kaal (vyaakaran)

saaaincha:Grammatical categories vyaakaranik kaal kisa bhi sthiti ya kriya ke samay ko kriyaapad ke dvaara, par, ke dauraan ya se pare vyakt karanevaali ek kaalik bhaashaavaijnyaaanik gunavatta hai.

kaal bhaav, aavaaj aur pahaloo ke saath, chaar gunon mein se kam se kam ek hai, jo abhivyakti spasht kar sakte hain.

kaal ek abhivyakti ke ghatnaakram ke saath saamayik sandarbhon ka vipryaas vyatirek darshaate hain. sabhi bhaashaaen samaan kaal istemaal karti hain - vartamaan, bhoot aur bhavishya, haalaanki hamesha in kaalon ki abhivyakti ka anuvaad spasht rup se ek bhaasha se doosari bhaasha mein naheen kiya ja sakta. jabki sabhi bhaashaaon mein kriya ke theth roop hote hain jiske dvaara ve shabdakoshon mein pahachaane jaate hain aur kramabaddh kiye jaate hain, saadhaaranat: sabse aam vartamaan kaal ya ek saadhaaran roop, unke kaal abhivyakt karne ke tareekon ka istemaal, bhaashaaon ke beech bhinn hai.

kuchh aisi bhaashaaen hain (jaise pruthak bhaashaaen, cheeni bhaasha samaan) jinmein kaal kriya roop ke maadhyam se ant:kunchit naheen hota aur na hi sanrachanaatmak drushti se abhivyakt hota hai, balki iske bajaay, jab bhi aavashyakta hoti hai tab, saamayik kriya visheshan ke istemaal se antarnihit kiya jaata hai aur kuchh (jaise Japani bhaasha) mein saamayik jaankaari ant:kunchit visheshan ke istemaal dvaara prakat hoti hai. kuchh bhaashaaon (jaise roosi) mein pahaloo aur kaal par ek saath sanket karne ke liye ek ekal kriya ant:kunchit ki ja sakti hai.

ek bhaasha mein kaal ki sankhya vivaadagrast ho sakti hai, kyonki kaal sanjnyaa saamayik abhivyakti, atirikt pahaloo aur yahaaain tak ki bhaav pradarshit karne ke liye aksar galat maani jaati hai. kai granthon mein, kaal shabd galati se anishchitta, aavruti, nishpatti, avadhi, sambhaavana ki gunavatta ko sandarbhit karta hai aur yahaaain tak ki ise bhi ki kya jaankaari anubhav se vyutpann hoti hai ya afavaah se (aakhiri do pratyaksh hain). yeh vaastav mein kaal naheen hain, lekin paramparaagat naamapaddhati aksar unka aise vargeekaran karti hai. hakeekat mein, sabhi bhaashaaon mein saamaan kaal hote hain. ye aam taur par teen samoohon mein vibhaajit hote hain - vartamaan, bhoot aur bhavishya, jismein ek nirdhaarit abhipraaya mein pratyek shreni baddh hota hai. udaaharan ke liye, bhoot kaal vah hote hain jinmein swayam kathan (kathan ka samay) ke saamayik sandarbh se pehle avayav kriya ke saamayik sandarbh (nishchayan ka samay, nishpatti ka samay, ya nirdhaaran ka samay) ghatit hote hain. bhoot kaal, saamaanya ateet/bhoot se lekar tatkaal ateet/bhoot, sudoor ya door sudoor ateet/bhoot tak bhi shreni baddh ho sakta hai, inke beech sirf ek hi antar hota hai aur vah hai, saamayik sandarbh binduon ke beech ghatnaakram par doori.

anukram

angreji mein kaal ki abhivyakti

angreji mein kaal do prakaar ke samoohon mein vibhaajit hai - shuddh (pure) kaal aur kriyaabhaav dyotak (modal) kaal. shuddh kaal vartamaan, bhoot aur bhavishya ki un abhivyaktiyon ko sandarbhit karta hai jinmein dviteeyak saamayik sandarbh (nishchayan ka samay, nishpatti ka samay, ya nirdhaaran ka samay) poornataya nishchit samjha ya jaana jaata hai. doosare shabdon mein, shuddh kaal un abhivyaktiyon ko sandarbhit karta hai jinmein anupramaanan sach maana ya jaana jaata hai. doosari or, kriyaabhaav dyotak kaal vartamaan, bhoot, ya bhavishya ki un abhivyaktiyon ko sandarbhit karta hai jinmein anupramaanan ki nishchitta poornataya nishchit naheen hai. angreji mein yeh roop ek kriyaabhaav dyotak, kriyaabhaav dyotak kahaavat ya kriyaabhaav dyotak kriya-visheshan jodne se abhivyakt kiye jaate hain.

kriya ghataane se keval angreji mein bhoot kaal abhivyakt kiya jaata hai. sabhi kachche aur achook pahaluon mein, bhoot kaal feravat roop mein abhimukhata poorak (kar liya (did), tha/the (was/were), hona (had)) ke paroksh roop ke istemaal se abhivyakt kiya jaata hai. gair-kaalaavadhi pahaluon mein (saamaanyat: saral pahaloo ke roop mein sandarbhit), bhoot kaal ek vishesh ant:kunchit roop ke maadhyam se abhivyakt kiya ja sakta hai jismein abhimukhata poorak 'kar liya' ('did') ko chhod kar avayav kriya ka paroksh upayog kiya gaya hai. yeh roop keval kuchh hi sakaaraatmak vyaakhyaanon mein sambhav hai. kathan ke sabhi anya prakaaron mein, feravat roop niyojit kiya jaana chaahiye.

vartamaan kaal bhoot kaal ke saamaan ek achihnit roop ke dvaara abhivyakt kiya jaata hai, lekin ismein abhimukhata poorak keval feravat roopon mein vyakti aur sankhya (karta hooain/karta hai/(do/does) hai/hain (am/is/are), hai/hai (have/has)) ke saath samjhaute ke liye hi mana kiye jaate hain. jaisa ki bhoot kaal ke saath hai ant:kunchit roop kuchh sakaaraatmak vyaakhyaanon ke liye upayog kiye ja sakte hain.

angreji mein shuddh bhavishya kaal vartamaan kaal ki tarah hi abhivyakt kiya jaata hai lekin ek bhavishya -chihnak kriya-visheshan ya samay padabandh ke saath.

angreji mein kriyaabhaav dyotak kaal ya to ek poornataya sveekrut kriyaabhaav dyotak roop ke istemaal dvaara abhivyakt kiya jaata hai ya ek atirikt kriyaabhaav dyotak kriya visheshan ya padabandh ke saath ek shuddh kaal roop dvaara. angreji mein kriyaabhaav dyotak kaal sabse aksar bhavishyakaal abhivyakt karne ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai.

kriyaabhaav dyotak bhavishya aath bhavishya roopon mein se kisi ko bhi sandarbhit karta hai jismein bhavishya parinaamon ke anishchit svaroop ke kaaran anupramaanan ko sach naheen kaha ja sakta. yeh roop nishchitta ke hisaab se bhinn hote hain aur hamesha ek sahaayak manodasha ke abhipraaya ke bheetar bhavishya nishchitta ka vah star abhivyakt karte hain.

vibhinn bhaashaaon mein kaal ki abhivyakti

neeche diye gaye soocheepatr mein "jaana" ("to go") kriya ke prayog se kuchh indo-yooropi aur fino-arjik kaal mein kaal abhivyakti ke udaaharan dikhaae gaye hain.

kaal jarmainik (Germanic): angreji:
jaana (to go)
jarmainik (Germanic): sveedish:
att gå(walk)
jarmainik (Germanic): jarman:
gehen
jarmainik (Germanic): dach:
gaan
kelt bhaasha: aayarish:
téaaigh
romance itaalavi:
andare
romance: purtagaali:
ir
slaav bhaasha: bulgaariyaai:
оaaтaaиaaвaaаaaм/оaaтaaиaaдaaа 1
fino-arjik: finish:
mennä
indo-yooropi: laitin:
ire/vadere
romance: French:
aller
not
gair-kaalaavadhi (Non-durational) (saral) vartamaan mein pahaloo main jaata hoo (I go). Jag gåar. Ich gehe. Ik ga. Téaim. (Io) vado. (Eu) vou. (Аaaз) оaaтaaиaaвaaаaaм.
(Аaaз дaaа) оaaтaaиaaдaaа.
(Minä) menen. (Ego) eo/vado. Je vais. adhikaansh bhaashaaon mein yeh sabse vartamaan nirdeshaatmak upayogon ke liye prayog kiye jaate hain. angreji mein, yeh mukhya roop se vyavahaar ya kshamata abhivyakt karne ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai (main gitaar bajaata hooain (I play the guitar))
gair-kaalaavadhi (Non-durational) (saral) bhoot mein pahaloo main chala gaya (I went). Jag gick. Ich ging. Ik ging. Chuaigh mé. (Io) andai. (Eu) fui. (Аaaз) оaaтaaиaaдaaоaaх.
(Аaaз) оaaтaaиaaвaaаaaх.
(Minä) menin. J'allais/je suis allé is kaal ka taatparya hai ki kaarya ateet/bhoot mein hua tha aur ab naheen ho raha.
gair-kaalaavadhi (Non-durational) (saral) bhavishya mein pahaloo main jaaooainga (I shall go). Jag ska gå .3 Ich werde gehen. Ik zal gaan. Rachaidh mé. (Io) andrò. (Eu) irei. (Аaaз) щaе оaaтaaиaaдaaа.
(Аaaз) щaе оaaтaaиaaвaaаaaм.
(Minä) tulen menemäaaäaan. 4 (Ego) ibo/vadam. J'irai yeh uddeshya, bhavishyavaani aur anya anubhav abhivyakt karne ke liye prayog kiya ja sakta hai.
kaalaavadhi (Durational) (pragatisheel/akhand) vartamaan mein pahaloo main ja raha hooain (I am going). Tá mé ag dul. (Io) sto andando. (Eu) estou indo. (Аaaз) оaaтaaиaaвaaаaaм. (Minä) olen menossa. (Ego) eo/vado.

((Ego) iens/vadens sum.)
Je suis en train d'aller. yeh firm angreji mein maujooda kaarya abhivyakt karne ke liye prachalit hai. kaalaavadhi pahaloo un bhaashaaon mein sabse zyaada aam hai jinmein kriya ka ekshanasaart (aktionsart) vyaakaranik sanrachana nirdhaarit karne mein ek bhaari roop se sanchaalan karne wala kaarak naheen hai. kaalaavadhi pahaloo avayav kriya ke anyatha gair-kaalaavadhi ekshanasaart (aktionsart) ko adhibhoot karne ke liye kathan ka ek sanrachanaatmak roop upayog karte hain.
kaalaavadhi (Durational) (pragatisheel/akhand) bhoot mein pahaloo main ja raha tha (I was going). Jag höaall på och gick 2 Bhí mé ag dul. (Io) stavo andando. (Eu) estava indo/ia. (Аaaз) оaaтaaиaaвaaаaaх. (Minä) olin menossa. (Ego) ibam/vadebam.

((Ego) fui iens/vadens sum)
kaalaavadhi (Durational) (pragatisheel/akhand) bhavishya mein pahaloo mujhe jaana hoga (I shall be going). (Eu) estarei indo.
achook gair-kaalaavadhi (Non-durational) (saral) vartamaan mein pahaloo main gaya hooain (I have gone). Jag har gåaatt. Ich bin gegangen. Ik ben gegaan. Tá me i ndiaidh dul. (Io) sono andato. (Eu) fui/tenho ido. Аaaз сaaъaaм оaaтaaиaaшaaъaaл.
Аaaз сaaъaaм оaaтaaиaaвaaаaaл.
(Minä) olen mennyt. (Ego) ii/vasi. Je suis allé. us kriya ko sandarbhit karta hai jo vartamaan mein poorn hui hai (kathan ke samay par).
achook gair-kaalaavadhi (Non-durational) (saral) bhoot mein pahaloo main gaya tha (I had gone). Jag hade gåaatt. Ich war gegangen. Ik was gegaan. Bhí mé i ndiaidh dul. (Io) ero andato / (Io) fui andato. (Eu) fora/havia (tinha) ido. (Аaaз) бaaяaaх оaaтaaиaaшaaъaaл.
(Аaaз) бaaяaaх оaaтaaиaaвaaаaaл.
(Minä) olin mennyt. (Ego) ieram/vaseram J'éaatais allé. us kriya ko sandarbhit karta hai jo ateet/bhoot mein ek samay par poorn hui hai (kathan ke samay se pehle).
achook gair-kaalaavadhi (Non-durational) (saral) bhavishya mein pahaloo main gaya hooonga. (I shall have gone). Jag kommer att ha gåaatt. Ich werde gegangen sein. Ik zal gegaan zijn. Beidh mé i ndiaidh dul. (Io) sarò andato. (Eu) terei ido. (Аaaз) щaе сaaъaaм оaaтaaиaaшaaъaaл.
(Аaaз) щaе сaaъaaм оaaтaaиaaвaaаaaл.
(Minä) olen tullut menemäaaäaan (Ego) iero/vasero. Je serai allé. us kriya ko sandarbhit karta hai jo bhavishya mein ek samay par poorn hogi (kathan ke samay ke baad).
achook kaalaavadhi (Durational) (pragatisheel/akhand) vartamaan mein pahaloo main jaata hooain (I have been going). (Eu) estive indo. yeh ek TUTT se kuchh samay pehle shuroo ki gayi aadat ya ghatna ki sampoorit avadhi abhivyakt karne ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai aur TCOM tak jaata hai jo TUTT ke saath milta hai aur us TCOM ke pare jaari rah sakta hai, par jiski avadhi keval TCOM tak hi maapane yogya hoti hai.
achook kaalaavadhi (Durational) (pragatisheel/akhand) bhoot mein pahaloo main jaaya karta tha (I had been going). (Eu) estara indo/tinha estado indo. yeh ek kathan ke samay se kuchh samay pehle shuroo ki gayi aadat ya ghatna ki sampoorit avadhi abhivyakt karne ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai aur TCOM tak jaata hai jo TUTT se bhi pehle hota hai aur jo us TCOM ke pare jaari rah sakta hai, par jiski avadhi keval TCOM tak hi maapane yogya hoti hai.
achook kaalaavadhi (Durational) (pragatisheel/akhand) bhavishya mein pahaloo mujhe jaana chaahiye (I shall have been going). Eu terei estado indo yeh ek kathan ke samay se baraabar, pehle ya baad ke samay par shuroo ki gayi aadat ya ghatna ki sampoorit avadhi abhivyakt karne ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai aur TCOM tak jaata hai jo TUTT ke baad hai aur jo us TCOM ke pare jaari rah sakta hai, par jiski avadhi keval TCOM tak hi maapane yogya hoti hai.
1 Oтaиaвaаaм aur оaaтaaиaaдaaа do alag alag kriya hain, jinka arth "jaana" ("to go") hai, jo ki arth ki drushti se naheen balki vyaakaranik sammat dhang se bhinn hain. unke pahaloo alag hain, pehla ek adhoori kriya hai aur doosra ek poorak kriya hai.
2 yeh keval kriya visheshan ke saath kaam karta hai, jaise "main ja raha tha jab kisi ne achaanak mujhe rok liya"; na ki sirf "main unke ghar ja raha tha". anyatha, iska anuroopi saral kaal upayog kiya jaata hai.
3, yeh ek asli bhavishya kaal naheen hai, balki ek jaaooainga (going-to) bhavishya hai, kyoonki iska sateek arth hai, main jaaooainga (I am going to go) .
4 ek bhavishya kaal abhivyakt karne ke liye kriya tulla "aana" ("to come") ka upayog karna svetisijm (sveticism) hai aur bhaasha shaasak dvaara iske viruddh ki salaah di gayi hai. aadhikaarik finish mein koi bhavishya kaal naheen hai aur is tulen -nirmaan ka prayog bhi anaupachaarik sandarbhon mein asaamaanya hai. isliye, vartamaan kaal ka prayog hota hai. haalaanki, ek telic vastu avyakt roop se samay vyakt kar sakti hai, jiska angreji mein koi seedha tulyaarthak shabd naheen hai.

kaal ka vargeekaran

kaal mote taur par vartamaan, bhoot, ya bhavishya ke roop mein vargeekrut kiye gaye hain. in vyaapak vargeekaranon ke bheetar kai sambhaavit kaal maujood hain. in kaalon ke beech antar mukhya rup se kathan ke samay se saamayik doori ki degree ka hai. udaaharan ke liye, bhoot kaal (past tenses) ki saamaanya shreni ke bheetar, tatkaal ateet, sudoor ateet, door sudoor ateet aur dooravarti ateet maujood ho sakte hain, inmein antar keval kathan ke ghatnaakram ke saath kathan ke samay se doori mein badhottri ka hai.

kuchh bhaashaaen keval bhoot, vartamaan aur bhavishya ke beech hi bhed naheen karti, balki gair-bhoot, gair-vartamaan, gair-bhavishya (nonpast, nonpresent, nonfuture) ke beech mein bhi. baad ke donon kaal pehle ke do sammilit karte hain, bina spasht kiye ki ve kaun sa kar rahe hain.

kuchh kaal:

  • bhavishya kaal. kuchh bhaashaaon mein alag-alag bhavishya kaal hote hain, yeh sanket karne ke liye ki ham kitni door ke bhavishya ke baare mein baat kar rahe hain. in mein shaamil hain:
    • nikat bhavishya kaal nikat bhavishya mein, jaldi hi
    • aaj ka (Hodiernal) bhavishya kaal: aaj kisi samay
    • sandhya ka (Vespertine) bhavishya kaal: kisi samay aaj shaam
    • aaj ke baad ka (Post-hodiernal) bhavishya kaal aaj ke baad kabhi
    • krestinl (Crastinal) bhavishya kaal: kal
    • dooravarti bhavishya kaal: bhavishya mein aur adhik door
  • gair-bhavishya kaal: ya to vartamaan ya bhoot ko sandarbhit karta hai, lekin spashtata se yeh ullikhit naheen karta ki kise sandarbhit kar raha hai. bhavishya ke saath vipryaas vyatirek.
  • gair-bhoot kaal: ya to vartamaan ya bhavishya ko sandarbhit karta hai, lekin spashtata se yeh ullikhit naheen karta ki kise sandarbhit kar raha hai. bhoot ke saath vipryaas vyatirek.
  • bhoot kaal. kuchh bhaashaaon mein alag-alag bhoot kaal hote hain, yeh sanket karne ke liye ki ham kitni door ke bhoot/ateet ke baare mein baat kar rahe hain.
    • hesataranal (Hesternal) bhoot kaal: kal ya jaldi, lekin dooravarti ateet naheen
    • hodirnal (Hodiernal) bhoot kaal: aaj jaldi kisi samay
    • matootinl (Matutinal) bhoot kaal: subah mein kisi samay ya dopahar se pehle
    • tatkaal (immediate) bhoot kaal: bahut haal ka bhoot kaal, udaaharan ke liye, pichhle 1 ya 2 minute mein
    • haal ka bhoot kaal: pichhle kuchh dinon/hafton/maheenon mein (sateek paribhaasha bhinn hoti hai)
    • dooravarti bhoot kaal: kuchh dinon/hafton/maheenon se zyaada pehle ka (sateek paribhaasha bhinn hoti hai)
    • gair-haal ka bhoot kaal: haal ka bhoot kaal naheen, haal ke bhoot kaal se vipryaas vyatirek
    • gair-dooravarti bhoot kaal: dooravarti bhoot kaal naheen, dooravarti bhoot kaal se vipryaas vyatirek
    • preehesataranal (Prehesternal) bhoot kaal: hesataranal bhoot kaal se pehle
    • preehodirnal (Prehodiernal) bhoot kaal: hodirnal bhoot kaal se pehle
    • saamaanya bhoot: ateet, poore roop se vichaar kiya gaya
  • vartamaan kaal
  • stil kaal (Still tense) kathan par ya usase theek pehle, maamale ke roop mein sanghatit ki gayi ek paristhiti ko sandarbhit karta hai
  • ebsolyoot-riletiv kaal (Absolute-relative tenses)
    • bhavishya-mein-bhavishya kaal: bhavishya mein kisi samay par, abhi bhi bhavishya mein hi hoga
    • bhavishya-mein-bhoot kaal: ateet/bhoot mein kisi samay, bhavishya mein hoga

granth soochi

  • beebi (Bybee), jon L. (Joan L.), reveri parkins (Revere Perkins) aur William pagliuka (William Pagliuca) (1994) the evolyooshan of graamar: teins, espekt, end modeliti in the lainguejaij of the world . Chicago vishvavidyaalaya press.
  • kaamari (Comrie), barnaard (1985) teins . Cambridge university press. [aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-521-28138-5]
  • guillaume (Guillaume), gustaave (Gustave) (1929) temps eight verbe (Temps et verbe). peris: champion.
  • hopar, paul J., Ed. (1982) teins-espekt: bitveen simeintiks end pregmetiks (Semantics and Pragmatics). emstardam: beinjaaminj.
  • smith, kaaralota (Carlota) (1997). the peraameetar of espekt. daurdrekt (Dordrecht): kluvar.
  • tedeschi (Tedeschi), Phillip aur aini jainen, sampaadak. (1981) teins end espekt . (sinteks end simeintiks 14). new yaurk: shaikshanik press (Academic Press).

inhein bhi dekhein

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