kaalamikiya

kaalamikiya ganatantr
Рaaеaaсaaпaaуaaбaaлaaиaaкaaа Кaaаaaлaaмaaыaaкaaиaaя
Хaаaлaьaмaг Тaaаaaңaaһaaч
Republic of Kalmykia
मानचित्र जिसमें कालमिकिया  गणतंत्रРеспублика КалмыкияХальмг ТаңһчRepublic of Kalmykia हाइलाइटेड है
soochana
rajdhani : elista
kshetrafal : 76,100 kimee²
janasankhya(2010):
ghanatv :
2,89,481
3.8/kimee²
upavibhaagon ke naam: raayon
upavibhaagon ki sankhya: 13
mukhya bhaasha(eain): kaalamik, roosi


rajdhani elista mein svarn mandir
kaalamikiya ka naksha

kaalamikiya (roosi: Рaaеaaсaaпaaуaaбaaлaaиaaкaaа Кaaаaaлaaмaaыaaкaaиaaя, resapooblika kaalamikiya; kaalamik: Хaаaлaьaмaг Тaaаaaңaaһaaч; angreji: Republic of Kalmykia) roos ka ek sangheeya khand hai jo us desh ki shaasan pranaali mein ganatantr ka darja rakhata hai.[1] yeh roos ke dakshin-pashchim kshetr mein sthit hai aur Europe ka ikalauta bauddh dharm pradhaan ilaaka hai.[2]

anukram

itihaas

kaalamik log madhyakaal mein iratish nadi ke kshetr se aaye oirat logon ke vanshaj hain jo mangol logon ki sabse pashchimi shaakha hai. ve iritish kshetr se aakar volaga nadi ke nichle ilaake mein kyon base ispar vidvaanon mein matabhed hai. kuchh ke anusaar ve apne maveshiyon ke liye charane ke maidaan dhoondhate hue yahaaain aa gaye aur anyon ke anusaar ve jungaar mangol kbeelon ke badhte prabhutv se bachane ke liye yahaaain aa base.[3] yahaaain aane ke 25 varshon ke andar hi unhone roos ke tsaar (samraat) ki adheenata sveekaar li. unhein ek svashaasit pradesh rahane diya gaya aur uske badle ve roos ki dakshini sarhad ke rakhavaale ban gaye. saath hi saath unhone Tibet mein dalaai laama se aur jungaariya mein apne mangol oirat bandhuon se sambandh banaae rakhe. kaalamikon ki apni khaanat bani aur ayooka Khan (1669-1724) ke shaasanakaal mein unki shakti charam par thi.

ayooka Khan ki mrutyu ke baad roosi saamraajya ne kaalamikiyon par dabaav daalna shuru kiya. unke kshetron mein roosi log basane lage aur unapar bauddh dharm chhodkar roosi paaramparik isaai banane ka jor daala gaya. ayooka Khan ka pad-pota ubaashi Khan kaalamikon ka antim Khan bana. uske netrutv mein do lakh kaalamik apni poorvajon ki maatrubhoomi jungaariya ke liye kooch kar gaye, haalaanki bahut se kaalamik unke saath naheen gaye. raaste mein kaajaakh aur kirgij kbeelon ne lautate hue kaalamikon par kai hamle karke bahuton ko maar daala ya gulaam bana liya. kai maheenon ke kathin safr ke baad keval 96,000 kaalamik hi maanhu saamraajya ki pashchimi seema par balakhsh jheel ke kinaare pahuainch paae.

kaalamikiya mein iske baad roos ki samraajnyai kaitharin ne kaalamiki khaanat ka ant kar diya. bahut se sthaaneeya kaalamik log ab seedha roosi saamraajya ke naagrik ban gaye aur uske liye kaam karne lage. paaramparik roop se khaanaabadosh is samudaaya ne pakke ghar, mandir aur bastiyaaain bhi banaani shuru kar di. 1865 mein elista ki neev rakhi gayi jo aadhunik yug mein kaalamikiya ki rajdhani hai.

soviyt kaal

jab 1917 mein October samaajavaadi kraanti to don nadi ke kinaare basane vaale kaalamikiyon ne samaajavaad ki virodhi shvet roosi sena ka saath diya. iski haar hue aur bahut se don kaalamikiyon ko Turkey bhaagna pada. bahut se anyon ko maar daala gaya. don kaalamikiyon ko chhodkar anya kaalamikiyon ko kraantikaari neta vlaadimeer lenin ne appeal curry ki agar ve samaajavaad ka saath dein to soviyt sarkaar unhein apni bhoomi degi.[4] 4 November 1920 ko unhone apna vaayada poora kiya aur kaalamik svashaasit oblaast ka udaghaatan hua. 15 saal baad 22 October 1935 ko iska darja badhaakar ise ganatantr bana diya gaya aur iska naam 'kaalamik svashaasit soviyt samaajavaadi ganatantr' ho gaya.

1931 mein soviyt taanaashaah josef staalin ke apni samooheekaran (kalektivaaijeshan) ki neeti ke tahat bahut se bauddh math tode, dhaarmik granth jalaae aur 500 se adhik bhedo ke maalik sabhi kaalamikiyon ko saaiberiya bhej diya. is se krushi thapp hui aur bhukhamari mein 1932-33 kaal mein 60,000 kaalamik mar gaye.

dviteeya vishvayuddh

22 June 1944 ko jarman sena ne soviyt sangh par aakraman kiya aur 12 August 1942 ko kaalamikiya ki rajdhani, elista, par unka kbja ho gaya. unhone prachaar aur jbaradasti karke bahut se kaalamik yuvakon ko soviyt-virodhi sainik daston mein sangathit kiya. in daston ne kai soviyt sainikon ko maara. December 1942 mein paasa palat gaya aur soviyt laal sena ka kaalamikiya par fir se kbja ho gaya. haalaanki bahut se kaalamik soviyt sangh ke khilaaf lade the, unki bahusankhya fir bhi soviyt sangh se vafaadaar rahi aur laal sena mein sainik rahe. December 1943 tak 8,000 kaalamikon ko soviyt sena mein bahaaduri ke tamage mil chuke the aur 21 ko 'soviyt sangh ka naayak' naamak sarvochch padak bhi mila tha.

staalin soviyt-virodhi kaalamik daston se krodhit ho gaya aur 27 December 1943 mein soviyt sarkaar ne kaalamik samudaaya ko jarman sena ka piththoo hone ka aaparaadhi ghoshit kar diya. poore kaalamik samudaaya ko deshanikaale ka aadesh diya gaya aur unhein jbaradasti apne gharon se nikaalkar bheeshan sardi ke mausam mein thandi rel maalagaadiyon mein laadakar madhya Asia aur saaiberiya bhej diya gaya. bahut se bachchon aur bujurgon ki mrutyu ho gayi. kaalamiki samaaj aur sanskruti ko jo haani pahuainchi vah aaj tak na bhar pai hai. kaalamikiya ke shaharon-bastiyon ke naam tak badalkar roosi kar diye gaye. 1957 mein us samay ke soviyt neta nikita khrushchev ne unhein ghar vaapas aane ki anumati de di. lekin jab ve vaapas pahuainche to vahaaain roosi log base hue the. 1926 ki janaganana mein kaalamik log is ganatantr ki 75% aabaadi the jo ki 1959 tak ghatkar keval 35% rah gayi. dheere-dheere inki sankhya badhi aur 2010 tak 57% ho chuki thi.[1]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. a aa "Вaaсaaеaaрaaоaaсaaсaaиaaйaaсaaкaaаaaя пaaеaaрaaеaaпaaиaaсaaь нaaаaaсaaеaaлaaеaaнaaиaaя 2010 гaaоaaдaaа. Тaaоaaм 1" (2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1). Вaaсaaеaaрaaоaaсaaсaaиaaйaaсaaкaaаaaя пaaеaaрaaеaaпaaиaaсaaь нaaаaaсaaеaaлaaеaaнaaиaaя 2010 гaaоaaдaaа (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  2. Tom Parfitt (September 21, 2006). "King of Kalmykia". The Guardian. Retrieved 2001-03-28. "Kalmykia is the only Buddhist region in Europe..."
  3. "Caught Between the Russians and the Manchus". Mongolia a Country Study. GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 13 fravari 2011.
  4. Isvestia, Moscow, July 24, 1919