kaali mirch

Piper nigrum - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-107.jpg
'kaali mirch' ke kaale tatha safed daane

vanaspati jagat‌ mein pippali kul (Piperaceae) ke marichpippali (Piper nigrum) naamak lata sadrush baarahamaasi paudhe ke adhapake aur sookhe falon ka naam kaali mirch (Pepper) hai. pake hue sookhe falon ko chhilkon se bilgaakar safed gol mirch banaai jaati hai jiska vyaas lagbhag 5 mimi hota hai. yeh masaale ke roop mein prayukt hoti hai.

anukram

mool sthaan tatha utpaadak desh

kaali mirch ke paudhe ka mool sthaan dakshin Bhaarat hi maana jaata hai. Bhaarat se baahar Indonesia, borniyo, indocheen, malaya, lanka aur syaam ityaadi deshon mein bhi iski kheti ki jaati hai. vishvaprasiddh bhaarateeya garam masaale mein, aitihaasik aur aarthik donon drushtiyon se, kaali mirch ka bahut hi mahatvapoorn sthaan hai. ayurvedik granthon mein iska varnan aur upayog praacheen kaal se chala aa raha hai. grees, rom, Portugal ityaadi sansaar ke vibhinn deshon ke sahasron varsh puraane itihaas mein bhi iska varnan milta hai. 15veen shati mein vaasko-di-gaama dvaara samudramaarg se Bhaarat ke suprasiddh malaabaar ke tatavarti ilaakon ki khoj ka mukhya kaaran bhi kaali mirch ke vyaapaar ka aarthik mahatva hi tha.

kaali mirch ka paudha traavanakor aur maalaabaar ke jangalon mein bahulata se utpann hota hai. iske atirikt traavanakor, kocheen, malaabaar, Mysore, kurg, Maharashtra tatha asam ke silhat aur khaasi ke pahaadi ilaakon mein bahutaansh mein upajaaya bhi jaata hai. dakshin Bhaarat ke bahut se bhaagon mein iski kheti ghar-ghar hoti hai. vaastav mein kaali mirch ke bhaarateeya kshetr ka vistaar uttar malaabaar aur konkan se lekar dakshin mein traavanakor kocheen tak samjha jaana chaahiye.

vyaapaar

aaj kaali mirch antararaashtreeya vyaapaar ka ek mahatvapoorn padaarth hai. sansaar ke kul deshon mein kaali mirch ka utpaadan gat mahaayuddh ke poorv ke 96,525 meetari tanon se girkar lagbhag 45,725 meetari tanon par pahuainch gaya tha. is bhaari kami ka mukhya kaaran gat mahaayuddh mein Indonesia ki kaali mirch ki kheti ka sarvanaash hi samajhna chaahiye. antararaashtreeya vyaapaar mein keval Bhaarat ka utpaadan hi mahaayuddh ke poorv ke 18,800 meetari tanon se badhkar 25,400 meetari tanon se oopar pahuaincha hai.

kheti

kaali mirch ka paudha hare bhare vrukshon aur deemak se bache rahanevaale anya aashrayon par lata ki tarah chadhkar khoob panapata hai. iski lataaeain sthool evam pusht, kaandagranthiyaaain sthool aur kabhi-kabhi moolayukt tatha pattiyaaain chikni, lanbaagr, sanvrut, andaakaar tatha 10-18 sein.mi. lambi aur 5-12 sein.mi. chaundi hoti hai. yeh baarahamaasi paudha saadhaaranataya 25-30 varsh tak falata foolata rahata hai, kaheen kaheen to 60 varsh se bhi adhik tak falata dekh gaya hai. yeh paudha samudratat se 1,070 meter ki ooainchaai tak hota hai. ise varsha dvaara hi jal ki praapti hoti hai. svabhaavat: yeh paudha nami pradhaan aur 2,032 mileemeetar se adhik vaarshik varsha tatha 10roo sein. se 40roo sein. tak ke taapavaale ilaakon mein hi panap sakta hai. paudhon ke vistaar ke liye inki kalamein kaatkar boi jaati hai. ooainche pedon ke aashray se kaali mirch ke paudhe 30 se 45 meter tak ooainche chadh jaate hain kintu falon ko sugamataapoorvak utaarane ke liye inhein saadhaaran tatha 6-9 meter tak hi badhne diya jaata hai.

kaali mirch ke gahre hare rang ke ghane paudhon par July ke beech chhote chhote safed aur halke peele rang ke fool ug aate hain aur aagaami January se March ke beech inke naarangi rang ke fal pakakar taiyaar ho jaate hain. fal gol aur vyaas mein 3-6 mi.mi. hota hai. saadhaaranataya teesare varsh ke pashchaat‌ paudhe falane lagte hain. saatavein varsh se paudhon par falon ke 100 se 150 mileemeetar lambe guchhe adhiktam maatra mein lagne praarambh hote hain. sookhane par pratyek paudhe se saadhaaranataya 4 se 6 kilogram tak gol mirch mil jaati hai. iske pratyek guchhe par 50-60 daane rahate hain. pakane par in falon ke guchhon ko utaarakar bhoomi par athva chataaiyon par failaakar hatheliyon se ragadkar gol mirch ke daanon ko alag kiya jaata hai. inhein 5-6 dinon tak dhoop mein sookhane diya jaata hai. poori tarah sookh jaane par gol mirch ke donon ke chhilkon par sikudne se jhuriyaaain pad jaati hain aur inka rang gahra kaala ho jaata hai. Indonesia, syaam aadi deshon mein poornataya pake falon ko utaarakar paani mein bhigone se, chhilkon se bilgaakar, safed gol mirch ke roop mein taiyaar kiya jaata hai. safed gol mirch teji aur kadvaahat mein kaali mirch se kam prabhaavashaali hoti hai. par svaad adhik ruchikr hota hai. Bhaarat se prativrsh lagbhag 20 karod rupae ki laagat ki kaali mirch videshon mein bheji jaati hai. is niryaat mein Amreeki daalaron ka bhaag lagbhag 64 pratishat se adhik hi hai.

upayog

iske daanon mein 5 se 9 pratishat tak pipereen (Piperine), piperideen (Piperidin) aur chaiviseen (Chavicine) naamak ailkelaayadon ke atirikt ek sugandhit tail 1 se 2.6 prati shat tak, 6 se 14 prati shat hare rang ka tej sugandhit gandhaashesh, 30 prati shat staarch ityaadi paae jaate hain.

kaali mirch sugandhit, uttejak aur sfoortidaayak vastu hai. aayurved aur yoonaani chikitsaashaastron mein iska upayog kaf, vaat, shvaas, agnimaandya unnidr ityaadi rogon mein bataaya gaya hai. bhookh badhaane aur jvar ki shaanti ke liye dakshin mein to iska vishesh prakaar ka 'rasam' bhojan ke saath piya jaata hai. bhaarateeya bhojan mein masaale ke roop mein iska nyoonaadhik upayog sarvatr hota hai. paashchaatya deshon mein iska vishisht upayog vividh prakaar ke maanson ki dibbaabandi mein, khaadya padaartho ke parirkshan ke liye aur masaale ke roop mein bhi kiya jaata hai.

safed mirch

safed mirch, kaali mirch ki ek vishesh kism hai jiski kataai fasal pakane se pehle hi ho jaati hai. safed aur kaali mirch donon ek hi paudhe ke fal hain; bas apne rang ki vajah se unka istemaal alag ho jaata hai. safed mirch ka prayog aamtaur halke rang ke vyanjanon jaise ki soop, salaad, thandaai, bekd resipi ityaadi mein kiya jaata hai.

sandarbh granth

  • ke.aar. keertikr tatha bi.di. Basu : Indian medisinl plaants khanu 3;
  • aar.N.Chopra ityaadi : chopadaaj indijins drags ov India;
  • bi. mukarji : di Indian faaramesyutikl kodeks, khand 1;
  • aar.N.Chopra ityaadi : glaasari ov Indian medisinl plaants
  • arnest gunthar : di eseinshiyl oyals, khand 5;
  • N. S. vyaasakar moos : ayurvedik flora medika, khand 1;
  • ke.aar. daamale ityaadi : report ov the spaaisej enkvaayari committee;
  • pi. ebraaham : pepar kaltiveshan in India;
  • dablyu. A. paauchar; parafyooms, kaasmetiks aind sops, khand 1;
  • vaai.aar. nevj tatha ji. majuyar : natural parafyum meteerials;
  • arnest peri : the kemistri ov eseinshiyl oyals aind aartifishl parafyooms, khand 1

baahari kadiyaaain