joot

joot (patasan) ke paudhe (kaurkoras olitorias (Corchorus olitorius) tatha kaurkoras kaipsulaaris (Corchorus capsularis))

joot ek dvibeejapatri, reshedaar paudha hai. iska tana patala aur belanaakaar hota hai. iske tane se pattiyaaain alag kar paani mein gatthar baaaindhakar sadne ke liye daal diya jaata hai. iske baad reshe ko paudhe se alag kiya jaata hai. iske reshe bore, dari, tamboo, tirpaal, taat, rassiyaaain, nimnakoti ke kapde tatha kaagaj banaane ke kaam aata hai.

'joot' shabd sanskrut ke 'jata' ya 'joot' se nikla samjha jaata hai. Europe mein 18veen shataabdi mein pehle-pahal is shabd ka prayog milta hai, yadyapi vahaaain is dravya ka aayaat 18veen shataabdi ke poorv se "paat" ke naam se hota aa raha tha.

anukram

joot ke paudhe

joot ke reshe do prakaar ke jut ke paudhon se praapt hote hain. ye paudhe tiliyesii (Tiliaceae) kul ke kaurakoras kaipsulairis (Corchorus capsularis) aur kaurakoras olitoriys (Oolitorius) hain aur reshe ke liye donon hi ugaae jaate hain. pehle prakaar ki fasal kul vaarshik kheti ke 3/4 bhaag mein aur doosare prakaar ki fasal kul kheti ke shesh 1/4 bhaag mein hoti hai. ye pradhaanata Bhaarat aur Pakistan mein upajaae jaate hain.

kaipsulairis kathor hota hai aur iski kheti ooainchi tatha neechi donon prakaar ki bhoomiyon mein hoti hai jab ki olitoriys ki kheti keval ooainchi bhoomi mein hoti hai. kaipsulairis ki pattiyaaain gol, beej andaakaar gahre bhoore rang ke aur reshe safed par kuchh kamjor hote hain, jab ki olitoriys ki pattiyaaain vartul, soochyaakaar aur beej kaale rang ke hote hain aur reshe sundar sudrudh par kuchh feeke rang ke. kaipsulairis ki kismein fandook, ghaaleshvari, fooleshvari, deseehaat, Mumbai di 154 aur aar 85 hain tatha olitoriys ki desi, tosaah, aarathoo aur chinsura green hain. beej se fasal ugaai jaati hai. beej ke liye paudhon ko poora pakane diya jaata hai, par reshe ke liye pakane ke pehle hi kaat liya jaata hai.

joot ki kheti

Bhaarat ke Bengal, Bihar, udeesa, asam aur uttar pradesh ke kuchh taraai bhaagon mein lagbhag 16 lakh ekad bhoomi mein joot ki kheti hoti hai. isse lagbhag 38 lakh gaaainth (ek gaaainth ka bhaar 400 pound) joot paida hota hai. utpaadan ka lagbhag 67 prati shat Bhaarat mein hi khapata hai. 7 prati shat kisaanon ke paas rah jaata hai aur shesh Britain, Belgium Germany, France, Italy aur sanyukt raajya, amareeka, ko niryaat hota hai. amareeka, misr, braajil, Africa, aadi anya deshon mein iske upajaane ki cheshtaaeain ki gain, par Bhaarat ke joot ke sammukh ve abhi tak tik naheen sake.

joot ki kheti garam aur nam jalavaayu mein hoti hai. taap 25-35 celcius aur aapekshik aardrata 90 pratishat rahani chaahiye. halaki balui, delta ki dumat mitti mein kheti achhi hoti hai. is drushti se Bengal ka jalavaayu iske liye sabse adhik upayukt hai. khet ki jutaai achhi honi chaahiye. prati ekad 50 se 100 man gobar ki khaad, ya kanpost aur 400 pound lakdi ya ghaas paat ki raakh daali jaati hai. puraani mitti mein 30-60 pound naaitrojan diya ja sakta hai. kuchh naaitrojan bone ke pehle aur shesh beejaankuran ke ek saptaah baad dena chaahiye. potaash aur choone se bhi laabh hota hai. neechi bhoomi mein February mein aur ooainchi bhoomi mein March se July tak boaai hoti hai. saadhaaranataya chhitk boaai hoti hai. ab dril ka bhi upayog hone laga hai. prati ekad 6 se lekar 10 pound tak beej lagta hai.

paudhe ke teen se lekar nau inch tak bade hone par pehle godaai ki jaati hai. baad mein do ya teen niraai aur ki jaati hai. June se lekar October tak fasalein kaati jaati hain. fool jhar jaane tatha fali nikal aane par hi fasal kaatani chaahiye. anyatha der karne se pachheti kataai se reshe majaboot, par bhadde aur mote ho jaate hain aur unamein chamak naheen hoti. bahut ageti kataai se paidaavaar kam aur reshe kamjor hote hain.

bhoomi ki satah se paudhe kaat liye jaate hain. kaheen kaheen paudhe aamool ukhaad liye jaate hain. aisi kati fasal ko do teen din sookhi jameen mein chhod dete hain, jisse pattiyaaain sookh ya sad kar gir padti hain. tab danthalon ko gaththaron mein baaaindhakar patton, ghaasapaaton, mitti aadi se dhainkakar chhod dete hain. fir gaththaron se kachara hataakar unki shaakhaadaar chotiyon ko kaatkar nikaal lete hain. ab paudhe galaae jaate hain. galaane ke kaam do din se lekar ek maas tak ka samay lag sakta hai. yeh bahut kuchh vaayumandal ke taap aur paani ki prakruti par nirbhar karta hai. galane ka kaam kaisa chal raha hai, iski praarambh mein prati din jaaainch karte rahate hain. jab dekhte hai ki danthal se reshe badi saralata se nikaale ja sakte hain tab danthal ko paani se nikaal kar reshe alag karte aur dhokar sukhaate hain.

resha nikaalne wala paani mein khada rahakar, danthal ka ek mootha lekar jad ke nikat vaale chhor ko chhaani ya muaingari se maar maar kar samast danthal chheel leta hai. resha ya danthal tootana naheen chaahiye. ab vah use sir ke chaaron or ghuma ghuma kar paani ki satah par pat rakh kar, reshe ko apni or kheenchakar, apadravyon ko dhokar aur kaale dhabbon ko chun chun kar nikaal deta hai. ab usaka paani nichod kar dhoop mein sookhane ke liye use hava mein taaaing deta hai. reshon ki pooliyaaain baaaindhakar joot press mein bheji jaati hain, jahaaain unhein alag alag vilgaakar dravachaalit daab (Hydraulic press) mein dabaakar gaaainth banaate hain. danthalon mein 4.5 se 7.5 prati shat resha rahata hai.

joot ke reshe

ye saadhaaranataya chhah se lekar das foot tak lambe hote hain, par vishesh avasthaaon mein 14 se lekar 15 foot tak lambe paae gaye hain. turant ka nikaala resha adhik majaboot, adhik chamakadaar, adhik komal aur adhik safed hota hai. khula rakhane se in gunon ka hraas hota hai. joot ke reshe ka viranjan kuchh seema tak ho sakta hai, par viranjan se bilkul safed resha naheen praapt hota. resha aardrataagraahi hota hai. chhah se lekar 23 prati shat tak nami reshe mein rah sakti hai.

joot ki paidaavaar, fasal ki kism, bhoomi ki urvarata, antaraalan, kaatne ka samay aadi, anek baaton par nirbhar karte hain. kaipsulairis ki paidaavaar prati ekad 10-15 man aur olitoriys ki 15-20 man prati ekad hoti hai. achhi jotaai se prati ekad 30 man tak paidaavaar ho sakti hai.

joot ke reshe se bore, hesiyn tatha painking ke kapde bante hain. kaaleen, dariyaaain, parade, gharon ki sajaavat ke saamaan, astar aur rassiyaaain bhi banti hain. danthal jalaane ke kaam aata hai aur usase baarood ke koyale bhi banaae ja sakte hain. danthal ka koyala baarood ke liye achha hota hai. danthal se lugadi bhi praapt hoti hai, jo kaagaj banaane ke kaam aa sakti hai.

baahari kadiyaaain

sansthaaeain