jvaar

jvaar
jvaar ke daane

jvaar (Sorghum vulgare ; sanskrut : yavanaal, yavaakaar ya joorn) ek pramukh fasal hai. jvaar kam varsha vaale kshetr mein anaaj tatha chaara dono ke liye boi jaati hain. jvaar jaanvaron ka mahatvapoorn evam poshtik chaara hain. Bhaarat mein yeh fasal lagbhag sava chaar karod ekad bhoomi mein boi jaati hai. yeh khareef ki mukhya fasalon mein hai. yeh ek prakaar ki ghaas hai jiski baali ke daane mote anaajon mein gine jaate hain.

anukram

parichay

sinchaai karke varsha se pehle evam varsha aarambh hote hi iski bovaai ki jaati hai. yadi barasaat se pehle sinchaai karke yeh bo di jaae, to fasal aur jaldi taiyaar ho jaati hai, parantu barasaat jab achhi tarah ho jaae tabhi iska chaara pashuon ko khilaana chaahiye. garami mein iski fasal mein kuchh vish paida ho jaata hai, isliye barasaat se pehle khilaane se pashuon par vish ka bada bura prabhaav pad sakta hai. yeh vish barasaat mein naheen rah jaata hai. chaare ke liye adhik beej lagbhag 12 se 15 ser prati ekad boya jaata hai. ise ghana bone se hara chaara patala evam naram rahata hai aur use kaatkar gaaya tatha bailon ko khilaaya jaata hai. jo fasal daane ke liye boi jaati hai, usamein keval aath ser beej prati ekad daala jaata hai. daana October ke ant tak pak jaata hai bhutte lagne ke baad ek maheene tak iski chidiyon se badi rakhavaali karni padti hai. jab daane pak jaate hain tab bhutte alag kaatkar daane nikaal liye jaate hain. iski ausat paidaavaar chhah se aath man prati ekad ho jaati hai. achhi fasal mein 15 se 20 man prati ekad daane ki paidaavaar hoti hai. daana nikaal lene ke baad lagbhag 100 man prati ekad sookha paushtik chaara bhi paida hota hai, jo baareek kaatkar jaanvaron ko khilaaya jaata hai. sookhe chaaron mein gehooain ke bhoose ke baad jvaar ka danthal tatha patte hi sabse uttam chaara maana jaata hai.

yeh anaaj sansaar ke bahut se bhaagon mein hota hai. Bhaarat, cheen, arab, Africa, America aadi mein iski kheti hoti hai. jvaar sookhe sthaanon mein adhik hoti hai, seed liye hue sthaanon mein utani naheen ho sakti. Bhaarat mein Rajasthan, Punjab aadi mein iska byavahaar bahut adhik hota hai. Bengal, Madras, barama aadi mein jvaar bahut kam boi jaati hai. yadi boi bhi jaati hai to daane achhe naheen padate. iska paudha narakat ki tarah ek danthal ke roop mein seedha 5-6 haath ooaincha jaata hai. danthal mein saat saat aath aath angul par gaaainthein hoti hain jinse haath dedh haath lambe talavaar ke aakaar ke patte donon or nikalte hain. iske sire par fool ke jeere aur safed daanon ke guchhe lagte hain. ye daane chhote chhote hote hain aur gehooain ki tarah khaane ke kaam mein aate hain.

jvaar kai prakaar ki hoti hai jinke paudhon mein koi vishesh bhed naheen dikhaai padta. jvaar ki fasal do prakaar ki hoti hai, ek rabi, doosari khareef. makka bhi isi ka ek bhed hai. isi se kaheen kaheen makka bhi jvaar hi kahalata hai. jvaar ko jonhari, jundi aadi bhi kehte hain. iske danthal aur paudhe ko chaare ke kaam mein laate hain aur 'chari' kehte hain. is ann ke utpattisthaan ke sambandh mein matabhed hai. koi koi ise arab aadi pashchimi deshon se aaya hua maanate hain aur 'jvaar' shabd ko arabi 'doora' se bana hua maanate hain, par yeh mat theek naheen jaan padta. jvaar ki kheti Bhaarat mein bahut praacheen kaal se hoti I hai. par yeh chaare ke liye boi jaati thi, ann ke liye naheen.

jvaar ke utpaadan ke liye bhaugolik kaarak

  • utpaadak desh - sanyukt raajya America, Bhaarat, Pakistan, rus, cheen
  • taapamaan - 25 se 35 se.gre.
  • varsha - 40 se 60 semi.
  • mitti - bhaari domat, halki domat aur elyooviyl

jvaar ke utpaadan ka vishv vitran

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain