jenaretar

beesaveen shataabdi ke aarambhik dinon ka altaranetar, jo budaapest mein bana hua hai.

vidyut janitr (elektrik generator) ek aisi yukti hai jo yaantrik urja ko vidyut urja mein badalne ke kaam aati hai. iske liye yeh praay: vidyutachumbakeeya preran (electromagnetic induction) ke siddhaant ka prayog karti hai. vidyut motor iske vipreet vidyut urja ko yaantrik urja mein badalne ka kaarya karti hai. vidyut motor evam vidyut janitr mein baut kuchh samaan hota hai aur kai baar ek hi machine bina kisi parivartan ke dono ki tarah kaarya kar sakti hai.

vidyut janitr, vidyut aavesh ko ek vaahya paripth se hokar pravaahit hone ke liye vaadhya karta hai. lekin yeh aavesh ka srujan naheen karta. yeh jal-pamp ki tarah hai jo keval jal-ko pravaahit karne ka kaarya karti hai, jal paida naheen karti.

vidyut janitr dvaara vidyut utpaadan ke liye aavashyak hai ki janitr ke rotar ko kisi baahari shakti-srit ki sahaayata se ghumaaya jaaya. iske liye resiproketing engine, tarbaain, vaashp engine, kisi tarbaain ya jal-chakr (vaatar-hveel) par girte hue jal, kisi antardahan engine, pavan tarbaain ya aadmi ya jaanavar ki shakti ka prayog kiya ja sakta hai.

kisi bhi srot se ki gayi yaantrik oorja ko vidyut oorja mein parivrtit karna sambhav hai. yeh oorja, jalaprapaat ke girte hue paani se athva koyala jalaakar utpann ki gayi ooshma dvaara bhaav se, ya kisi petrol athva deejl engine se praapt ki ja sakti hai. oorja ke nae nae srot upayog mein laae ja rahe hain. mukhyat:, pichhle kuchh varshon mein paramaanushakti ka prayog bhi vidyutshakti ke liye bade paimaane par kiya gaya hai aur bahut se deshon mein paramaanushakti dvaara sanchaalit bijleeghar banaae gaye hain. jvaar bhaaton evam jvaalaamukhiyon mein nihit aseem oorja ka upayog bhi vidyutshakti ke janan ke liye kiya gaya hai. vidyutshakti ke utpaadan ke liye in sab shakti saadhanon ka upayog, vishaalakaaya vidyut janitron dvaara hi haata hai, jo moolat: fairaade ke 'chunbakeeya kshetr mein ghoomate hue chaalak par veltata preran siddhaant par aadhaarit hai.

anukram

siddhaant

fairaade ka yeh siddhaant nimnalikhit roop mein vyakt kiya ja sakta hai :

'yadi koi chaalak kisi chunbakeeya kshetr mein ghumaaya jaae, to usamein ek vi.va.b. (vidyut vaahak bal) ki utpatti hoti hai; aur sanvaahak ka paripth poorn hone ki dasha mein usamein dhaara ka pravaah bhi hone lagta hai'

is prakaar vidyut shakti ke janan ke liye teen mukhya baaton ki aavashyakta hai :

1. chunbakeeya kshetr, jismein chaalak ghumaaya jaae,

2. chaalak tatha

3. chaalak ko chunbakeeya kshetr mein ghumaanevaali yaantrik shakti.

yeh bhi spasht hai, ki vidyutshakti ka utpaadan vyaavahaarik banaane ke liye chaalak mein prerit vi.va.b. ki maatra paryaapt honi chaahiye. iski maatra, chaalak ki lanbaai, chunbakeeya kshetr ki teevrata (jise abhivaah ghanatv ke roop mein maapa jaata hai) aur chaalak ke veg par nirbhar karti hai. vaastav mein ise nimnalikhit sameekaran se vyakt kiya ja sakta hai :

E = B l v

jahaaain, E= vidyutavaahak bal (emf), B=chunbakeeya abhivaah ka ghanatv, l =chaalak ki lanbaai tatha v=chaalak ka veg (kshetr ke lanbavat)

isse yeh spasht ho jaata hai ki vyaavahaarik roop mein chaalak ki lanbaai evam veg donon hi bahut adhik hone chaahiye aur saath hi chunbakeeya abhivaah ghanatv bhi adhiktam ho. chunbakeeya kshetr ki adhiktam ho. chunbakeeya kshetr ki adhiktam seema uske santrupt hone ke kaaran nirdhaarit hoti hai. chaalak ki lanbaai badhaana bhi vyaavahaarik roop se sambhav naheen, parantu ek se adhik chaalak ko is prakaar samaayojit kiya ja sakta hai ki unamein prerit vi.va.b. judkar vyaavahaarik ban jaae. vastut: janitr mein ek chaalak ke sthaan par chaalak ka ek tantr hota hai, jo ek doosare se ek nirdhaarit yojana ke anusaar sanyojit hote hain. in chaalakon ko dhaaran karanevaala bhaag aarmechar (Armature) kahalaata hai aur inki sanyojan vidhi ko aarmechar kundalan (Armature Winding) kehte hain.

veg adhik hone se, ghoomanevaale chaalakon par apakeindr bal (centrifugal force) bahut adhik ho jaata hai, jiske kaaran aarmechar par unki vyavastha bhang ho ja sakti hai. at: inhein aarmechar par bane khaaainpon (slots) mein rakha jaata hai. aarmechar chaalakon ko dhaaran karne ke saath hi unako ghumaata bhi hai, jiske liye usaka shaaft (shaft) yaantrik oorja ka sanbharan karanevaale yantr ke shaaft se yugmit (coupled) hota hai. yeh yantr paani se chaalanevaala tarabaain, ya bhaap se chaalanevaala tarabaain ya engine, ho sakta hai. kisi bhi roop mein upalabdh yaantrik oorja ko aarmechar ka shaaft ghumaane ke liye prayog kiya ja sakta hai. is prakaar vibhinn prakaar ke yantr janitr ko chalaane ke liye prayukt kiye jaate hain. inhein pradhaan chaalak (Prime Mover) kehte hain. vibhinn prakaar ke engine, jaise vaashp engine, diesel engine, petrol engine, gas tarabaain ityaadi masheenein, pradhaan chaalak ke roop mein prayukt ki jaati hain aur inki yaantrik oorja ko janitr dvaara vidyut oorja mein parivrtit kiya jaata hai.

dishtadhaara janitr (DC Generator)

aarmechar chunbakeeya padaarth ka bana hota hai, jisse chunbakeeya kshetr ke abhivaah ka vaahak ho sake. saamaanyat: yeh ek vishesh prakaar ke ispaat ka bana hota hai, jise aarmechar ispaat hi kehte hain.

chunbakeeya kshetr utpann karne ke liye bhi vidyut ka hi prayog vyaavahaarik roop mein kiya jaata hai, kyonki isse sthaayi chunbak ki apeksha kaheen adhik teevrata ka chunbakeeya kshetr utpann kiya ja sakta hai aur kshetradhaara ka vichran kar sugamata se kshetr ka vichran kiya ja sakta hai. is prakaar janit voltata ka niyantran saralata se kiya ja sakta hai. chunbakeeya kshetr utpann karne ke liye kshetr chunbak (field magnets) hote hain, jinpar kshetrakundali vartit hoti hai. in kundaliyon mein dhaara ke pravaah se chunbakeeya kshetr ki utpatti hoti hai. ekasam kshetr ke liye kshetr chunbakon ka aakaar kuchh golaai liye hota hai aur unke beech mein aarmechar ghoomta hai. aarmechar tatha kshetr chunbakon ke beech vaayu antaraal (air gap) nyoonatam hona chaahiye, jisse kshetreeya abhivaah ka adhikaansh aarmechar chaalakon ko kaat sake aur aarmechar mein janit voltata adhiktam ho sake.

kshetr kundali mein dhaara pravaah ko uttejan (Excitation) kehte hain. yeh uttejan kisi baahari srot (baitari shrukhanla athva vidyut ke us janitr ke alaava koi doosare srot) se sanyojit karne par kiya ja sakta hai athva swayam usi janitr mein utpann honevaali dhaara ka hi ek ansh uttejan ke liye bhi prayukt kiya ja sakta hai. baahari srot se uttejit kiye jaanevaale janitr ko baahya uttejit janitr kaha jaata hai aur swayam usi janitr mein janit dhaara ka bhaag upayog karanevaale janitr ko svat:uttejit janitr (Self-excited Generator) kaha jaata hai. svat: uttejan ki pranaaliyaaain bhi kshetr kundali aur aarmechar ke sayojanon ke anusaar bhinn bhinn hoti hain. yadi kshetr kundali aarmechar se shreni (series) mein sanyojit hon, to use shreni janitr (Series Generator) kaha jaata hai. yadi donon mein paarshv sanbandhan ho, to use shant janitr (Shunt Generator) kehte hain. yadi kshetr kundali ke kuchh vart aarmechar se shreni mein aur kuchh usase paarshv sambandhit hon, to aise janitr ko sanyukt janitr (Compound Generator) kehte hain. uttejan ki in vibhinn vidhiyon se vibhinn lakshan praapt hote hain. baahya uttejit janitr mein kshetradhaara aarmechar dhaara athva bhaaradhaara par nirbhar naheen karti. at: usamein janit voltata bhaar (load) vichran se svatantr hoti hai. yadi kshetradhaara ko ek samaan rakha jaae aur janitr mein janit voltata bhi ek samaan rahegi. shant janitr mein bhi lagbhag aisa hi lakshan praapt hota hai aur bhaar vichran ka prabhaav janit voltata par adhik naheen hota. shreni janitr mein, bhaaradhaara hi aarmechar aur kshetr kundaliyon mein pravaahit hoti hai. at:, yeh kshetradhaara bhaar par nirbhar karti hai aur is prakaar janit voltata bhaar badhne ke saath badhti jaati hain.

sanyukt janitr mein shant evam shreni janitron ke beech ke lakshan hote hain. kshetr kundali ke shant aur shreni varton ka vyavasthaapan kar unke beech ka koi bhi lakshan praapt kiya ja sakta hai. vyavahaar mein sanyukt janitron ka hi adhik prayog hota hai.

chunbakeeya kshetr mein ekasamaan veg se ghoomanevaale chaalak mein janit voltata, chaalak ke chunbakeeya abhivaah ko kaatne ki gati par nirbhar karti hai. yeh gati, vastut:, kisi kshan bhi chaalak ke chunbakeeya abhivaah ke saapeksh sthit par nirbhar karti hai. jab chaalak ekasamaan veg se ghoom raha ho, to vah ek chakkar mein do baar abhivaah ke lanbavat hoga aur is sthiti mein vah adhiktam abhivaah kaatega, tatha jab vah koi bhi abhivaah naheen kaatega, do baar uske samaantar hoga. is prakaar ek chakkar mein do baar usamein janit voltata shoonya aur adhiktam ke beech vichran karegi, jaisi chitr 3. mein dikhaaya gaya hai. is prakaar ke vichran ko pratyaavarti vichran kehte hain. aarmechar chaalakon mein bhi isi prakaar ki pratyaavarti voltata janit hoti hai aur use disht roop dene ke liye dikparivrtak (commutator) ka prayog kiya jaata hai.

dikparivrtak aarmechar ke shaaft par hi aaropit hota hai. usamein bahut se taamrakhand (copper segments) hote hain, jo ek doosare se vidyutaruddh (insulated) hote hain. aarmechar ke vartan ke antyasanyojan (end connection) in khandon se sanyojit hote hain. dikparivrtak se sansparsh karanevaale do burush hote hain, jo aarmechar mein janit voltata dvaara pravaahit honevaali dhaara ko baahari paripth se sanyojit karte hain. aarmechar chaalakon ka dikparivrtak se sanyojan is prakaar kiya jaata hai ki donon burushon dvaara ikatthi ki jaanevaali dhaara ek hi disha ki hoti hai. is prakaar ek burush dhanaatmak dhaara ikatthi karta hai aur doosra rinaatmak. is aadhaar par burushon ko bhi dhanaatmak evam rinaatmak kaha jaata hai. vastut:, burush vidyutdhaara ke terminal hain, jo bhaar ko janitr se sambaddh karte hain. ye burushadhaarak (brush holder) par aaropit hote hain aur dikpavirtak par inki sthiti burush dhaarak dvaara vyavasthaapit ki ja sakti hai.

vibhinn prakaar ke vidyutajanitr

  • vidyut-chumbakeeya janitr
  • dishtadhaara vidyutajanitr - deesi utpann karne ke liye
  • altaranetar - AC utpann karne ke liye
  • preran janitr
  • emaechadi janitr
  • homopolar janitr
  • anya prakaar ke janitr
  • vidyut-sthaitik janitr
  • vimshrast machine (Wimshurst machine)
  • vaan di graaf janitr (Van de Graaff generator)

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain