juaa

Men Playing Board Games

juaa (gambling) ek ati praacheen khel hai. Bhaarat mein jue ka khel akshakreeda ya akshadyoot ke naam se vikhyaat hai. ved ke samay se lekar aaj tak yeh bhaarateeyon ka atyant lokapriya khel raha hai. rigved ke ek prakhyaat sookt (10. 34) mein kitv (juaadi) apni durdasha ka rochak chitr kheenchata hai ki jue mein haar jaane ke kaaran usaki bhaarya tak use naheen poochhati, doosaron ki baat hi kya? vah swayam shiksha deta hai- akshairma deevy: krushimit krushasv (ri. 10. 34. 13). mahaabhaarat jaisa pralayankaari yuddh bhi akshakreeda ke parinaamasvaroop hi hua. paanini ki ashtaadhyaayi tatha kaashika ke anusheelan se akshakreeda ke svaroop ka poora parichay milta hai. paanini use aakshik kehte hain. (ashta. 4. 4. 2). patanjali ne siddhahast dyootakar ke liye akshakitv ya akshadhoort shabdon ka prayog kiya hai.

vaidik kaal mein dyoot ki saadhan saamagri ka nishchit parichay naheen milta, parantu paanini ke samay (pancham shati E. poo.) mein yeh khel aksh tatha shalaaka se khela jaata tha. kautilya ke arthashaastr ka kathan hai ki dyootaadhyaksh ka yeh kaam hai ki vah juaadiyon ko raajya ki or se khelne ke liye aksh aur shalaaka diya kare (3. 20). kisi praacheen kaal mein aksh se taatparya baheda (bibheetak) ke beej se tha. parantu paanini kaal mein aksh chaukani goti aur shalaaka aayataakaar goti hoti thi. in gotiyon ki sankhya paaainch hoti thi, aisa anumaan taittireeya braahman (1. 7. 10) tatha ashtaadhyaayi se bhaleebhaaainti lagaaya ja sakta hai. braahmanon ke granthon mein inke naam bhi paaainch the- aksharaaj, krut, treta, dvaapar tatha kali. kaashika isi kaaran is khel ko panchika dyoot ke naam se pukaarati hai (ashta. 2. 1. 10 par vrutti). paanini ke akshashalaaka sankhyaa: parina (2. 1. 10) sootr mein un dashaaon ka ullekh hai jinmein goti feinkane vaale ki haar hoti thi aur is sthiti ki soochana ke liye akshapari, shalaakaapari, ekapari, dvipri, tripri tatha chatushpari padon ka prayog sanskrut mein kiya jaata tha.

kaashika ke varnan mein spasht hai ki yadi uparyukt paaainchon gotiyaaain chitt girein ya patt girein, to donon avasthaaon mein goti feinkane vaale ki jeet hoti thi (yatr yada sarve uttaan patanti avaachyo va, tada paatayita jayati. tasyaivaasya vidyaatonyatha paate jaayate- kaashika 2. 1. 10 par). arthaat yadi ek goti anya gotiyon ki avastha se bhinn hokar chitt ya patt pade, to haar hoti thi aur iske liye ekapari shabd prayukt hote the. isi prakaar do gotiyon se hone waali haar ko dvipri teen se tripri tatha chaar ki haar ko chatushpari kehte the. jeetne ka daaainv krut aur haarne ka daaainv kali kahalaata tha. bauddh granthon mein bhi krut tatha kali ka yeh virodh sanketit kiya gaya hai (kali hi dheeraanan, katan mugaanan).

jue mein baaji bhi lagaai jaati hai aur is dravya ke liye paanini ne glah shabd ki siddhi maani hai (akshe shu glah:, ashta. 3. 3. 70). mahaabhaarat ke prakhyaat juaadi shakuni ka yeh kehna theek hi hai ki baaji lagaane ke kaaran hi juaa logon mein itna badnaam hai. mahaabhaarat, arthashaastr aadi granthon se pata chalta hai ki juaa sabha mein khela jaata tha. smruti granthon mein juaa khelne ke niyamon ka poora parichay diya gaya hai. arthashaastr ke anusaar juaadi ko apne khel ke liye raajya ko dravya dena padta tha. baaji lagaae gaye dhan ka paaainch pratishat raajya ko kar ke roop mein praapt hota tha. pancham shati mein ujjayini mein iske vipul prachaar ki soochana mruchhakatik naatak se hamein upalabdh hoti hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

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