jonaraaj

jonaraaj (dehaant: 1459 isavi) 15veen sadi ke ek Kashmiri itihaasakaar aur sanskrut kavi the.

unhonne 'dviteeya raajatarangini' naamak itihaas-granth likha jismein unhonne kalhan ki raajatarangini ka san 1149 tak ka vruttaant jaari rakhate hue apne samakaaleen sultaan jain-ul-abideena​ (urf 'bud shaah') tak ka varnan likha. bud shaah ka raaj san 1423 se 1474 tak chala lekin jonaraaj unke shaasanakaal ka poora bakhaan naheen likh paae kyonki unke raajakaal ke 35vein varsh mein hi jonaraaj ka dehaant ho gaya. unke shishya shreevar ne vruttaant aage chalaaya aur unki kruti ka naam 'truteeya raajatarangini' tha jo 1459-1486 kaal ke baare mein hai.[1]

dviteeya raajatarangini mein jonaraaj ne Kashmir mein hindu raajavanshon ka ant aur muslim raajavanshon ki shuruaat ka mahatvapoorn varnan diya hai.

parichay

jonaraaj sanskrut ke vidvaan, teekaakaar evam itihaasakaar the. Kashmir ke sultaan jainul aabideen (1420-70 io) ke ve raajadarabaari pandit the. yadyapi unke janm aur mrutyu ki nishchit tithiyaaain agyaat hain, tathaapi 1389 se 1459 io ke beech unka jeevit rahana adhik sambhaavit hai. unke pita ka naam nonaraaj aur pitaamah ka lolaraaj tha. braahman parivaar mein utpann jonaraaj kushaagrabuddhi the aur unhonne sanskrut saahitya ka pragaadh adhyayan kiya tha. sultaan jainul aabideen ki nyaayapriyta ke parinaamasvaroop unhein Patrick sampatti bhi mil gayi.

prasiddh 'kiraataarjuneeyam' (1449 io) aur mahaakavi mankhavirchit 'shreekanthacharitm' par lalit teekaaeain likhne ke baad jonaraaj ne mahaakavi jayaanak krut aitihaasik granth 'pruthveeraajavijya mahaakaavyam' ki vidvattaapoorn teeka likhi. unki pruthveeraajavijya ki teeka se prakat hai ki unamein arthajnyaaan, aitihaasik nivesh, sahi vyaakhya tatha svatantr tippaniyon ke lekhan ka adbhut kaushal tha. kadaachit unki isi teeka se prabhaavit hokar saltanat ke nyaayaalayon ke nireekshak (sarvadharmaadhikaari) shiryabhatt ne unhein kalhan ki raajatarangini ko poorn karne ki aajnyaa di. kalhan Kashmir ka itihaas 1149-50 io tak hi likh sake the. uske aage 1459 io tak ka itihaas jonaraaj ne likha jo 'dviteeya raajatarangini' ke naam se vikhyaat hai. usamein jonaraaj ne jayasinh se raaneekota (1149-50 se 1339 io) tak ke hindu raajaaon ka 347 shlokon mein (daao pitrsan dvaara sanshodhit 'dviteeya raajatarangini', Mumbai sanskaran, 1896) sankshipt varnan kiya hai. iski tulana mein shaahameer ke Kashmir hadapne (1339 io) se lekar jainul aabideen ke raajyakaal ke 1459 io tak ke itihaas ka adhik varnan hai.

steen ke kathanaanusaar jonaraaj mein yathesht upalabdhiyaaain to theen, kintu tadanuroop maulikta ka abhaav tha. fir bhi jonaraaj ne kalhan se milti julati shaili mein itihaas likhne mein jis kaavyaatmak yogyata, charitraniroopan ki utkrushtata tatha ghatnaaon ke varnan mein dakshata ka parichay diya hai, vah stutya hai. vaigyaanik shaili ka anusaran karanevaale aadhunik itihaasakaar mein vastuparakata, nishpakshata aur vivekasheelata sadrush jin gunon ka hona aavashyak samjha jaata hai unamein unka samuchit vikaas na hote hue bhi jonaraaj ne apne granth mein yathaarth vivran dene ki cheshta ki hai. jainul aabideen ke vishesh krupaapaatr rahane ke kaaran sultaan ke vyaktigat gunon ke atiranjit varnan aur unki kamiyon ke baare mein granthakaar ki chuppi khatakati avashya hai, tathaapi samakaalik hote hue unhonne sikandarashaah aur uske hindu utpeedk mantri suhabhatt ke dharmaandh krutyon ka varnan karte samay koi sankoch naheen kiya. unka Kashmir ka bhaugolik varnan sahi hai. unhonne pratyek raaja ke Abhishek aur mrutyu ki theek tithiyaaain di hai. kintu anya hindu itihaasalekhakon ki bhaaainti unamein bhi ek dosh tha. unhonne alag alag shaasakon ke samay ki vibhinn ghatnaaon ka koi tithikram naheen diya. dviteeya raajatarangini ki bhaasha mein arabi, faarasi aur Turkey shabdon ka bhi samaavesh hua hai. 'dviteeya raajatarangini' likhte hue hi 1459 io mein unka praanaant ho gaya. unke shishya (putr?) shreevar ne unke baad raajatarangini ke vishay ko aage badhaaya. sanskrut vidya ke hraas ke dinon mein jonaraaj dvaara arjit keerti mahatvapoorn thi. kalhan ke pashchaat us paripaati ke ine gin itihaasakaaron mein jonaraaj ka sthaan surakshit hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Medieval Kashmir: being a reprint of the Rajataranginis of Jonaraja, Shrivara and Shuka, as translated into English by J.C. Dutt and published in 1898 A.D. under the title "Kings of Kashmira," Volume 3, Rāajāanaka Jonarāaja, Jogesh Chandra Dutt, Shyam Lal Sadhu, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 1993, ... concluded it in AD 1149. After about three hundred years Jonaraja, under the insipiration and command of his sovereign Zain-ul-Abidin, undertook to record the events of the intervening period. On the death of Jonaraja in 1459 AD ...