josef staalin

josef staalin
Иaaоaaсaaиaaф Вaaиaaсaaсaaаaaрaaиaaоaaнaaоaaвaaиaaч Сaaтaaаaaлaaиaaн (roosi)
იaaოaaსaaეaaბ ბaaეaaსaaაaaრaaიaaოaaნaaიaaს ძaaე სaaტaaაaaლaaიaaნaaი (jaurjiyn)
Stalin lg zlx1.jpg
Stalin in 1936

General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
pad bahaal
3 April 1922 – 16 October 1952
poorva dhikaari Vyacheslav Molotov
(as Responsible Secretary)
uttara dhikaari Nikita Khrushchev
(office reestablished)

Chairman of the Council of Ministers
pad bahaal
6 May 1941 – 5 March 1953
First Deputies Nikolai Voznesensky
Vyacheslav Molotov
poorva dhikaari Vyacheslav Molotov
uttara dhikaari Georgy Malenkov

People's Commissar for Defense of the Soviet Union
pad bahaal
19 July 1941 – 25 fravari 1946
pradhaanamantri/primeeyar Himself
poorva dhikaari Semyon Timoshenko
uttara dhikaari Nikolai Bulganin
after vacancy

Member of the Secretariat
pad bahaal
3 April 1922 – 5 March 1953

Full member of the Presidium
pad bahaal
25 March 1919 – 5 March 1953

Member of the Orgburo
pad bahaal
16 January 1919 – 5 March 1953

janm 18 December 1878
Gori, Tiflis Governorate, Russian Empire
mrutyu 5 March 1953(1953-03-05) (umr 74)
Kuntsevo Dacha near Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
samaadhi sthal Kremlin Wall Necropolis, Moscow, Russian Federation
raashtreeyata Soviet
raajaneetik dal Communist Party of the Soviet Union
jeevan sangi Ekaterina Svanidze (1906–1907)
Nadezhda Alliluyeva (1919–1932)
bachche Yakov Dzhugashvili, Vasily Dzhugashvili, Svetlana Alliluyeva
dharm None (atheist)
hastaakshar
Military service
nishtha saaaincha:desh aaainkade Soviet Union
seva/shaakha Soviet Armed Forces
seva kaal 1943–1953
pad Marshal of the Soviet Union (1943–1945)
Generalissimus of the Soviet Union (1945–1953)
command All (supreme commander)
ladaaiyaan/yuddh World War II
puraskaar saaaincha:Hero of the Soviet Union Hero of Socialist Labor medal.png Badge Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.jpg
Ordervictory rib.png Ordervictory rib.png
Order of Red Banner ribbon bar.png Order of Red Banner ribbon bar.png 20 years saf rib.png Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png
Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png Order suvorov1 rib.png Ribbon bar for the medal for the Defense of Moscow.png Orderglory rib.png
OrdenSuheBator.png OrdenSuheBator.png Victoryjapan rib.png Victoryjapan rib.png
800thMoscowRibbon.png Order redstar rib.png Order redstar rib.png Order redstar rib.png
Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Bar.png Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Bar.png TCH Rad Bileho Lva 5 tridy (1990) BAR.svg TCH Rad Bileho Lva 1 tridy (pre1990) BAR.svg Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Bar.png

jojef visaarionovich staalin (roosi : Иaaоaáaaсaaиaaф Вaaиaaсaaсaaаaaрaaиaaоaáaaнaaоaaвaaиaaч Дaaжaaуaaгaaаaaшaaвaaиaaлaaи) (1878-1953) soviyt sangh ka 1922 se 1953 tak neta tha. staalin ka janm gori jaurjiya mein hua tha.

jeevani

staalin ka janm jaurjiya mein gori naamak sthaan par hua tha. uske maata pita nirdhan the. jojf girjaaghar ke school mein padhne ki apeksha apne sahapaathiyon ke saath ladne aur ghoomane mein adhik ruchi rakhata tha. jab jaurjiya mein nae prakaar ke joote banane lage to jojf ka pita tiflis chala gaya. yahaaain jojf ko sangeet aur saahitya mein abhiruchi ho gayi. is samay tiflis mein bahut sa kraantikaari saahitya chori se baaainta jaata tha. jojf in pustakon ko bade chaav se padhne laga. 19 varsh ki avastha mein vah maarks ke siddhaanton par aadhaarit ek gupt sanstha ka sadasya bana. 1899 E. mein iske dal se prerana praapt kar kaakeshiya ke majadooron ne hadtaal ki. sarkaar ne in majdooron ka daman kiya. 1900 E. mein tiflis ke dal ne fir kraanti ka aayojan kiya. iske falasvaroop jojf ko tiflis chhodkar baatoom bhaag jaana pada. 1902 E. mein jojf ko bandeegruh mein daal diya gaya. 1903 se 1913 ke beech use chhah baar saaiberiya bheja gaya. March 1917 mein sab kraantikaariyon ko mukt kar diya gaya. staalin ne jarman senaaon ko haraakar do baar khaarkov ko svatantr kiya aur unhein leningred se khaded diya.

1922 mein soviyt samaajavaadi ganaraajyon ka sangh banaaya gaya aur staalin usaki keindreeya upasamiti mein sammilit kiya gaya. lenin aur trautski vishvakraanti ke samarthak the. staalin unase sahamat na tha. jab usi varsh lenin ko lakava maar gaya to satta ke liye trautski aur staalin mein sangharsh praarambh ho gaya. 1924 mein lenin ki mrutyu ke pashchaat staalin ne apne ko usaka shishya batalaaya. chaar varsh ke sangharsh ke pashchaat trautski ko paraajit karke vah roos ka neta ban baitha.

1928 E. mein staalin ne pratham panchavarsheeya yojana ki ghoshana ki. is yojana ke teen mukhya uddeshya the - saamoohik krushi, bhaari udyogon ki sthaapana aur nae shramik samaaj ka nirmaan. sarkaar saamoohik kheton mein utpann ann ko ek nishchit dar par khareedati thi aur traiktar kiraae par deti thi. nirdhan aur madhya varg ke krushakon ne is yojana ka samarthan kiya. dhani krushakon ne iska virodh kiya kintu unka daman kar diya gaya. 1940 E. mein 86% ann saamoohik kheton mein, 12 % sarkaari faarmon mein aur keval 1 % vyaktigat kisaanon ke kheton mein utpann hone laga. is prakaar lagbhag 12 varshon mein roos mein krushi mein yeh kraantikaari parivartan ho gaya. udyogon ka vikaas karne ke liye turkistaan mein bijli ka utpaadan badhaaya gaya. nai kraanti ke falasvaroop 1937 mein keval 10% vyakti ashikshit rah gaye jabki 1917 se poorv 79% vyakti ashikshit the.

staalin saamyavaadi neta hi na tha, vah raashtreeya taanaashaah bhi tha. 1936 mein 13 roosi netaaon par staalin ko maarane ka shadyantr rachane ka aarop lagaaya gaya aur unhein praanadand diya gaya. is prakaar staalin ne apna maarg nishkantak kar liya. 1937 tak majadoor sangh, soviyt aur sarkaar ke sabhi vibhaag poornataya uske adheen ho gaye. kala aur saahitya ke vikaas par bhi staalin ka poorn niyantran tha.

1924 mein Britain ke pradhaanamantri ne roos ki sarkaar ko maanyata de di. 1926 mein soviyt sarkaar ne tarki aur Germany aadi deshon se sandhi ki. 1934 E. mein roos raashtrasangh ka sadasya bana. jab Germany ne apni sainik shakti badha li to staalin ne Britain aur France se sandhi karke roos ki suraksha ka prabandh kiya. kintu Britain ne jab myoonik samjhaute se Germany ko maagein maan li to usane 1939 mein Germany ke saath tatasthata ki sandhi kar li. dviteeya vishvayuddh ke praarambh mein roos ne Germany ka paksh liya. jab Germany ne roos par aakraman kiya to Britain aur amareeka ne roos ki sahaayata ki. 1942 mein roos ne Germany ko aage badhne se rok diya aur 1943-44 mein usane Germany ki senaaon ko paraajit kiya. 1945 mein staalin ne apne aapko jenaralisimo (generalissimo) ghoshit kiya.

February, 1945 mein yaalta sammelan mein roos ko suraksha parishd mein nishedhaadhikaar diya gaya. chekoslovaakiya se cheen tak roos ke netrutv mein saamyavaadi sarkaarein sthaapit ho gayi. France aur Britain ki shakti apekshaakrut kam ho gayi. 1947 se hi roos aur amareeka mein sheet yuddh praarambh ho gaya. saamyavaad ka prasaar rokane ke liye amareeka ne Europeeya deshon ki aarthik sahaayata dene ka nishchaya kiya. usi varsh roos ne antararaashtreeya saamyavaad sanstha ko punarujjeevit kiya. staalin ke netrutv mein soviyt roos ne sabhi kshetron mein abhootapoorv safalta praapt ki. vastuon ka utpaadan bahut badh gaya aur saadhaaran naagrik ko shiksha, makaan, majadoori aadi jeevan ki sabhi aavashyak suvidhaaeain upalabdh ho gain.

inhein bhi dekhein