kaalamaapi

jeremi thaikar ka kaalamaapi

kaalamaapi (Chronometer) ek vishesh prakaar ki ghadi hai jo bahut sachcha samay bataati hai. iska samay grinich ke sthaaneeya samay se milaakar rakha jaata hai, jisse jahaaj par grinich samay turant jaana ja sakta hai. seksataint (Sextant) se soorya ki sthiti naapakar jahaaj jis sthaan par hai vahaaain ka sthaaneeya samay gyaat kiya ja sakta hai. sthaaneeya samay aur grinich samay ke antar se deshaantar ki ganana ki ja sakti hai. deshaantaron mein ek ansh ka ant padne par sthaaneeya samayon mein chaar minute ka antar padta hai.

parichay

dekhne mein kaalamaapi ek saadhaaran badi ghadi ke samaan hota hai. yeh ek chakr se do dhureedharon dvaara lataka rahata hai. chakr swayam doosare do dhureedharo dvaara lataka rahata hai. dhureedharon ki jodiyaaain ek doosari se samakon banaati hain. kaalamaapi is prakaar isliye latakaaya jaata hai ki jahaaj ke hilne dolane par bhi vah sarvada kshaitij rahe. sarvada kshaitij sthiti mein rahane ke kaalamaapi adhik sachcha samay baataata hai. kaalamaapi ki baalakamaani saadhaaran ghadi ki tarah sarpil na hokar kuntalaakaar (helical) hoti hai. iska maalamaapi vimochak (escapement) bhi saadhaaran ghadi se bhinn prakaar ka hota hai. (vimochak us yukti ko kehte hain jiske kaaran ghadi ka chakrasamooh lagaataar na chalakar ruk rukakar chalta hai aur tik-tik ki dhvani utpann haati hai. isi ke dvaara pradhaan kamaani ki oorja baalakamaani mein jaati hai jisse vah rukane naheen paati). deshaantar gyaat karne ke liye sachchi ghadi banaane ka pehla prayaas vikhyaat vaigyaanik krishchiyn haaigens ne 1662-70 mein kiya tha, par unki banaai ghadiyon mein taap ke ghatne badhne tatha jahaaj ke hine dolane ke kaaran bahut antar pad jaata tha aur samay adhik sachaai se naheen naapa ja sakta tha. 1714 mein british sarkaar ne aisa kaalamaapi banaane ke liye, jo pratidin teen second se adhik tej sust na ho, 20,000 pound (lagbhag dhaai lakh rupae) ke puraskaar ki ghoshana ki. yeh puraskaar John hairisn ne jeeta jisne 1729-60 mein chaar kaalamaapi banaae, parantu hairisn ko kaalamaapi banaane mein moolya bahut adhik padta tha. peris ke piyr larooaa ne 1765 mein aur England ke John aarnold aur taamas arnasha ne 1785 mein jo kaalamaapi banaae ve aadhunik yantron se bahut kuchh milte-julate the. aadhunik kaalamaapi ka prayog theek se karne par vah bahut hi sachcha samay bataata hai. din bhar mein ek second se adhik antar naheen padne paata. is sookshm antar ke kaaran maheene bhar chalne ke baad bhi jahaaj ki ganana ki sthiti aur sachchi sthiti mein aath meal se kam hi antar padne paata hai. praacheen kaal mein sachche kaalamaapiyon ka mahatva bahut adhik tha, kyonki inke abhaav mein lambi yaatra karna asambhav hota tha. parantu ab radio sanketon dvaara sachche grinich samay ka pata din mein kai baar milta rahata hai aur kaalamaapiyon ka bahut sachcha rahana pehle jaisa mahatvapoorn naheen rah gaya hai.

baahari kadiyaaain