamraajya ka ang bana raha. san 1747 E. mein ahamadashaah durraani ne Afghan saamraajya ki neenv rakhi aur aadhunik sthal par kandahaar nagar ki, rajdhani ke roop mein, sthaapana ki.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh