jmeendaari pratha

darabhanga ke jameendaar lakshmaneshvar Singh

jameendaari pratha Bhaarat mein mugal kaal evam british kaal mein prachalit ek raajanaitik-saamaajik kureeti thi jismein bhoomi ka svaamitv us par kaam karne vaalon ka na hokar kisi aur (jameendaar) ka hota tha jo kheti karne vaalon se kar vasoolate the. Bhaarat ke svatantrat hone ke baad yeh pratha samaapt kar di gayi.

anukram

parichay evam itihaas

Bhaarat ki praacheen vichaaradhaara ke anusaar bhoomi saarvajanik sampatti thi, isaliye yeh vyakti ki sampatti naheen ho sakti thi. bhoomi bhi vaayu, jal evam prakaash ki tarah prakrutidtt upahaar maani jaati thi. maharshi jaimini ke mataanusaar "raaja bhoomi ka samarpan naheen kar sakta tha kyonki yeh usaki sampatti naheen varan maanav samaaj ki sammilit sampatti hai. isaliye ispar sabka samaan roop se adhikaar hai". manu ka bhi spasht kathan hai ki "rishiyon ke mataanusaar bhoomisvaamitv ka pratham adhikaar use hai jisne jungle kaatkar use saaf kiya tha jota" (manusmruti, 8, 237,239). ataev praacheen Bhaarat ke kaafi bade bhaag mein bhoomi par gram ke pradhaan ka nirvaachan graamasamudaaya karta tha tatha usaki niyukti raajya ki sammati se hoti thi. raajya use bhoomikr na dene par hata sakta tha, yadyapi yeh pad vanshaanugat tha tatha iski praapti ke liye janamat tatha raajyasveekruti aavashyak thi. ataev vartamaan samay ke jameendaaron se, jo nirvaachit naheen hote ve bhinn the.

praacheen Bhaarat mein bhoomi ka sampatti ke roop mein krayavikraya sambhav naheen tha. is tathya ki pushti paashchaatya vidvaan beden paavel tatha sar George kainpabel ne bhi ki hai. kainpabel ka kathan hai ki bhoomi jotane ka adhikaar ek adhikaar maatr hi tha aur hindu vyavastha ke anusaar bhoomi naheen maana gaya tha. aadhunik anusandhaanon dvaara yeh gyaat hua hai ki praacheen Bhaarat mein saamant, uparik, bhogik, pratihr tatha dandanaayak vidyamaan the. ye log nyoonaadhik saamantapratha ke anukool the. kintu hamein inke adhikaaron tatha kartavyon ka pata nishchaya roop se naheen ho saka hai, sivaaya iske ki ye log apne svaamiyon ko aavashyakta padne par sainik bhejate the. in adhikaariyon ko paarishramik ke roop mein bhoomi pradaan ki jaati thi. bhoomivyastha ke sambandh mein yaajnyaavalkya ke mataanusaar chaar varg, maheepati, kshetrasvaami, krushak aur shikmi the (yaajnyaavalkya 2.158). aachaarya bruhaspati ne kshetrasvaami ke sthaan mein keval svaami shabd ka hi prayog kiya hai parantu iska spashteekaran kar diya hai ki svaami, raaja aur khetihr ke madhya ka varg tha. uparyukt varnan keval bhoodhruti ke vargeekaran ko ingit karta hai, na ki krushak ko ek aangl das ke star par pahuaincha deta hai.

mukhya prashn to yeh hai ki bhoomi par svatv adhikaar kisko - raajya ko, krushak ko athva kisi madhyavarti varg ko vidvaanon ke mataanusaar praacheen Bhaarat mein yeh adhikaar (Servitus) hi tha jo svatv adhikaar naheen kaha ja sakta.

madhyakaal

yavan shaasanakaal mein ham is praacheen bhoomivyastha mein koi roopaantar naheen paate aur na bhoomi-svatv-adhikaaron ke mool siddhaanton mein parivartan hi. yavan shaasak bhoomikr gaaainv ke mukhiya dvaara hi vasool karte the aur kabhi-kabhi sthaaneeya saradaaron va raajaaon dvaara, jo apna star gaaainv ke mukhiya se ooaincha hone ka daava karte the. in raajaaon ke daave mein raajya aur krushak ke beech mein ek madhyavarti varg ka janm prateet hota hai. parantu saamantavaad pad avarodh sthaayi rakha gaya tha kyonki raajya sarvada in raajaaon ko karmachaari hi maanate the. yadyapi ye raaja vanshaanugat hone lage the tathaapi raajya ko inke pad ko dene tatha vaapas lene ka adhikaar sadaiv praapt tha. ek raaja ke uttaraadhikaari ko raaja ki sanad praapt karne ke liye praarthanaapatr dena padta tha aur sanad ki praapti ke pashchaat hi vah raaja hota tha. aaineakabari mein krushak tatha raajya ke beech mein kisi madhyavarti varg ko maanyata naheen di gayi hai. tathaakathit raaja aur jameendaar saiddhaantik aur vaastavik roop mein keval kar vasool karanevaale karmachaari hi the.

yeh ullekhaneeya hai ki yavan shaasakon ne bhoomi-svaamitv-adhikaar ka kabhi daava naheen kiya tha. yeh baat in aitihaasik tathyon se spasht hai ki aurangajeb ne hundi, Palam tatha anya sthaanon par krushakon se bhoomi khareedi thi, jaisa Akbar ne akabaraabaad aur Allahabad mein kile banaane ke liye kiya tha. aisa hi shaahajahaaain ne bhi kiya ukt pramaanon se siddh hota hai ki yavan shaasak keval kar vasool karne mein hi sampatti adhikaar maanate the, na ki bhoomi mein. unke shaasanakaal mein krushak ke adhikaaron ko uchchatam maanyata di gayi thi. krushak apna kar raaja tatha gaaainv ke mukhiya dvaara hi deta tha aur raaja tatha mukhiya ko raajya dvaara is kaarya ka paarishramik milta tha.

british kaal

san 1707 i0 mein aurangajeb ki mrutyu ke pashchaat krushakon ke adhikaaron ka lop dheere-dheere aarambh hua jab ki keindreeya satta shithil padne lagi. is aaraajakata ke samay mein ardhasaamantavaadi svaartho ki manobhaavana ka praadurbhaav hua. jab raajya ki satta shithil padne lagi, raajya ke karmachaari praja ke jaanmaal ki raksha karne mein asamarth hone lage. falasvaroop graamanivaasi raksha ke liye shaktishaali karmachaari evam raaja ya mukhiya logon ka sahaara lene lage. in logon ne svabhaavat: sharanaarthi krushakon ke bhoomyadhikaaron par aakraman kiya. in paristhitiyon mein jameendaari pratha ke ankur paae jaate hain. parantu is sankatakaal mein bhi krushakon ke bhoomyadhikaaron ka poorn samarpan naheen hua tha.

Bhaarat mein angrejon ke aagamanakaal se hi jameendaari pratha ka udaya hone laga. angrej shaasakon ka vishvaas tha ki ve bhoomi ke svaami hain aur krushak unki praja hain isaliye unhonne sthaayi tatha asthaayi bandobast bade krushakon tatha raajaaon aur jameendaaron se kiye. yadyapi raajaneetik auchitya se prabhaavit hokar usane ek ek paragana har kar vasool karanevaale ijaaredaar ko paaainch varsh ke liye patte par de diya. is prakaar jameendaari pratha ko angrajon ne maanyata pradaan ki yadyapi aarambh mein unka vichaar krushakon ko unke adhikaaron se vanchit karne ka naheen tha san 1786 i0 mein laard kaarn vaalis, vaaren hestigj ke baad, Governor general hua. laard kaarnavaalis bhi jameendaari pratha ke paksh mein tha. usane san 1791 i0 Bengal, Bihar tatha udeesa mein das varsheeya bandobast ki aajnyaa di. do varsh pashchaat board of daairektars ne is das varsheeya yojana ko sthaayi bandobast (permanent settlement) bana dene ki anumati de di.

Madras mein jameendaari pratha ka udaya angrej shaasakon ki neelaam neeti dvaara hua. gaaainvon ki bhoomi ka vibhaajan kar unhein neelaam kar diya jaata tha aur adhiktam moolya denevaale ko vikraya kar diya jaata tha. praarambh mein avadh mein bandobast krushak se hi kiya gaya tha parantu tadanantar raajaneetik kaaranon se yeh bandobast jameendaaron se kiya gaya. mahaan itihaasakaar sar Vincent e0 smith, Aligadh ki bandobast report mein, yeh baat spasht roop se sveekaar karta hai ki prachalit bhoomyadhikaaron ki upeksha karte hue keval upayogita ko lakshya mein rakhakar bandobast ijaaradaaron (revenue farmers) se kiye gaye. anyaayapoorn kararaashi ikattha karne ka yeh sabse saral upaaya hai tatha yeh raajaneeti ke drushtikon se bhi upayogi hai kyonki iske falasvaroop sarkaar ka ek shaktishaali tatha dhani varg ki sahaayata milti rahegi.

is prakaar bhaaratavarsh ke itihaas mein sarvapratham in bandobaston dvaara raajya aur krushakon ke beech mein jameendaaron ka varg angrejon ki neeti dvaara sthaapit hua jiske fal svaroop krushakon ke bhoo-sampatti adhikaar, jo anaadi kaal se chale aa rahe the, chhin gaye. yeh madhyavarti varg din prati din dhani hota gaya kyonki angrej shaasak apni kararaashi mein se adhik se adhik hissa unhein pralobhan ke roop mein dete rahe.

jameendaari pratha ke ast hone ki disha mein kadam

in bandobaston mein krushakon ke hiton ki or koi dhyaan naheen diya gaya tha jiske parinaamasvaroop unka du:kh, apamaan evam daaridray din pratidin badhta gaya. kai baar angrej shaasakon ne bhi is or dhyaan dilaaya ki krushakon ki bhoodhruti ki raksha ki jaaya evam unka lagaan bandobast ke samay tak nirdhaarit kar diya jaaya. fir bhi kuchh naheen kiya gaya. iska kaaran yeh tha ki angrej shaasakon ki dhaarana thi ki jameendaaron ke saath vyavahaar mein udaarata dikhaane par jab ve sampann evam santusht raheinge to ve apne aasaamiyon ko naheen sataaeainge jiske falasvaroop ve bhi khushahaal raheinge. parantu yeh unki mahaan bhool thi kyonki jameendaaron ne hamesha hi apne kartavya ke saath vishvaasaghaat kiya. at: angrej shaasak yeh mahasoos karne lage ki is bhool ka sudhaar kiya jaae. falasvaroop unhonne krushakon ki dasha sudhaarane ke liye bhoomi sambandhi vidhaanon ki vyavastha ki. yeh kadam jameendaari pratha ke ast ki disha mein pratham charan kaha ja sakta hai.

is pratham charan mein, jo san 1859 i0 se 1929 i0 tak raha, jo kaanoon bane unase jameendaaron ke lagaan badhaane ke adhikaaron par kuchh pratibandh lagaae gaye aur uchch shreni ke krushakon ko laabh bhi hue. kintu in kaanoonon ka mukhya uddeshya jameendaaron ko lagaan vasool karne mein sahooliyt dene ka tha jisse ve raajya ko raajasv theek samay par de sakein. san 1959 i0 mein bhoomi sambandhi pehla adhiniyam paas hua. yeh adhiniyam samast british Bhaarat ke liye ek aadarsh bhoomi-adhiniyam tha jiske anuroop adhiniyam Bhaarat ke sabhi bhaagon mein paas hue aur samay samay par unamein sanshodhan bhi kiye gaye taaki asantusht krushakon ko shaant kiya ja sake. kintu jameendaar fir bhi krushakon ko apne nyaayapoorn tatha anyaayapoorn karon ko vasoolane ke liye nichodte rahe jisse kisaanon mein ghor asantosh tatha bechaini failene lagi.

jameendaari pratha ke ast ke kram mein doosra charan san 1930 i0 se 1944 i0 tak raha. is samay mein saare desh mein kisaan aandolan hone lage. in aandolanon ka beej ek kisaan sabha ne boya tha jo akhil bhaarateeya Congress ki Allahabad baithak mein taareekh 11 fravari san 1918 i0 ko hui thi. tatpashchaat Congress kisaanon ke hiton ko aage badhaane lagi. parinaam svaroop graameen janta mein kaafi jaagrati paida ho gayi. pan0 javaaharalaal neh degree ne yoo0 pee0 Congress committee mein taareekh 27 October 1928 ko ghoshana ki ki raajaneetik svatantrata nirrthak hai jab tak kisaanon ko shoshan se mukti na praapt ho. shanai: shanai: kisaanon ki jaagrukta badhi aur saath hi saath unki vyaakulata bhi. kisaan varg ab adhik mukhar ho gaya aur bhoodhruti ki sthirta evam lagaan mein kami ki maang karne laga. kisaan aandolanon se prabhaavit hokar raiyyatavaadeekshetron mein nae adhiniyam banaae gaye jinse krushakon ke hiton ki raksha ho sake. malaabaar teneinsi aikt (1930 E) is sambandh mein seemaachinh hai. iske baad Bhopal land revenyoo aikt, 1935 tatha Assam teneinsi aikt 1935 paas hue. gavarnameint ov India aikt, 1935, ke arntagat jab 'praavinshal aatonomi' ka udghaatan hua to praanteeya sarkaaron ne bhoomisudhaar adhiniymon ki vyavastha ki jinmein krushakon ko aur adhikaar pradaan kiye gaye tatha jameendaaron ke adhikaaron ki katauti ki gayi. yoo0 pee0 teneinsi aikt, 1939, tatha Mumbai teneinsi aikt, 1939 vishisht udaaharan aise vyaapak adhiniymon ke hain jinke dvaara krushakon ko mauroosi adhikaar diye gaye evam krushakon ke hit mein jameendaaron ke katipya adhikaar chheen liye gaye.

in bhoomi sudhaar adhiniymon ke banane par bhi jameendaari pratha ki buraaiyaaain vidyamaan raheen, yadyapi kaafi had tak jameendaaron ko pangu bana diya gaya tha. in jameendaaron ko neh degree ji 'british sarkaar ki atilaalit santaan (Spoilt child)' kaha karte the. ve bhootakaaleen saamantavaadi pratha ke prateek the jo ki aadhunik paristhatiyon ke bilkul pratikool ho gayi thi. isliye Indian national Congress ne kai baar is baat ki ghoshana ki ki jameendaari unmoolan ko Congress ke kaaryakram mein pramukh sthaan dena chaahiye. ek kisaan conference taareekh 27,28 April san 1935 i0 ko sardaar Patel ke sabhaapatitv mein Allahabad mein hui thi. usane jameendaari unmoolan ko prastaav paas karke is or ek pramukh kadam uthaaya is prastaav mein yeh ghoshana ki gayi thi ki 'graamakalyaan ke drushtikon se vartamaan jameendaari pratha bilkul vipreet hai. yeh pratha british shaasan ke aagaman mein laai gayi aur isse graameen jeevan poornataya tahas nahas ho gaya hai'. parantu san 1939 i0 mein dviteeya vishvayuddh shuroo ho jaane ke kaaran bhoomi sudhaar ka saara kaaryakram rook gaya.

yuddh ki samaapti ke baad jameendaari pratha ke ant ka antim charan aarambh hua jo san 1945 se 1955 tak chala. yuddh samaapt hote hi british sarkaar ne 1945 i0 mein gavarnameint of India aikt 1935 i0 ke antargat praanteeya sadanon ke chunaav karne ka faisala kiya. Congress ne chunaav mein bhaag lene ka nishchaya kiya aur December 1945 mein chunaav ghoshanaapatr nikaala. is ghoshanaapatr mein jameendaari unmoolan ke vishay mein spashtataya kaha gaya ki 'bhoomi vyavastha ka sudhaar, jiski Bhaarat mein ati aavashyakta hai, krushakon tatha raajyake beech madhyavarti varg ko hataane se sambandhit hai. isliye is madhyavarti varg ke adhikaaron ka uchit pratikr dekar praapt kar liya jaana chaahiye'. is ghoshana patra se arthashaastri, raajaneetijnya tatha patrakaar sabhi sahamat the. jameendaari pratha bhaarateeya aarthik vikaas mein rookaavat daalati thi kyonki bade jameendaar hamesha pratikriyaavaad ke samarthak the. 'London ikonomist' ne inke vishay mein likha tha ki 'inmein se adhiktar 'thaikarase' ke paatr 'laard steen' ki tarah dushcharitr, 'jen aasteen' ke 'mistar benet' ki tarah aalasi, 'surteejaskvaayar' ki tarah sharaabi the (Indian land porblem, G.D. Patel). Bengal land commission (san 1940 i0) bhi is nishkarsh par pahuaincha ki 'san 1793 i0 ka sthaayi bandobast us samay jin bhi kaaranon se uchit samjha gaya ho, aaj ki paristhiti mein anupayukt hai aur jameendaari pratha mein itni buraaiyaaain upaj chuki hai ki yeh ab raashtra ke hit mein kisi bhi prakaar upayogi naheen rah gayi hai.' bhaarateeya tatha paashchaatya arthavettaaon ki rai mein jameendaari unmoolan adhik krushi utpaadan ke liye atyaavashyak hai. iske atirikt yeh pratha sansaar ke har bhaag mein samayaanukool na hone ke kaaran samaapt ho chuki hai. punashch, yeh pratha raajya ke liye adhik kharcheeli hai. sarvopari, yeh pratha is samay aisi sthiti par pahuainch chuki thi ki yadi iska unmoolan na kiya gaya hota to iske kaaran ne keval raashtreeya aarthik samasya par hi varan samaaj suraksha par bhi viptti aa padti.

samaapti

at: san 1946 i0 mein chunaav mein safalta ke falasvaroop jab har praant mein Congress mantrimandal bane to chunaav pratijnyaa ke anusaar jameendaari pratha ko samaapt karne ke liye vidheyak prastut kiye gaye. ye vidheyak san 1950 i0 se 1955 i0 tak adhiniyam bankar chaaloo ho gaye jinke parinaamasvaroop jameendaari pratha ka Bhaarat mein unmoolan ho gaya aur krushakon evam raajya ke beech pun: seedha sambandh sthaapit ho gaya. bhoomi ke svatvaadhikaar ab krushakon ko vaapas mil gaye jinka upayog ve anaadi paramparaagat kaal se karte chale aae the.

is prakaar jis jameendaari pratha ka udaya hamaare desh mein angrejon ke aagaman se hua tha usaka ant bhi unke shaasan ke samaapt hote hi ho gaya. is pratha ki samaapti par kisi ne tanik bhi shok prakat naheen kiya, kyonki iska vinaash hote hi puraane siddhaant ki, jiske anusaar bhoomi ka svaami krushak hota tha, punaraavruti hui. jo dinaank 02/10/1951 ko jameedaari pratha ki samaapti hui thi madh‍aaya pradesh mein bhi g‍aavaaliyr riyaasat mein jameedaari ki v‍ayavas‍atha thi jo aagar susaner aadi maalava ke adhikaansh his‍ase g‍aavaaliyr riyaasat ke adhin thein

baahari kadiyaaain