jonaathan swift

jonaathan swift

jonaathan swift (Jonathan Swift) (30 November 1667 - 19 October 1745) aayaralaind ke nibndhakaar, kavi, vyangyakaar the. teekhe vyangya ka jaisa nirmam prahaar swift ki rachanaaon mein milta hai vaisa shaayad hi kaheen anyatr mile.

jeevani

jonaathan swift ka janm Ireland ke dabalin nagar mein hua tha. pandrah varsh ki avastha mein inhonne dabalin ke triniti kaalej mein pravesh kiya. kaalej chhodne ke saath hi inhonne sar William teinpul ke yahaaain unke sekretari ke roop mein kaam karna praarambh kiya aur unke saath san 1699 E. tak rahe. vah samay dalagat raajaneeti ki drushti se bade kashamash ka tha aur swift ne hvig party ke viruddh dori dal ka saath diya. ye ek mahatvaakaankshi vyakti the. tori sarkaar se inhonne apni sevaaon ke puraskaarasvaroop badi aashaaeain ki theen jo poori naheen hui. jeevan ke antim din niraasha aur du:kh mein beete.

krutiyaaain

swift ki praarambhik aakaanksha kavi hone ki thi, lekin inki saahityik pratibha antat: vyangyaatmak rachanaaon mein mukharit hui. inki pehli mahatvapoorn kruti "baital ov the books" san 1697 mein likhi gayi lekin san 1704 mein bina lekhak ke naam ke chhapi. is pustak mein swift ne praacheen tatha aadhunik lekhakon ke tulanaatmak mahatva par vyangyaatmak shaili mein apne vichaar vyakt kiye hain. jahaaain ek or praacheen lekhakon ne madhumakkhi ki tarah prakruti se amrutatulya gyaan ka sanchaya kiya, aadhunik lekhak makadi ki tarah apne hi aantarik bhaavon ka taana baana prastut karte hain.

inki doosari mahatvapoorn rachana "the tel ov A tav" bhi san 1704 mein gumanaam hi chhapi. is pustak mein swift ne roman church evam diseintars ki tulana mein angreji church ko achha siddh karne ka prayatn kiya.

swift ka "gulivrs traivels" angreji saahitya ki sarvottam rachanaaon mein se hai. gulivr ek saahasi yaatri hai jo nae deshon ki khoj mein aise aise sthaanon par jaata hai jahaaain ke log tatha unki sabhyata maanav jaati tatha usaki sabhyata se sarvatha bhinn hain. tulanaatmak adhyayan dvaara swift ne maanav samaaj-vyavastha, shaasan, nyaaya, svaarthaparata ke parinaamasvaroop honevaale yuddh aadi par teevr prahaar kiya. praaya: unka rosh sanyam ki seema ka atikraman kar jaata hai. kaheen kaheen aisa prateet hota hai jaise unhein maanav jaati se teevr ghruna ho. katipya aalochakon ne swift ki ghruna ka kaaran unke jeevan ki asafalataaon ko bataaya hai. lekin is mahaan lekhak ko vyaktigat niraasha ki abhivyakti karanevaala maatra sveekaar karna uske saath anyaaya karna hoga. swift ne "gulivrs traijel" mein samaaj evam shaasan ki buraaiyon par teekha vyangya karne ke saath hi saath satya aur nyaaya ke ooainche aadarshon ki sthaapana bhi ki aur isi kaaran inki ganana angreji saahitya ke mahaanatam lekhakon mein hai.