jeremi bentham

jeremi beintham
Defence of usury, 1788

jeremi bentham (Jeremy Bentham) (15 fravari 1748 – 6 June 1832) inglaind ka nyaayavid, daarshanik tatha vidhik va saamaajik sudhaarak tha. vah upayogitaavaad ka kattar samarthak tha. vah praakrutik vidhi tatha praakrutik adhikaar ke siddhaanton ka kattar virodhi tha.

san 1776 mein usaki 'shaasan par sfut vichaar' (Fragment on Government) sheershak pustak prakaashit hui. ismein usane yeh mat vyakt kiya ki kisi bhi kaanoon ki upayogita ki kasauti yeh hai ki jin logon se usaka sambandh ho, unke aanand, hit aur sukh ki adhik se adhik vruddhi vah kare. usaki doosari pustak 'aachaar aur vidhaan ke siddhaant' (Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation) 1789 mein nikli jismein uske upayogitaavaad ka saar marm sannihit hai. usane is baat par bal diya ki 'adhiktam vyaktiyon ka adhiktam sukh' hi pratyek vidhaan ka lakshya hona chaahiye. 'upayogita' ka siddhaant vah arthashaastr mein bhi laagoo karna chaahata tha. usaka vichaar tha ki pratyek vyakti ko, kisi bhi tarah ke pratibandh ke bina, apna hit sampann karne ki svatantrata rahani chaahiye. soodakhori ke samarthan mein usane ek pustak 'defence ov yoojri' (Defence of Usury) san 1787 mein likhi thi. usane gareebon sambandhi kaanoon (pooar laaain) mein sudhaar karne ke liye jo sujhaav diye, unheen ke aadhaar par san 1834 mein usamein kai sanshodhan kiye gaye. parliament mein sudhaar karaane ke sambandh mein bhi usane ek pustak likhi thi (1817). ismein usane sujhaav diya tha ki matadaan ka adhikaar pratyek vayask vyakti ko milna chaahiye aur chunaav prati varsh kiya jaana chaahiye. usane bandeegruhon ke sudhaar par bhi bal diya. aur 1811 mein 'dand aur puraskaar' (Punishments and Rewards) sheershak ek pustak likhi.

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