kaalidaas ka kaavya saundarya

kaalidaas apni vishay-vastu desh ki saanskrutik viraasat se lete hain aur use ve apne uddeshya ki praapti ke anuroop dhaal dete hain. udaaharanaarth, abhigyaan shaakuntal ki katha mein shakuntala chatur, saansaarik yuva naari hai aur dushyant svaarthi premi hai. ismein kavi tapovan ki kanya mein premabhaavana ke pratham prasfutan se lekar viyog, kuntha aadi ki avasthaaon mein se hokar use usaki samagrata tak dikhaana chaahata hai. unheen ke shabdon mein naatak mein jeevan ki vividhta honi chaahiye aur usamein vibhinn ruchiyon ke vyaktiyon ke liye saundarya aur maadhurya hona chaahiye.

traigunyodbhavam atr lok-charitm naanrutam drushyate.
naatyam bhinn-rucher janasya bahudhaapi ekam samaaraadhanam..

kaalidaas ke jeevan ke baare mein hamein vishesh jaankaari naheen hai. unke naam ke baare mein anek kivdantiyaan prachalit hain jinka koi aitihaasik moolya naheen hai. unki krutiyon se yeh vidit hota hai ki ve aise yug mein rahe jismein vaibhav aur sukh-suvidhaaen theen. sangeet tatha nrutya aur chitr-kala se unhein vishesh prem tha. tatkaaleen gyaan-vigyaan, vidhi aur darshan-tantr tatha sanskaaron ka unhein vishesh gyaan tha.

unhonne Bhaarat ki vyaapak yaatraaen keen aur ve himaalaya se kanyaakumaari tak desh ki bhaugolik sthiti se poornat: parichit prateet hote hain. himaalaya ke anek chitraankan jaise vivran aur kesar ki kyaariyon ke chitran (jo Kashmir mein paida hoti hai) aise hain jaise unase unka bahut nikat ka parichay hai.

jo baat yeh mahaan kalaakaar apni lekhini ke sparsh maatr se kah jaata hai, anya apne vishd varnan ke uparaant bhi naheen kah paate. kam shabdon mein adhik bhaav prakat kar dene aur kathan ki svaabhaavikta ke liye kaalidaas prasiddh hain. unki uktiyon mein dhvani aur arth ka taadaatmaya milta hai. unke shabd-chitr saundaryamaya aur sarvaangeen sampoorn hain, jaise – ek poorn gatimaan raajasi rath (vikramorvasheeya, 1.4), daudte hue mrug-shaavak (abhigyaan-shaakuntal, 1.7), urvashi ka foot-footakar aansoo bahaana (vikramorvasheeya, chhand 15), chalaayamaan kalpavruksh ki bhaanti antariksh mein naarad ka prakat hona (vikramorvasheeya, chhand 19). upama aur roopakon ke prayog mein ve sarvopari hain.

sarasijmanuviddhan shaivaalenaapi ramyan
malinmapi himaanshorlakshm lakshmeen tanoti.
iyamidhkamanojnyaa valkalenaapi tanvi
kimih madhuraanaan mandanan naakruteenaam..

'kamal yadyapi shivaal mein lipta hai, fir bhi sundar hai. chandrama ka kalank, yadyapi kaala hai, kintu usaki sundarata badhaata hai. ye jo sukumaar kanya hai, isne yadyapi valkal-vastr dhaaran kiye hue hain tathaapi vah aur sundar dikhaai de rahi hai. kyonki sundar roopon ko kya sushobhit naheen kar sakta ?'

kaalidaas ki rachanaaon mein seedhi upadeshaatmak shaili naheen hai apitu preetama patni ke vinmr nivedan sa manuhaar hai. mammat kehte hain : 'kaantaasammittayopadeshaayuje.' uchch aadarshon ke kalaatmak prastuteekaran se kalaakaar hamein unhein apnaane ko vivsh karta hai. hamaare samaksh jo paatr aate hain ham unheen ke anuroop jeevan mein aacharan karne lagte hain aur isse hamein vyaapak roop mein maanavata ko samajhne mein sahaayata milti hai.

sanskrutik evam saamaajik tattv

ek mahaan saanskrutik viraasat par kaalidaas ke samruddh evam ujjaval vyaktitv ki chhaap hai aur unhonne apni rachanaaon mein moksh, vyavastha aur prem ke aadarshon ko abhivyakti di hai. unhonne vyakti ko sansaar ke du:kh-dard aur sangharshon se avagat karaane ke liye, prem-vaasana, ichha-aakaanksha, aasha-svapn, safalta vifalta aadi ko abhivyakti di hai. Bhaarat ne jeevan ko apni samagrata mein dekha hai aur usamein kisi bhi vikhndan ka virodh kiya hai.

kavi ne un maanasik dvandvon ka varnan kiya hai jo aatma ko vibhkt karte hain aur is tarah unhonne ise samagrata mein dekhne mein hamaari sahaayata ki hai.

kaalidaas ki rachanaaon mein hamaare liye saundarya ke kshan, saahasik ghatnaaen, tyaag ke drushya aur maanav man ki nit-nit badalti man: sthitiyon ke roop sanrakshit hain. unki krutiyaan maanav praarabdh ke varnanaateet chitran ke liye sadaiv padhi jaati raheingi kyonki koi mahaan kavi hi aisi prastutiyaan de sakta hai. unki anek panktiyaan sanskrut mein sooktiyaan ban gayi hain. unki maanyata hai ki himaalaya kshetr mein viksit sanskruti vishv ki sanskrutiyon ki maapadand ho sakti hai. yeh sanskruti moolat: aadhyaatmik hai. ham sabhi saamaanyat: samay-chakr mein kaid hain aur iseeliye ham apne astitv ki sankeern seemaaon mein ghire hain. at: hamaara uddeshya apne mohajaalon se mukt hokar chetna ke us satya ko paane ka hona chaahiye jo desh-kaal se pare hai jo ajanma, charam aur kaalaateet hai. ham iska chintan naheen kar sakte, ise vargon, aakaaron aur shabdon mein vibhaajit naheen kar sakte. is charam satya ki anubhooti ka gyaan hi maanav ka uddeshya hai. raghuvansh ke in shabdon ko dekhiye - 'brahmaabhooyam gatim ajaagam.' jnyaaaneepurush kaalaateet param satya ke jeevan ko praapt hote hain.

vah jo charam satya hai sabhi ajnyaaan se pare hai aur vah aatma aur padaarth ke vibhaajan se oopar hai. vah sarvajnya, sarvavyaapak aur sarvashaktimaan hai. vah apne ko teen roopon mein vyakt karta hai (trimoorti) brahma, vishnu aur Shiv – kartta, paalak tatha sanhaarak. ye Dave samaaj pad vaale hain aam jeevan mein kaalidaas shivtantr ke upaasak hain. teenon naatakon – abhigyaan shaakuntal, vikramorvasheeya, maalavikaagnimitr – ki aarambhik praarthanaaon se prakat hota hai ki kaalidaas Shiv-upaasak the. dekhiye raghuvansh ke aarambhik shlok mein :

jagat: pitrau vande paarvati-parameshvarau.

yadyapi kaalidaas paramaatma ke Shiv roop ke upaasak hain tathaapi unka drushtikon kisi bhi prakaar sankeern naheen hai. paramparaagat hindu dharm ke prati unka drushtikon udaar hai. doosaron ke vishvaason ko unhonne sammaan ki drushti se dekha. kaalidaas ki sabhi dharmon ke prati sahaanubhooti hai aur ve duraagrah aur dharmaandhata se mukt hain. koi bhi vyakti vah maarg chun sakta hai jo achha lagta hai kyonki antat: ishvar ke vibhinn roop ek hi ishvar ke vibhinn roop hain jo sabhi roopon mein niraakaar hai.

kaalidaas punarjanm ke siddhaant ko maanate hain. yeh jeevan mein poornata ke maarg ki ek avastha hai. jaise hamaara vartamaan jeevan poorv karmon ka fal hai vaise hi ham is janm mein prayaason se apna bhavishya sudhaar sakte hain. vishv par sadaachaar ka shaasan hai. vijay antat: achhaai ki hogi. yadi kaalidaas ki rachanaaen dukhaant naheen hain to usaka kaaran yeh ki ve saamanjasya aur shaaleenata ke antim satya ko sveekaarate hain. is maanyata ke antargat ve adhikaansh stri-purushon ke du:kh-dardon ke prati hamaari sahaanubhooti ko mod dete hain.

kaalidaas ki rachanaaon se is galat dhaarana ka niraakaran ho jaata hai ki hindu mastishk ne gyaan-dhyaan par adhik dhyaan diya aur saansaarik du:kh-dardon ki unhonne avhelna ki. kaalidaas ke anubhav ka kshetr vyaapak tha. unhonne jeevan, lok, chitron aur foolon mein samaan aanand liya. unhonne maanav ko srushti (brahmaand) aur dharm ki shaktiyon se alag karke naheen dekha. unhein maanav ke sabhi prakaar ke du:khon, aakaankshaaon, kshanik khushiyon aur antaheen aashaaon ka gyaan tha.

ve dharm, arth, kaam aur moksh – maanav jeevan ke chaar purushaarthon mein saamanjasya ke poshak the. arth par, jismein raajaneeti aur kala bhi sammilit hai dharm ka shaasan rahana chaahiye. saadhya aur saadhan mein paraspar sah-sambandh hai. jeevan vaidh (maanya) sambandhon se hi jeene yogya rahata hai. in sambandhon ko svachh aur ujjaval banaana hi kavi ka uddeshya tha.

itihaas praakrutik tathya na hokar naitik satya hai. yeh kaal-kram ka lekha-jokha maatr naheen hai. iska saar adhyaatm mein nihit hai jo aage ki peedhiyon ko gyaan pradaan karta hai. itihaasakaaron ko ajnyaaan ko bhed kar us aantarik naitik gatisheelata ko aatmasaat karna chaahiye. itihaas maanav ki naitik ichha ka fal hai jiski abhivyaktiyaan svatantrata aur srujan hain.

radhuvansh ke raaja janm se hi nishkalank the. dharati se lekar samudra tak (aasamudrakshitisaanaam) inka vyaapak kshetr mein shaasan tha. inhonne dhan ka sangrah daan ke liye kiya, satya ke liye chune hue shabd kahe, vijay ki aakaanksha yash ke liye ki aur gruhasth jeevan putreshna ke liye rakha. bachapan mein shiksha, yuvaavastha mein jeevan ke sukhabhog, vruddhaavastha mein aadhyaatmik jeevan aur ant mein yog ya dhyaan dvaara shareer ka tyaag kiya.

raajaaon ne raajasv ki vasooli jan-kalyaan ke liye ki, 'prajaanaam evam bhootyaartham' jaise soorya jal leta hai aur use sahasraguna karke lauta deta hai. raajaaon ka lakshya dharm aur nyaaya hona chaahiye. raaja hi praja ka sachcha pita hai, vah unhein shiksha deta hai, unki raksha karta hai aur unhein jeevika pradaan karta hai jabki unke maata-pita keval unke bhautik janm ke hetu hain. raaja aj ke raajya mein pratyek vyakti yahi maanata tha ki raaja unka vyaktigat mitr hai.

shaakuntalan mein tapasvi raaja se kehta hai : 'aapke shastr trust aur peediton ki raksha ke liye hain na ki nirdoshon par prahaar ke liye.' 'aart traanaaya vaah shastram na prahaaratum anagasi.' dushyant evam shakuntala ka putr bharat, jiske naam par is desh ka naam Bhaarat pada hai, sarvadaman bhi kahalaata hai – yeh keval isliye naheen ki usane keval bhayaanak vanya pashuon par vijayi paayi apitu usamein aatmasanyam bhi tha. raaja ke liye aatmasanyam bhi anivaarya hai.

raghuvansh mein agnivrn duraachaari ho jaata hai. uske ant:pur mein itni adhik naariyaan hain ki vah unka sahi naam tak naheen jaan paata. use kshaya ho jaata hai aur us avastha mein bhi bhog ka aanand naheen chhod paata aur usaki mrutyu ho jaati hai. shaaleen maanav-jeevan ke liye sanyam anivaarya hai. kaalidaas kehte hai : 'he kalyaani, Khan se nikalne ke uparaant bhi koi bhi ratn svarn mein naheen jada jaata, jab tak use taraasha naheen jaata.'

yadyapi kaalidaas ki krutiyon mein tap ko bhavyata pradaan ki gayi hai aur saadhu aur tapasviyon ko poojaneeya roop mein prastut kiya gaya hai, tathaapi kaheen bhi bhikshaapaatr ki saraahana naheen ki gayi.

dharm ke niyam jad evam aparivrtaneeya naheen hain. parampara ko apni antardrushti aur gyaan se sahi arth diya jaana chaahiye. parampara aur vyaktigat anubhav ek-doosare ke poorak hain. jahaan hamein ek or ateet viraasat mein mila hai vaheen ham doosari or bhavishya ke nyaasadhaari (trasti) hain. apne antim vishleshan mein pratyek ko sahi aacharan ke liye apne ant:karan mein jhaankana chaahiye. bhagavatageeta ke aarambhik adhyaaya mein jab arjun kshatriya hone ke naate samaaj dvaara aaropit yuddh karne ke apne daayitv se mana karte hain aur jab sukaraat kehte hain, 'etheinsavaasiyon ! main ishvar ki aajnyaa ka paalan karoonga, tumhaari aajnyaa ka naheen.' to ve aisa apni arntaatma ke nirdesh par kehte hain na ki kisi bandhe-bandhaae niyamon ke anupaalan ke kaaran. aarambhik vaidik saahitya mein jad-chetan ki ekaroopata ka niroopan hai aur anek vaidik devi-devata prakruti ke pramukh pakshon ka pratinidhitv karte hain. aatmajnyaaan ki khoj mein prakruti ki sharan mein jaane, himshrrungon par jaane ya tapovan mein jaane ka shikaar bahut praacheen kaal se hamaare yahaan vidyamaan raha hai. maanav ke roop mein hamaari jade prakruti mein hain aur ham naana rupon mein ise jeevan mein dekhte hain. raat aur din, ritu-parivartan – ye sab maanav-man ke parivartan, vividhta aur chanchalata ke prateek hain. kaalidaas ke liye prakruti yantravat aur nirjeev naheen hai. ismein ek sangeet hai. kaalidaas ke paatr ped-paudhon, parvaton tatha nadiyon ke prati samvedansheel hain aur pashuon ke prati unamein bhraat bhaavana hai. hamein unki krutiyon mein khile hue fool, udte pakshi aur uchhalate-koodate pashuon ke varman dikhaai dete hain. raghuvansh mein hamein gaaya ke prem ka anupam varnan milta hai. ritusanhaar mein shat rituon ka hrudayasparshi vivran hai. ye vivran keval kaalidaas ke praakrutik-saundarya ke prati unki drushti ko naheen apitu maanav-man ke vividh roopon aur aakaankshaaon ki samajh ko bhi prakat karte hain. kaalidaas ke liye nadiyon, parvaton, van-vrukshon mein chetan vyaktitv hai jaisa ki pashuon aur devon mein hai.

shaakuntala prakruti ki kanya hai. jab use usaki amaanushi maan menaka ne tyaag diya to aakaashagaami pakshiyon ne use uthaaya aur tab tak usaka paalan-poshan kiya jab tak ki kanth rishi aashram mein use naheen le gaye. shakuntala ne paudhon ko seencha, unhein apne saath-saath badhte dekha aur jab unke oopar fal-fool aae to aise avsaron ko usane utsavon ki bhaanti manaaya. shaakuntala ke vivaah ke avsar par vrukshon ne upahaar diye, vanadeviyon ne pushp-varsha ki, koyalon ne prasannata ke geet gaae. shakuntala ki vidaai ke samay aashram du:kh se bhar utha. mrugon ke mukh se chaara chhoot kar gir pada, mayooron ka nrutya ruk gaya aur lataaon ne apne patron ke roop mein ashru giraae.

seeta ke parityaag ke samay mayooron ne apna nrutya ekdam band kar diya, vrukshon ne apne pushp jhaad diye aur mrugiyon ne aadhe chabaae hue doorvaadalon ko munh se gira diya.

kaalidaas koi vishay chunate hain aur aaainkh mein usaka ek sajeev chitr utaar lete hain. maanas-chitron ki rachana mein ve bejod hain. kaalidaas ka prakruti ka gyaan yathaarth hi naheen tha apitu sahaanubhooti bhi tha. unki drushti kalpana se sanyukt hai. koi bhi vyakti tab tak poornat: mahimaamandit naheen ho sakta jab tak ki vah maanav jeevan se itar jeevan ki mahima aur moolyon ko naheen jaanta. hamein jeevan ke samagr roopon ke prati samvedna viksit karni chaahiye. srushti keval manushya ke liye naheen rachi gayi hai.

purush aur naari ke prem ne kaalidaas ko aakarshit kiya aur prem ke vividh roopon ke chitran mein unhonne apni samruddh kalpana ka khulkar upayog kiya hai. ismein unki koi seemaaen naheen hain. unki naariyon mein purushon ki apeksha adhik aakarshan hai kyonki unamein kaalaateet aur saarvabhaum gun hain jabki purush paatr samvedna shoonya aur asthir buddhi hain. unki samvedna satahi hai jabki naari ka du:kh-dard antaratam ka hai.

purush mein spardha ki bhaavana aur svaabhimaan uske kaaryaalaya, kaarkhaane ya ranakshetr mein upayogi ho sakte hain par unki tulana naari ke susanskaar, saundarya aur shaaleenata ke gunon se naheen ho sakti. apne vyavastha aur saamanjasya ke prem ke kaaran naari parampara (sanskruti) ko jeevit rakhati hai.

jab kaalidaas naari ke saundarya ka varnan karte hain to ve shaastreeya shaili ko apnaate hain aur aisa karte samay ve apne vivranon ke vaasanaajanya hone ya ativistrut ho jaane ka khatra mol lete hain. meghadoot mein 'megh' ko 'yaksh' apni patni ka vivran (huliya) is prakaar deta hai :

'naariyon mein vah aisi hai maano vidhaata ne usaka rachana sarvapratham ki hai, patali aur gori hai, daant patale aur sundar hain. neeche ke oshth pake bimb fal (kundaroo) ki bhaanti laal hai. kamar patali hai. aaainkhein usaki chakit hirni jaisi hain. naabhi gahari hai tatha chaal usaki nitmbabhaar se mand aur stanabhaar se aage ki or jhuki hui hai.'

kaalidaas dvaara prastut ki gayi naariyon mein hamein anek rochak prakaar dikhaai dete hain. unamein se anek ko samaaj ke paramparaagat bahaanon aur safaai ki aavashyakta naheen hai. unke dvandv aur tanaavon ko saamanjasya ki aavashyakta thi. purush sandehamukt anubhav karte the aur ve poorn surakshit the. bahuvivaah unke liye aam baat thi, parantu kaalidaas ki naariyaan kalpanaasheel aur chatur hain at: ve sandeh aur anishchaya ke ghere mein aa jaati hain. ve saamaanyat: asthir naheen hain parantu ve vishvasaneeya, nishthaavaan tatha premamaya hain.

prem ke liye jheli gayi kathinaaiyaan aur yaatanaaen prem ko aur gahan banaati hain. meghadoot mein ajavilaap aur rativilaap mein viyog ki karunaamaya maarmik abhivyakti hai. prem ka sanyog roop vikramorvasheeya mein hai.

maalavikaagnimitr mein raani ko dharini kaha gaya hai kyonki vah sab kuchh sahati hai. usamein garima aur sahishnuta hai. iraavati kaamuk, aviveki, shankaalu, atrupt aur manamaani karne waali hai. jab raaja ne use chhodkar maalavika ko apnaaya to vah kathor shabdon mein shikaayat karti hai aur katu shabdon mein raaja ko fatakaarati hai.

maalavika ke prati agnimitr ka prem indriprak hai. raaja daasi ki sundarata aur laavanya par mohit hai. vikramorvasheeya mein paatron mein daivi aur maanaveeya gunon ka mishran hai. urvashi ka charitra saamaanya jeevan se hatkar hai. usamein itni shakti hai ki adrushya roop se vah apne premi ko dekh sakti hai tatha usaki baatein sun sakti hai. usamein maatruprem naheen hai kyonki vah apne pati ko khone ke sthaan par apne bachche ka parityaag kar deti hai. usaka prem svaarthajanya hai.

pururava bhaavavihval hokar prem ke geet gaata hai jiska bhaavaarth yeh hai ki vishv ki satta utani aanandadaayak naheen jitna prem aanandadaayak hai. vifal premi ke liye sansaar du:kh aur niraasha se bhara hai aur safal premi ke liye vah sukh aur aanand se bhara hai. is naatak mein ham prem ko faleebhoot hote dekhte hain. ismein bhoomi aur aakaash ek hote hain. bhautik aakarshan par aadhaarit vaasana naitik saundarya aur aadhyaatmik gyaan mein parivrtit hoti hai.