kaamashaastr

maanav jeevan ke lakshyabhoot chaar purushaarthon mein "kaam" anyatam purushaarth maana jaata hai. sanskrut bhaasha mein usase sambaddh vishaal saahitya vidyamaan hai.

anukram

kaamashaastr ka itihaas

kaamashaastr ka aadhaarapeeth hai - maharshi vaatsyaayanarachit kaamasootr. sootr shaili mein nibddh, vaatsyaayan ka yeh mahaneeya granth vishay ki vyaapakata aur shaili ki praanjalata mein apni samata naheen rakhata. maharshi vaatsyaayan is shaastr mein pratishthaata hi maane ja sakte hain, udbhaavak naheen, kyonki unase bahut pehle is shaastr ka udbhav ho chuka tha.

kaamashaastr ke itihaas ko ham teen kaalavibhaagon mein baaaint sakte hain - poorvavaatsyaayan kaal, vaatsyaan kaal tatha pashchaatadvaatsyaayan kaal (vaatsyaayan ke baad ka samay).

poorvavaatsyaayan kaal

kaha jaata hai, prajaapati ne ek lakh adhyaayon mein ek vishaal granth ka pranayan kar kaamashaastr ka aanrabh kiya, parantu kaalaantar mein maanavon ke kalyaan ke liye iske sankshep prastut kiye gaye. pauraanik panrapara ke anusaar mahaadev ki ichha se "nandi" ne ek sahasr adhyaayon mein iska saar ansh taiyaar kiya jise aur bhi upayogi banaane ke liye uddaalak muni ke putr shvetaketu ne paaainch sau adhyaayon mein use sankshipt banaaya. iske annatar paanchaal baabhavya ne truteeyaansh mein iski aur bhi sankshipt kiya—adedh sau adhyaayon tatha saat adhikranon mein, kaalaantar mein saat mahaneeya aachaaryon ne pratyek adhikran ke oopar saat svatantr granthon ka nirmaan kiya—

  • (1) chaaraayan ne granth banaaya saadhaaran adhikran par,
  • (2) suvarnanaabh ne saanprayogik par,
  • (3) ghotakamukh ne kanya sanprayuktak par,
  • (4) gonardeeya ne bhaaryaadhikaarik par,
  • (5) gonikaaputr ne paaradaarik par,
  • (6) dattak ne vaishik par tatha
  • (7) kuchumaar ne aupanishdik par.

is pruthak rachana ka fal shaastr ke prachaar ke liye haanikaarak siddh hua aur kramash: yeh uchhinn hone laga. falat: vaatsyaayan ne in saaton adhikran granrthon ka saaraansh ekatr prastut kiya aur is vishisht prayaas ka parint fal vaatsyaayan kaamasootr hua. is prakaar vartamaan kaamasootr ki shataabdiyon ke saahityik sadudyogon ka paryavasaan samajhna chaahiye, yadyapi paranparaya ghoshit kaamashaastreeya granthon ke is anant pranayan ke vistaar ko sveekaar karna kathin hai.

poorvavaatsyaayan kaal ke aachaaryon ki rachanaaon ka vishesh pata naheen chalta. braabhravya ke mat ka nirdesh bade aadar ke saath vaatsyaayan ne apne granth mein kiya hai. ghotakamukh aur gonardeeya ke mat kaamashaastr aur arthashaastr mein ullikhit milte hai. keval dattak aur kuchimaar ke granthon ke astitv ka parichay hamein bhali bhaaainti upalabdh hai. aachaarya dattak ki vichitr jeevanakatha kaamasootr ki jayamangala teeka mein hai. kuchimaar rachit tantr ke poornat: upalabdh na hone par bhi ham uske vishay se paricht hain. is tantr mein kaamopayogi aushadhon ka varnan hai jiska sambandh brunhan, lepan, vashya aadi kriyaaon se hai. "kuchirmaaratantr" ka hastalekh Madras se upalabdh hua hai jise granthakaar "upanishd" ka naam deta hai aur jis kaaran usamein pratipaadit adhikran "aupanishdik" naam se prakhyaat hua.

vaatsyaayan kaal (kaamasootr)

vaatsyaayan ka yeh granth sootraatmak hai. yeh saat adhikranon, 36 adhyaayon tatha 64 prakaranon mein vibhkt hai. ismein chitrit bhaarateeya sabhyata ke oopar gupt yug ki gahari chhaap hai, us yug ka shishtasabhya vyakti "naagrik" ke naam se yahaaain diya gaya hai ki kaamasootr bhaarateeya samaajashaastr ka ek maanya grantharatn ban gaya hai. granth ke pranayan ka uddeshya hai lokayaatra ka nirvaan, na ki raag ki abhivddhi. is taatparya ki siddhi ke liye vaatsyaayan ne ugr samaadhi tatha brahmacharya ka paalan kar is granth ki rachana ki—

tadetad brahmacharyen paren ch samaadhina.
vihitan lokayaavarthan na raagaarthonऽsya sanvidhi:.. -- (kaamasootr, saptam adhikran, shlok 57)

granth saat adhikranon mein vibhkt hai. pratham adhikran (saadhaaran) mein shaastr ka samuddesh tatha naagrik ki jeevanayaatra ka rochak varnan hai. dviteeya adhikran (saanprayogik) ratishaastr ka vistrut vivran prastut karta hai. poore granth mein yeh sarvaadhik mahatvashaali khand hai jiske das adhyaayon mein ratikreeda, aalingan, chunban aadi kaamakriyaaon ka vyaapak aur vistrut pratipaadan he. truteeya adhikran (kaanyaasanprayuktak) mein kanya ka varan pradhaan vishay hai jisse sambaddh vivaah ka bhi upaadeya varnan yahaaain kiya gaya hai. chaturth adhikran (bhaaryaadhikaarik) mein bhaarya ka kartavya, sapatni ke saath usaka vyavahaar tatha raajaaon ke ant:pur ke vishisht vyavahaar kramash: varnit hain. pancham adhikran (paaradaarik) paradaara ko vash mein laane ka vishd varnan karta hai jismein dooti ke kaaryon ka ek sarvaangapoorn chitr hamein yahaaain upalabdh hota hai. shashth adhiktaran (vaishik) mein veshyaaon, ke aacharan, kriyaakalaap, dhanikon ko vash mein karne ke hathakande aadi varnit hain. saptam adhikran (aupanishdik) ka vishay vaidyak shaastr se sambaddh hai. yahaaain un aushadhon ka varnan hai jinka prayog aur sevan karne se shareer ke donon vastuon ki, shobha aur shakti ki, vishesh abhivruddhi hoti hai. is upaayon ke vaidyak shaastr mein "brushyayog" kaha gaya hai.

rachana ki drushti se kaamasootr kautilya ke "arthashaastr" ke samaan hai—aachust, gambhir, alpakaaya hone par bhi vipul arth se mandit. donon ki shaili samaan hi hai — sootraatmak; rachana ke kaal mein bhale hi antar hai, arthashaastr mauryakaal ka aur kaamoosootr saatavaahanakaal athva guptakaal ka hai.

kaamasootr ke oopar teen teekaaeain prasiddh hain-

  • (1) jayamangala praneta ka naam yathaarthat: yashodhar hai jinhonne veesaladev (1243-61) ke raajyakaal mein iska nirmaan kiya.
  • (2) kandarpachoodaamani baghelavanshi raaja raamachandr ke putr veerasinhadev rachit padyabaddh teeka (rachanaakaal san. 1633; 1577 E.).
  • (3) kaamasootravyaakhya — bhaaskar narasinh naamak kaasheesth vidvaan dvaara 1788 E. mein nirmit teeka. inmein pratham donon prakaashit aur prasiddh hain, parantu antim teeka abhi tak aprakaashit hai.

kaamasootr ke oopar hue prakaashit samaalochanaatmak granth nimn hain -

  • kaamasootr kaaleen samaaj evam sanskruti :- yeh granth dau॰ sankarshan tripaathi dvaara virchit evam chaukhamba vidyaabhavan, Varanasi se prakaashit hai.
  • kaamasootr parisheelan :- yeh granth aachaarya vaachaspati gairola virchit dvaara hai.
  • kaamasootr ka samaajashaastreeya adhyayan :- yeh granth pan0 devadatt shaastri dvaara virchit hai.

pashchaadvaatsyaayan kaal

madhyayug ke lekhakon ne kaamashaastr ke vishay mein anek granthon ka pranayan kiya. inka mool aashray vaatsyaayan ka hi grantharatn hai aur ratikreeda ke vishay mein naveen tathya vishesh roop se nivisht kiye gaye hain. aise granthakaaron mein katipya ki rachanaaeain khyaatipraapt hain —

anya prakaashit kaamashaastreeya granth

  • (k) naagarasarvasv padmashreejnyaaan krut:- kalaamarmajnya braahman vidvaan vaasudev se sanprerit hokar bauddhabhikshu padmashreejnyaaan is granth ka pranayan kiya tha. yeh granth 313 shlokon evam 38 parichhedon mein nibddh hai. yeh granth Damodar gupt ke "kuttaneemat" ka nirdesh karta hai aur "naatakalakshanaratnakosh" evam "shaarङagadharapaddhati" mein svayannirdisht hai. isliye inka samay 10veen shataabdi ka ant mein sveekrut hai.
  • (kh) annangarang kalyaanamall krut:- muslim shaasak lodeevanshaavatansh ahamadakhaan ke putr laadakhaan ke kutoohalaarth bhoopamuni ke roop mein prasiddh kalaavidgdh kalyaanamall ne is granth ka pranayan kiya tha. yeh granth 420 shlokon evam 10 sthalaroop adhyaayon mein nibddh hai.
  • (g) ratirhasya kokkok krut :- yeh granth kaamasootr ke pashchaat doosra khyaatilbdh granth hai. parampara kokkok ko Kashmiri sveekaarati hai. kaamasootr ke saanprayogik, kanyaasanpraruktak, bhaaryaadhikaarik, paaradaarik evam aupanishdik adhikranon ke aadhaar par paaribhdr ke pautr tatha tejok ke putr kokkok dvaara rachit yeh granth 555 shlokon evam 15 parichhedon mein nibddh hai. inke samay ke baare mein itna hi kaha ja sakta hai ki kokkok 7veen se 10veen shataabdi ke madhya hue the. yeh kruti janamaanas mein itni prasiddh hui sarvasaadhaaran kaamashaastr ke paryaaya ke roop mein "kokashaastr" naam prakhyaat ho gaya.
  • (gh) panchasaayak kavishekhar jyotireeshvar krut :- mithilaanaresh harisinhadev ke sabhaapandit kavishekhar jyotireeshvar ne praacheen kaamashaastreeya granthon ke aadhaar grahanakar is granth ka pranayan kiya. 396 shlokon evam 7 saayakaroop adhyaayon mein nibddh yeh granth aalochakon mein paryaapt lokapriya raha hai. aachaarya jyotireeshvar ka samay chaturdash shatak ke poorvaardh mein sveekrut hai.
  • (d) ratimanjari jayadev krut :- apne laghukaaya roop mein nirmit yeh granth aalochakon mein paryaapt lokapriya raha hai. ratimanjareekaar jayadev, geetagovindakaar jayadev se poornat: bhinn hain. yeh granth dau॰ sankarshan tripaathi dvaara hindi bhaashya sahit chaukhanba vidyaabhavan, Varanasi se prakaashit hai.
  • (ch) smaradeepika meenanaath krut :- 216 shlokon mein nibddh yeh granth hindi anuvaad sahit chaukhanba sanskrut series aafis, Varanasi se prakaashit hai.
  • (chh) ratikllolini saamaraaj Dixit krut :- daakshinaatya bindupurandarakuleen braahman parivaar mein utpann evam bundelakhandanaresh shreemadaanandaraaya ke sabhaapandit aachaarya saamaraaj Dixit dvaara 193 shlokon mein nibddh is granth ka pranayan samvat 1738 arthaat 1681 i0 mein hua tha. yeh granth hindi anuvaad sahit chaukhanba sanskrut series aafis, Varanasi se prakaashit hai.
  • (j) paurooravasamanasijsootr raajarshi pururava krut :-yeh granth hindi anuvaad sahit chaukhanba sanskrut series aafis, Varanasi se prakaashit hai.
  • (jh) kaadambarasveekaranasootr raajarshi pururava krut :-yeh granth hindi anuvaad sahit chaukhanba sanskrut series aafis, Varanasi se prakaashit hai.
  • (t) shrungaaradeepika ya shrungaararasaprabandhadeepika harihr krut :- 294 shlokon evam 4 parichhedon mein nibddh yeh granth hindi anuvaad sahit chaukhanba sanskrut series aafis, Varanasi se prakaashit hai.
  • (th) ratirtnadeepika praudhadevaraaya krut :- vijyanagar ke mahaaraaja shri immaadi praudhadevaraaya (1422-48 E.) praneet 476 shlokon evam 7 adhyaayon mein nibddh yeh granth hindi anuvaad sahit chaukhanba sanskrut series aafis, Varanasi se prakaashit hai. shri immaadi praudhadevaraaya ka samay panchadash shatak ke poorvaardh mein sveekrut hai.
  • (d) kelikutoohalam pan0 mathuraaprasaad Dixit krut :- aadhunik vidvaan pan0 mathuraaprasaad Dixit dvaara 948 shlokon evam 16 tarangaroop adhyaayon mein nibddh yeh granth hindi anuvaad sahit krushnadaas academy, Varanasi se prakaashit hai.

in bahush: prakaashit granthon ke atirikt kaamashaastr ki anek aprakaashit rachanaaeain upalabdh hain -

  • tanjor ke raaja shaahaji (1664-1710) ki shrungaaramanjari;
  • nityaanandanaath praneet kaamakautukam,
  • ratinaath chakravartin praneet kaamakaumudi,
  • janaardanavyaas praneet kaamaprabodh,
  • keshav praneet kaamapraabhrit,
  • kumbhakarnamaheendr (raana kumbha) praneet kaamaraajaratisaar,
  • varadaarya praneet kaamaanand,
  • bukk sharma praneet kaamineekalaakolaahal,
  • sabalasinh praneet kaamollaas,
  • anant ki kaamasamooh,
  • maadhavasinhadev praneet kaamoddeepanakaumudi,
  • vidyaadhar praneet kelirhasya,
  • kaamaraaj praneet madanodayasaarasangrah,
  • durlabhakavi praneet mohanaamrut,
  • krushnadaasavipr praneet yonimanjari,
  • harihrachandrasoonu praneet ratidrpan,
  • maadhavadevanarendr praneet ratisaar,
  • aachaarya jagaddhar praneet rasiksarvasv, aadi.

in granthon ki rachana se is shaastr ki vyaapakata aur lokapriyta ka pata chalta hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain