juliys seesar

seejr itihaas prasiddh roman sainik evam neetijnya goyas jooliys seejr (101-44 E. poo.) se lekar samraat haidriyn (138 E.) tak ke sabhi roman samraaton ki upaadhi rahi. gaayas jooliys seejr 102 tatha 100 E. poo. ke madhya mein praacheen roman abhijaat kul mein utpann hua tha. vah Venus devi ka vanshaj hone ka daava karta tha. apni yuvaavastha mein usako un bheeshan sangharshon mein bhaag lena pada jo senet virodhi dal tatha anudaar dal ke beech hue. is gruhayuddh (81 E. poo.) mein anudaar dal ki vijay hui jiske parinaamasvaroop seejr desh nishkaasan se baal-baal bach gaya. uske pashchaat‌ kai varshon tak vah adhikaanshat: videshon mein hi raha aur pashchimi Asia maainar mein uttam sainik sevaaon dvaara prasiddhi praapt ki. 74 E. poo. mein vah Italy vaapas aa gaya taaki senet sadasyon ke alpatantr (Senatorial oligarchy) ke viruddh aandolan mein bhaag le sake. usako vibhinn padon par kaarya karna pada. jab tyauhaaron ke aayukt ke roop mein prachur dhan vyaya karke usane nagar ke janasaadhaaran mein lokapriyta praapt kar li. 61 E. poo. mein dakshini Spain ke Governor ke roop mein seejr ne pratham sainik pad sushobhit kiya parantu usane sheegra hi isse tyaagapatr de diya taaki paanpe (Popey) ke apni vijayi sena sahit lautane par rom mein utpann raajaneetik sthiti mein bhaag le sakein. seejr ne kresas (Crassus) tatha paanpe mein raajaneetik gathabandhan kara diya aur usase milkar pratham shaasak varg (first triumvirate) taiyaar kiya. in teenon ne mukhya prashaasakeeya samasyaaon ka samaadhaan apne haath mein liye jinko niyamit "seenetoriyl' shaasan sulajhaane mein asamarth tha. is prakaar seejr kaunsal nirvaachit hua aur apne padaadhikaaron ka upayog karte hue apni sanyukt yojanaaon ko kaaryaanvit karne laga. swayam apne liye usane sena sanchaalan ka uchch pad praapt kar liya jo roman raajaneeti mein bheeshan shakti ka kaarya kar sakta tha. vah siselapaain gaul (Cisalpine gaul) ka Governor niyukt kiya gaya. baad mein traansaelapaain gaal (Transalpine gaul) bhi usaki kamaan mein de diya gaya. gaul mein seejr ke abhiyaanon (58-50 E. m. poo.) ka parinaam yeh hua ki sampoorn France tatha raain (Rhine) nadi tak ke nichle pradesh, jo mool tatha sanskruti ke srot ke vichaar se Italy se kam mahatvapoorn naheen the, roman saamraajya ke aadhiptya mein aa gaye. Germany tatha Belgium ke bahut se kabeelon par usane kai vijay praapt ki aur "call ke rakshak' ka kaaryabhaar grahan kiya. apne praaaint ki seema ke paar ke doorasth sthaan bhi usaki kamaan mein aa gaye. 55 E. poo. mein usane England ke dakshin poorv mein paryavekshan ke liye abhiyaan kiya. doosare varsh usane yeh abhiyaan aur bhi bade star par sanchaalit kiya jiske falasvaroop vah tems nadi ke bahaav ki or ke pradeshon tak mein ghus gaya aur adhikaansh kabeelon ke saradaaron ne aupachaarik roop se usaki adheenata sveekaar kar li. yadyapi vah bhali prakaar samajh gaya tha ki roman gaul ki suraksha ke liye Britain par sthaayi adhikaar praapt karna aavashyak hai, tathaapi gaul mein visham sthiti utpann ho jaane ke kaaran vah aisa karne mein asamarth raha. gaul ke logon ne apne vijeta ke viruddh vidroh kar diya tha kintu 50 E. poo. mein hi seejr gaul mein poorn roop se shaaainti sthaapit kar saka.

swayam seejr ke liye gaul ke abhiyaanon mein vigat varshon mein dohara laabh hua-usane apni sena bhi taiyaar kar li aur apni shakti ka bhi anumaan laga liya. isi beech mein rom ki raajaneetik sthiti vishmatar ho gayi ho. roman upaniveshon ko teen bade kamaanon mein vibhaajit kiya jaana tha jinke adhikaari naamamaatr ki keindreeya satta ke vaastavik niyantran se pare the. paanpe ko Spain ke do praanton ka Governor niyukt kiya gaya, kresas ko poorvi seemaant praant Syria ka Governor banaaya gaya. gaul seejr ke hi kamaan mein rakha gaya. paanpe ne apne praant Spain ki kamaan ka sanchaalan apne pratinidhiyon dvaara kiya aur swayam rom ke nikat raha taaki kendra ki raajaneetiksh sthitiyon par drushti rakhe. kraisas paarathiya ke raajya par aakraman karte samay yuddh mein maara gaya. paanpe tatha seejr mein ekachhatr satta hathiyaane ke liye tanaav tatha spardha ke kaaran yuddh ki sthiti utpann ho gayi. paanpe seejr se khinchane laga aur "senetoriyl alpatantr dal' se samjhauta karne ki sochane laga. senet ne aadesh diya ki seejr dviteeya kaunsal ke roop mein nirvaachit hone se poorv, jiska usako pehle aashvaasan diya ja chuka tha, apni gaul ki kamaan se tyaagapatr de. kintu paanpe, jise 52 poorv mein avaidhaanik roop se truteeya kaunsal ka pad pradaan kar diya gaya tha, apne Spain ke praanton tatha senaaon ko apne adhikaar mein hi rakhe raha. falat: seejr ne khinn hokar gruhayuddh chhed diya aur yeh daava kiya ki vah yeh kadam apne adhikaaron, sammaan aur roman logon ki svatantrata ki raksha ke liye utha raha hai. uske virodhiyon ka netrutv paanpe kar raha tha.

paanpe tatha roman sarkaar ke paas Italy mein bahut thode se hi anubhavi sainik the isliye unhonne rom khaali kar diya aur seejr ne rajdhani par bina kisi virodh ke adhikaar jama liya. seejr ne shaasan satta poorn roop se apne haath mein le li parantu paanpe se use ab bhi khatra tha. seejr ne parvaton ko paar karke thesaali (Thessaly) mein pravesh kiya aur 48 E. poo. ki greeshm ritu mein faaraselees (Pharsalees) ke nikat paanpe ko buri tarah paraast kiya. paanpe misr bhaag gaya jahaaain pahuainchate hi usaka vadh kar diya gaya.

seejr jab ek chhoti si sena lekar usaka peechha kar raha tha usi samay ek nai samasya mein ulajh gaya. misr ke samraat taulemi dasvein ki mrutyu ke baad usaki santaanon mein raajya ke liye jhagada chal raha tha. seejr ne usaki sabse jyeshth santaan kliopaitra (Cleopatra) ka uske bhaai ke viruddh paksh lene ka nirnaya kiya. parantu misr ki sena ne us par aakraman kiya aur 48-47 E. poo. ke sheetakaal mein sikandariya ke raajapraasaad mein use (seejr ko) gher liya. Asia tatha Syria mein bharati kiye gaye sainikon ki sahaayata se seejr yahaaain se nikal bhaaga aur fir kliopaitra ko raajyaaseen kiya (kliopaitra ne usase ek putr ko bhi thode samay baad janm diya. seejr ne tatpashchaat Tunisia mein paanpe ki senaaon ko paraajit kiya. 45 E. poo. ke sharadkaal mein vah rom laut aaya taaki apni vijyon par khushiyaaain manaae aur ganatantr ke bhaavi prashaasan ke liye yojanaaeain poori karein.

yadyapi senet ki baithak rom mein hoti rahi hogi tathaapi raaj satta ka vaastavik kendra seejr ke mukhyaavaas par hi tha. kai baar use taanaashaah ki upaadhi bhi di ja chuki thi, jo ek asthaayi satta hoti thi aur kisi visham paristhiti ka saamana karne ke liye hoti thi. ab usane is upaadhi ko aajeevan dhaaran kar lene ka nishchaya kiya, jiska arth vaastav mein yahi tha ki vah raajya ke samast adhikaariyon tatha sansthaaon par sarvaadhikaar rakhe aur unka raaja kahalaae.

taanaashaah ka roop dhaaran karna hi seejr ki mrutyu ka kaaran hua. ekachhatr raajya ki ghoshana ka arth ganatantr ka ant tha aur ganatantr ke ant hone ka arth Republican sanbhraant samudaaya ke aadhiptya ka ant. iseeliye un logon ne shadyantr rachana aarambh kar diya. shadyantrakaariyon ka neta maarkas boots bana jo apni ni:svaarth deshbhakti ke liye prasiddh tha. parantu iske anuyaayi adhikaanshat: vyaktigat irshya tatha dvesh se prerit the. 15 March 44 E. poo. ko jab senate ki baithak chal rahi thi tab ye log seejr par toot pade aur usaka vadh kar diya. is maas ka yeh din uske liye ashubh hoga, iski chetaavani use de di gayi thi.'

manchan

- sheksapeeyar ke jooliys seejr ka aravind gaud ke nirdeshan me manchan, kaavyaanuvaad- aravind Kumar, asmita naatya sanstha ne ab tak juliys seesar ke kul 40 pradarshan kiye hai. aravind Kumar ke kaavyaanuvaad sheksapeeyar ke jooliys seejar ka manchan raashtreeya naatya vidyaalaya ke liye Ibrahim alkaaji ke nirdeshan mein bhi hua. 1998 me jooliys seejr ka manchan aravind gaud ke nirdeshan me sheksapiyr naatak mahotsav (asam) aur pruthvi theatre mahotsav, Bhaarat paryaavaas kendra (India haibitet center), mein asmita naatya sanstha ne dobaara kiya. Arvind Kumar ne sindhu ghaati sabhyata ki prushthabhoomi mein isi naatak ka kaavya roopaantar bhi kiya hai, jiska naam hai - vikram saindhav.