jekab jooma

un ka mahaamaanya
jekab jooma
GCB
जेकब ज़ूमा

padasth
kaaryabhaar grahan
9 May 2009
deputy Kgalema Motlanthe
poorv adhikaari Kgalema Motlanthe

President of the African National Congress
padasth
kaaryabhaar grahan
18 December 2007
deputy Kgalema Motlanthe
poorv adhikaari thaabo mbeki

dakshin Africa ke up raashtrapati
kaaryakaal
14 June 1999 – 14 June 2005
raashtrapati thaabo mbeki
poorv adhikaari thaabo mbeki
uttaraadhikaari Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka

Member of Parliament
kaaryakaal
1999 – 2005

janm 12 April 1942 (1942-04-12) (aayu 74)
Inkandla, South Africa
janm naam Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma
raajanaitik party African National Congress (1959–present)
jeevan sangi Gertrude Sizakele Khumalo (1973–present)
Kate Zuma (1976–2000)[1]
Nkosazana Dlamini (1982–1998)
Nompumelelo Ntuli (2008 – present)
Thobeka Mabhija (2010–present)[2]
santaan 20
dharm Protestantism, Full Gospel Church of Southern Africa[3]

jekab gedaleehalekisa jooma (janm 12 April 1942), dakshin Africa ke raashtrapati hain,[4] jo 2009 ke aam chunaavon mein apni party ki jeet ke baad sansad dvaara nirvaachit hue.

jooma, shaasi raajaneetik dal afreeki national Congress (ANC) ke adhyaksh hain aur 1999 se 2005 tak ve dakshin Africa ke up raashtrapati rahe.[5] jooma ko unke naam ke aaranbhik varn JZ[6] aur unke vansh naam msholoji se bhi sandarbhit kiya jaata hai.[7][8] jooma, 18 December 2007 ko polokavaane mein ANC ke sammelan mein padasth adhyaksh thaabo mabeki ko haraakar adhyaksh bane. jooma dakshin afreeki communist party (SACP)[9] ke bhi sadasya rahe, jismein unhonne 1990 mein party chhodne tak ek alp avadhi ke liye party ke politbyooro mein kaarya kiya.[10] nyaayaadheesh nikolasan dvaara raashtreeya abhiyog praadhikaar (NPA) mein anuchit hastakshep aur jekab jooma par bhrashtaachaar abhiyojan ka doshi thaharaae jaane par, 20 sitmbar 2008 ko, thaabo mabeki ne afreeki national Congress ki raashtreeya kaaryakaarini samiti[11] dvaara bulaae jaane par apne isteefe ki ghoshana ki.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

jooma ne mahatvapoorn kaanooni chunautiyon ka saamana kiya hai. 2005 mein unapar balaatkaar ka aarop laga, lekin ve bari kar diye gaye. iske alaava, unhonne, apne vitteeya salaahakaar schaabeer shek par lagaae gaye dhokhaadhadi aur bhrashtaachaar ke aaropon ke chalte, dhokhaadhadi ke dhandhe aur bhrashtaachaar ke iljaamon ke liye ek lambi kaanooni ladaai ladi. 6 April 2009 ko, raashtreeya abhiyog praadhikran ne raajaneetik hastakshep ka havaala dete hue unhein sabhi aaropon se mukt kr diya.

anukram

jeevan aur career

praarambhik varsh

jooma ka janm nkaanadala, juloolaind mein hua tha (jo ab kvaajuloo-netal ka hissa hai).[12] unke pita ek police karmachaari the jinki mrutyu us samay ho gayi jab jooma ek yuva baalak the aur unki maan ek ghareloo kaamagaar thi.[13] apni aatmakatha JZ ke anusaar, jis naam se vah aam taur par jaane jaate hain, unhonne kabhi koi aupachaarik schooli shiksha praapt naheen ki. "apne vanchit bachapan ke kaaran, jekab jooma ne koi aupachaarik schooli shiksha praapt naheen ki."[14] unhonne apna bachapan (chestaravile ke nikat) umkhumaben ke kshetr mein daraban ke upanagaron aur juloolaind ke beech ghoomate hue bitaaya. unka Michael naamak ek bhaai hai.

kaaraavaas aur pratibandh

jooma ne bahut kam umr mein raajaneeti se naata jod liya tha aur 1959 mein ve afreeki raashtreeya Congress mein shaamil ho gaye. 1961 mein ANC par pratibandh lagne ke baad, ve 1962 mein umkhonto ve sijve ke ek sakriya sadasya ban gaye. 1963 mein ve dakshini afreeki communist party (SACP) mein shaamil ho gaye.[9] 1963 mein, ve 45 rangarooton ke ek samooh ke saath pashchimi traansavaal mein jeerast ke nikat giraftaar kar liye gaye jo vartamaan mein uttar pashchim praant ka hissa hai. unhein gore alpasankhyakon ke netrutv waali rangabhedi sarkaar ko apadasth karne ki saajish rachane ka aparaadhi paaya gaya aur unhein 10 varsh ki kaid ki saja mili, jise unhonne roban dweep par nelsan mandela aur ANC ke anya ullekhaneeya sajaayaafta netaaon ke saath kaata.

kaid ke dauraan jooma, kaidiyon ke association football khel mein referee ka kaarya karte the, jo kaidiyon ke apne sanchaalak mandal maakaana F.A dvaara aayojit kiya jaata tha.[15]

apni rihaai ke baad, netaal praant mein ANC buniyaadi sanrachanaaon ki pun: sthaapana mein unhonne mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai.[5]

ve pehli baar 1975 mein dakshin Africa se baahar nikle aur svaajeelaind mein unki mulaakaat thaabo mabeki se hui aur vahaan se ve mojaambik gaye, jahaan unhonne soveto vidroh ke maddenajar aane vaale hajaaron nirvaasiton ke maamale ko sambhaala.

1977 mein ve ANC raashtreeya kaaryakaarini samiti ke sadasya bane. unhonne mojaambik mein bhi ANC ke up pramukh pratinidhi ke roop mein kaarya kiya, ve is pad par tab tak aaseen rahe jab tak ki 1984 mein mojaambik aur dakshin afreeki sarkaaron ne nakomaati samjhaute par hastaakshar na kar diya. samjhaute par hastaakshar hone ke baad unhein ANC ke mukhya pratinidhi ke roop mein niyukt kiya gaya.

1980 ke dashak ke madhya mein jab ANC ke raajaneetik aur sainya parishad ka gathan kiya gaya tab ve usamein kaaryarat rahe aur April 1989 mein unhein SACP ke polit bureau ke liye nirvaachit kiya gaya.[16]

pi dablyoo botha shaasan dvaara mojaambik sarkaar par kaafi dabaav daale jaane ke kaaran jooma January 1987 mein mojaambik chhodne ke liye majaboor hue. ve lukaasa jaambiya, mein sthit ANC pradhaan kaaryaalaya mein sthaanaantarit ho gaye jahaan ve buniyaadi sanrachanaaon ke sheersh aur uske turant baad khufiya vibhaag ke cheef niyukt kiye gaye. vahaan par unka kaaryakaal kaafi vivaad ka vishay bana hua hai.[9]

nirvaasan se vaapasi

fravari 1990 mein ANC par lage pratibandh ke hatne ke baad, ve dakshin Africa mein vaarta ki prakriya ko shuroo karne ke liye lautane vaale ANC ke pratham netaaon mein se ek the.[5]

1990 mein, ve dakshini netaal kshetr ke liye ANC ke adhyaksh nirvaachit hue aur us kshetr mein ANC aur inkaatha freedom party (IFP) ke sadasyon ke beech chal rahi raajaneetik hinsa ko rokane mein ek agrani bhoomika nibhaai.` ve agale varsh ANC ke up mahaasachiv chune gaye aur January 1994 mein, ve kvaajuloo netaal ke liye ANC ummeedavaar ke roop mein pradhaanamantri pad ke liye naamit kiye gaye.

maingosuthu butheleji ke netrutv waali IFP, ne is avadhi ke dauraan juloo gaurav aur raajaneetik shakti par vishesh jor diya. is sandarbh mein, jooma ki juloo viraasat ne hinsa ko samaapt karne, hinsa ki raajaneetik jadon par (janajaati jadon ke bajaae) adhik jor daalne aur us kshetr mein juloo logon ka samarthan jeetne ke ANC ke prayaason mein unki bhoomika ko vishesh roop se mahatvapoorn banaaya.

raashtreeya netrutv mein udaya

raashtreeya netrutv ke maamale mein jooma anubhavi the, choonki ve 1977 mein ANC ki raashtreeya kaaryakaarini samiti mein us samay kaaryarat the jis samay party sirf ek mukti aandolan thi. jis samay tak ve ANC ke adhyaksh bane ve usamein tees saal tak kaarya kar chuke the. 1994 ke aam chunaav ke baad, jab ANC shaasi party ke roop mein ubhari aur jab usane kvaajuloo-netal praant ko IFP ke haathon kho diya, to unhein kvaajuloo-netaal praanteeya sarkaar ke aarthik maamalon aur paryatan ke kaaryakaari samiti ka sadasya niyukt kiya gaya, jisse pehle unhonne apni daavedaari vaapas lekar thaabo mabeki ki up raashtrapati pad ke liye daavedaari ko nirvirodh bana diya. December 1994 mein ve ANC ke raashtreeya adhyaksh aur kvaajuloo-netal mein ANC ke adhyaksh chune gaye aur 1996 mein ve baad vaale pad ke ie pun: nirvaachit hue. December 1997 mein maafeekeing mein aayojit ANC ke raashtreeya sammelan mein ve up raashtrapati nirvaachit kiye gaye aur iske parinaamasvaroop June 1999 mein ve dakshin Africa ke kaaryakaari up raashtrapati ke pad par niyukt kiye gaye.

is dauraan, unhonne yugaanda ke raashtrapati yoveri museveni ke saath kanpaala yugaanda mein chal rahi burundi shaanti prakriya ke liye sahaayak ke roop mein kaarya kiya. museveni, great leks reejanal inishiyetiv ke adhyaksh hain, jo burundi mein shaanti prakriya ki nigraani karne vaale kshetreeya adhyakshon ka ek samooh hai, jahaan kai jahaan kai sashastr hutoo guton ne 1993 mein ek aisi sarkaar aur sena ke khilaaf hathiyaar uthaaya jismein tutsi alpasankhyak ka prabhutv tha jiske khilaaf un logon ne yeh daava kiya ki unhonne hutoo bahusankhyak ke pehle nirvaachit raashtrapati ki hatya ki.[17]

raashtrapati thaabo mabeki ne 14 June 2005 ko jooma ko up raashtrapati ke pad se mukt kar diya jiska kaaran tha 1999 mein dakshin afreeki sarkaar dvaara 5 billion dollar ke hathiyaaron ki khareed ke saude mein unapar laga bhrashtaachaar ka aarop.

jooma ke sthaan par dakshin Africa ke up raashtrapati ka pad bhaar bulelaani ngakuka ki patni fumajaail malaambo-ngakuka ne sambhaala. malaambo-ngakuka 1999 ke baad se khanij aur oorja mantri theen. jahaan ek or vyaapaar samudaaya dvaara unki niyukti ka vyaapak roop se svaagat kiya gaya, vaheen bhrashtaachaar ke aaropon se lekar balaatkaar ke aarop lagne ke madhya ki avadhi tak ANC ki kai railiyon mein un par jooma samarthakon dvaara taana maara gaya, jo sabse pehle yootrekt se shuroo hua.[18]

ANC adhyaksh ke roop mein chunaav

New York mein Barack Obama aur Michelle Obama ke saath jooma, 2009 mein

party ki parampara ke anusaar, ANC ke upaadhyaksh ke roop mein jooma pehle se hi mabeki ke uttaraadhikaari ke liye kataar mein the. party gathan ne, October aur November 2007 mein naamaankan sammelan aayojit kiya, jismein jooma ka naam ANC adhyaksh ke liye sabse pasandeeda raha aur nihitaarth svaroop ve 2009 ke dakshin Africa ke raashtrapati ke liye bhi chahete the.[19][20][21] 18 December 2007 ko jooma ne apne doosare kaaryakaal mein chal rahe ANC ke adhyaksh aur dakshin afreeki raashtrapati thaabo mabeki ko 1505 voton ke mukaabale 2329 voton se haraaya. 28 December 2007 ko, skorpiyn ne uchch nyaayaalaya mein jooma par dhokhaadhadi ka dhandha karne, kaale dhan ko vaidh karne, bhrashtaachaar aur dhokhaadhadi jaise kai abhiyog chalaae.[22]

sitmbar 2008 mein, ANC ne desh ke raashtrapati pad se thaabo mabeki ko vaapas "bula liya" aur yeh ghoshana ki ki party ke upaadhyaksh, kgaalema motlaanathe 2009 ke aam chunaavon tak kaaryavaahak raashtrapati bane raheinge aur uske baad jooma nae raashtrapati honge.[23][24] 6 May ko unhonne chunaav jeeta aur 9 May 2009 ko unhonne dakshin Africa ke raashtrapati ke roop mein shapath grahan ki.

raajaneetik-aarthik unmukheekaran

jooma ek aarthik "lokaadhikaaravaadi" hain jo khud ko kabhi-kabhi "samaajavaadi" ke roop mein varnit karte hain.[25] unhein trade union aur dakshin afreeki communist party ka samarthan praapt hai. unhonne afreeki raashtreeya Congress ke mahila aur yuva league ka bhi samarthan praapt kiya.[25] di gaardiyn aur di New York times ke anusaar unhonne dhan ke punarvitran ki baat ki hai aur ve un samaajavaadi aur kamyuniston ke saath sambaddh hai jo dhan ke punarvitran ke ichhuk hain.[25][26] lekin di gaarjiyn (UK) ne yeh bhi khabar di hai ki jooma ne "videshi niveshakon ke hiton ki raksha karne ka aashvaasan" diya hai.

bhrashtaachaar ke aarop

apne vitteeya salaahakaar schaabir shaik par bhrashtaachaar aur dhokhaadhadi ka aarop lagne par jooma bhi bhrashtaachaar se sambandhit vivaad mein ulajh gaye. us samay lok abhiyojan ke raashtreeya nideshak rahe bulelaani ngakuka jooma aur ANC mukhya sachetak toni yeingeni ke khilaaf taakat ka durupyog karne ke iljaamon ki jaanch kar rahe the.

yeh vivaadaaspad hathiyaaron ke saude aur iske prabhaav ke parinaam svaroop hone vaale vitteeya laabh ke prashn se sanbadh tha. jabki yeingeni ko doshi paaya gaya, jooma ke khilaaf maamale ko band kar diya gaya, apne is faisale ke samarthan mein ngakuka ne kaha ki "...jooma ke khilaaf pratham-drushtaya saboot hain, parantu adaalat mein mukadama jeetne ke liye ve paryaapt naheen hain".[27] is ghatna ki ANC dvaara aalochna kiye jaane ke baad ngakuka niji practice karne lage.

2004 mein jooma, schaabir shaik mukadame mein ullikhit kiye jaane vaale ek pramukh vyakti ban gaye. schaabir shaik ek daraban vyaapaari aur jooma ke vitteeya salaahakaar the, dakshin afreeki nausena ke daraban mein ek prastaavit vautarafrant vikaas ke liye vailar varg ladaai ke jahaajon ki khareed mein rishvatakhori aur nakaanadala mein jooma ke bhavya nivaas par kiye gaye kharch ke sandarbh mein unase savaal kiya gaya. mukadame ke dauraan shaik ko jooma ke liye 500 000 raind prativrsh ke rishvat ka anurodh karte hue dikhaaya gaya joki jooma ke raksha thekedaar thaamasan CSF ka samarthan karne ke aivaj mein tha, jo kukhyaat "enkripted faiks" mein darj hai.[28][29] 2 June 2005 ko, shaik ko doshi paaya gaya aur 15 saal ki saja sunaai gayi.[30]

nyaayaadheesh Hillary skvirs shaik aur jooma ke beech hue kai lenaden ki vistrut jaankaari, is saaraansh ke saath dete hain ki "sabhi aaropi companyon ka istemaal ek na ek samay jekab jooma ko paise dene ke liye kiya gaya hai". media ne skvirs ke bayaan ka galat uddharan "ek aam taur par bhrasht sambandh" (jooma aur shaik ke beech hua karta tha) vaakyaansh ke saath diya, jabki theek yahi sateek shabd adaalati pratilekhon mein maujood naheen hai.[31] is vaakyaansh ki shuruaat karne vaalon ki pratirksha mein, shaik ke khilaaf faisale ke sampoorn pratilekh[32][33] mein vaastav mein jooma ka zikr 471 baar hua hai, "bhrasht" ya "bhrashtaachaar" shabd ka prayog 54 baar kiya gaya hai aur ismein aise 12 vaakya hain jinmein "bhrasht" aur "jooma" donon shabdon ka prayog ek saath hai. baad mein media sootron ne is vaakyaansh ko "paarasparik laabhaprad sahajeevita", mein badal diya jo faisale ke anuchhed 235 se badla gaya tha, jo tha: "yeh sochana saamaanya bodh aur saadhaaran maanav prakruti ke khilaaf hoga ki unhein jooma ka varadahast praapt hone ke faayadon ka ehsaas naheen tha, jo 1997 se pehle ki tulana mein kaheen adhik mil raha tha; aur yahaan tak ki agar unke beech kabhi aisa kuchh naheen kaha gaya jo paarasparik laabhaprad sahajeevita ko sthaapit karta hai, jo saakshya ke anusaar vahaan maujood tha, iske praarambh hone ki paristhitiyaan aur in bhugataanon ko baad mein jaari rakhane ka silsila, praaptakarta ke andar keval krutajnyaata ki ek bhaavana hi utpann kar sakta hai."

midiya dvaara unke bhavishya ke baare mein gahari atkalein lagaae jaane ke baarah dinon ke baad, raashtrapati thaabo mabeki ne 14 June 2005 ko jooma ko up raashtrapati ke pad se hata diya. mabeki ne sansad ki sanyukt baithak mein kaha ki "yeh maananeeya up raashtrapati, sarkaar, hamaari yuva lokataantrik pranaali aur hamaare desh ke hit mein sabse achha hoga ki maananeeya jekab jooma ko unke prajaatantr ke up raashtrapati aur cabinet ke sadasya ke pad ki jimmedaariyon se mukt kar diya jaae." tab jooma ne sansad ke sadasya ke pad se isteefa de diya.

shaik mukadame ke baad, jooma par raashtreeya abhiyog praadhikran dvaara aupachaarik roop se bhrashtaachaar ka aarop lagaaya gaya. sthagan ke liye (isliye daayar taaki NPA ko saboot ke taur par dastaavejon ke sveekaarya roopon ko haasil karne ki anumati mil sake) abhiyojan paksh dvaara daayar aavedan ke khaarij ho jaane ke baad maamale ko peetaramairitsabarg haai court se vaapas le liye gaya.

 sthagan ke liye daayar aavedan ko khaarij karte hue adaalat ne kaaryavaahi par sthaai sthagan lagaane ke pratipaksh ke aavedan ko niraadhaar ghoshit kiya jisse jooma par aaparaadhik abhiyog lagaane par rok lag jaayegi.[34]

jooma ke kaanooni dal ne kaarravaai mein deri ko jaari rakha aur jooma ke is daave ke baavajood ki is maamale ko adaalat mein dekhanein ki unki ichha hai, ve adaalat se kuchh mahatvapoorn saboot chhupaane mein kaamayaab ho gaye jiske parinaamasvaroop abhiyojan paksh ko nirdhaarit tithi par sthagan ke liye ek aavedan patra daayar karna pada.

choonki abhiyojan paksh taiyaar naheen tha isliye sthagan ke liye daayar abhiyojan ke aavedan ke khaarij hone ke baad maamale ko vaapas le liya gaya,[34] haalaanki jooma ka kaanooni dal mukadame ki kaaryavaahi par hamesha ke liye rok lagavaane par adaalat ki sahamati haasil karne mein asafal raha (jo jooma ko unapar lage aaropon ke kaaran chal rahe mukadame se pratirksha pradaan karta). is ghatna ne, NPA dvaara apne mukadame ki taiyaari poorn karte hi jooma par bhrashtaachaar ke aaropon ko pun: aaropit karne ke raaste khol diye. 

8 November 2007 ko Supreme court of appeal ne raashtreeya abhiyog praadhikran (NPA) ke paksh mein apna nirnaya sunaaya jo jooma ke raksha dal dvaara kiye hue vibhinn khoj aur jabti sambandhi kaaryon ke sambandh mein tha aur unke dvaara kiye gaye chaar apeelon ko khaarij kar diya gaya. yeh nirnaya raashtreeya abhiyog praadhikran dvaara ek fraanseesi hathiyaar company ke varishth sadasya ki vyaktigat daayari praapt karne ke sambandh mein tha, jismein ek hathiyaar saude ko pradaan karne ke dauraan sambhavat: jooma ke bhrasht kaaryakalaapon se sambandhit jaankaari pradaan ki gayi thi.

28 December 2007 ko, skorpiyn ne jooma par uchch nyaayaalaya mein thag-vyaapaar, kaale dhan ko vaidh karne, bhrashtaachaar aur dhokhaadhadi ke vibhinn maamalon mein abhiyog chalaaya. ek doshasiddhi aur 1 varsh se adhik avadhi ke kaaraavaas ne jooma ko dakshin afreeki sansad ke chunaav ke liye ayogya bana diya hota aur falasvaroop ve dakshin Africa ke raashtrapati pad ke liye ayogya ho jaate.

avaidh ghoshit aarop

4 August 2008 ko jooma adaalat mein haajir hue. 12 sitmbar 2008 ko peetaramairitsabarg nyaayaadheesh kris nikholasan ke bataaya ki jooma par lage bhrashtaachaar ke aarop prakriyaatmak aadhaar par avaidh hain kyonki lok abhiyojan ke raashtreeya nideshaalaya (NDPP) ne aarop lagaane ka nirnaya lene se pehle jooma ko abhyaavedan prastut karne ka mauka nahi diya (jo dakshin afreeki samvidhaan ke anusaar aavashyak hai) aur raajya ko kaanooni bhugataan karne ke nirdesh diye.[35][36][37] nikholasan ne yeh bhi kaha ki, unka maanana tha ki raajaneetik hastakshep ne jooma ke khilaaf pun: aarop daayar karne ke nirnaya mein ek bhoomika nibhaai, yadyapi unhonne yeh naheen bataaya ki kyon unhonne jooma par lage aaropon ko avaidh bataaya. nikholasan ne is baat par bhi jor diya ki unka nirnaya jooma ke aparaadh ya nirparaadh se sambandhit naheen tha, balki yeh keval ek prakriyaatmak aadhaar par tha. vibhinn media riporton ne yeh galat soochana di ki jooma ke khilaaf aarop khaarij kar diye gaye hain.[38][39] maamala yeh naheen tha. NDPP, jooma par pun: aarop lagaane mein saksham bana hua tha, haalaanki, sirf ek hi baar unhein NDPP ke samaksh abhyaavedan prastut karne ka mauka diya gaya vo bhi NDPP ke aisa karne ke nirnaya ke aadhaar par. nirnaya ke 47 pairaagraaf mein, nyaayaadheesh nikholasan ne likha,

abhyaavedan ko sunane ki baadhyata audi aalteram paartem ke siddhaant ka ek hissa hai. aavashyakta yeh hai ki ek vyakti jo ho sakta hai ki ek nirnaya ke kaaran pratikool roop se prabhaavit ho raha hai, use ek anukool parinaam praapt karne ki drushti se ek abhyaavedan prastut karne ka avsar diya jaana chaahiye. prabhaavit vyakti ko aamtaur par us maamale ke saar ya tatvon ke vishay mein soochit kiya jaana chaahiye, jis par use javaab dena hai.

adaalat ne yeh nirdhaarit kiya ki NDPP ke samvidhaan ki dhaara 179(5)(d) mein ullikhit prakriya ka paalan kar paane ki vifalta ne NDPP dvaara jooma par pun: aarop lagaane ke nirnaya ko avaidh ghoshit kiya. nyaayaadheesh nikholasan ne paaya ki jooma par lagaae gaye aaropon ke samay par vibhinn anumaan lagaae ja sakte hain (jaise ki yeh tathya ki jooma par ye aarop unke ANC ka adhyaksh nirvaachit hone ke theek baad lagaae gaye) jo is nishkarsh ki pushti karta hai ki ismein sarkaar ki kaaryakaari shaakha dvaara raajaneetik hastakshep ka kuchh ansh shaamil hai. nyaayaadheesh nikholasan apne nirnaya ke paira 210 mein likhte hain,

raashtrapati ki polokavaane mein hui raajaneetik haar ke baad, 28 December 2007 ko shreemaan emshe dvaara [jooma par] chalaae gaye abhiyog ka samay, sabse adhik durbhaagyapoorn tha. is pahaloo ne, shri pikoli jinhein svatantr aur pratirkshit rahana chaahiye tha ke kaaryapaalika ke hastakshep se nilanban kiye jaane ki ghatna ke saath milkar, mujhe yeh vishvaas dila diya ki sabse sachcha nishkarsh yeh hai ki haanikaarak raajaneetik prabhaav jaari hai.

nirnaya ke anuchhed 220 mein nyaayaadheesh nikholasan ne aage likha hai,

raajaneetik hastakshep, dabaav ya prabhaav ke sanketon se oopar uth kar jo vyavahaar mainne nirdhaarit kiye hain unamein ek chintaajanak dhaancha hai. yeh mantri maadoona dvaara shri ngakuka ko diye gaye "raajaneetik netrutv" se shuroo hua, jab unhonne aavedak par mukadama chalaane se inkaar kar diya, jiska aparaadh tha unka thint pratinidhiyon se vaarta karna aur milna aur anya maamale jiska ullekh main kar chooka hoon. saakshya ke niyam diye jaane ke kaaran adaalat is nishkarsh ko sveekaar karne ke liye baadhya hai jo us paksh ke hit ke liye sabse kam anukool hai jinke paas tathyon ka vishesh gyaan hai. yeh nishchit roop se yeingeni maamale mein ullikhit "suraag ya sujhaav" ke raajaneetik hastakshep se adhik prabal hai. yeh ek gambhir chinta ka vishay hai ki is tarah ki prakriya, nae dakshin Africa mein ghatit hui aur isne rangabhed shaasan ke antargat vinaash ko prerit kiya."[40]

sunavaai se pehle jooma ke samarthakon ki or se dakshin afreeki nyaayapaalika ki khoob aalochna ki gayi.[41], jinmein paul nagobeni jaisi kuchh pramukh kaanooni hastiyaan bhi shaamil theen,[42] is sandarbh mein, vidambana yeh thi ki dakshin afreeki nyaayaapaalika ko teesari baar jooma ke paksh mein paaya gaya, jisme un par par lagaae gaye balaatkaar ke aarop se bari hona bhi shaamil tha. NDPP ne jald hi is nirnaya ke khilaaf appeal karne ke apne iraade ki ghoshana ki.

appeal par bahaal aarop

thaabo mabeki ne peetaramairitsabarg uchch nyaayaalaya ke nyaayaadheesh kris nikholasan ke nirnaya par appeal karne ke liye samvaidhaanik nyaayaalaya mein ek halafnaama daayar kiya:

mujhse sambandhit aise dooragaami "afsosajanak, parivaadaatmak aur pratikool" nishkarsh niklana aur jooma maamale ke un nishkarshon ke aadhaar par faisala karna aur ninda karna adaalat ke liye anuchit tha. mera sammaan poorn nivedan yeh hai ki nyaaya ke hiton ki raksha, is maamale ko sudhaare jaane mein hai. in pratikool nishkarshon ne mere ANC party dvaara mera naam vaapas liye jaane ko falit kiya - yeh ek aisa nivedan tha jise mainne pichhle 52 varshon se ANC ka ek pratibaddh aur vafaadaar sadasya ke roop mein sveekaar kiya. mujhe dar hai ki yadi sudhaara naheen gaya, to mujhe aage aur pratikool prabhaav ka saamana karna pad sakta hai.[43]

raashtreeya abhiyog praadhikran ke pravakta, talaali talaali, ne 23 sitmbar ko pritoriya se phone dvaara kaha, "hame kaagajaat mil gaya hai. yeh vichaaraadheen hai."[44]

12 January 2009 ko blaumafonten ke Supreme court of appeal mein is appeal ke liye nirnaya ko khaarij kar diya gaya. up nyaayaadheesh adhyaksh lui haarms ko appeal ke do pahaluon par nirnaya lena pada. pehla pahaloo tha ki kya jooma ko is baat ka adhikaar tha ki ve NPA ke samaksh abhyaavedan karne ke liye aamantrit kiye jaayein vo bhi unke khilaaf rishvat aur bhrashtaachaar ke aaropon ko vaapas liye jaane ka nirnaya liye jaane se pehle. doosra pahaloo yeh tha ki kya nyaayaadheesh nikholasan jooma par iljaam lagaae jaane ke NPA ke nirnaya ke sandarbh mein tatkaaleen raashtrapati thaabo mabeki dvaara diye gaye raajaneetik dakhal ko samajhne mein sahi the.

NPA ke faisale ki sameeksha ke dauraan abhyaavedan aamantrit karne ke savaal par haarms DP ne paaya ki nikholasan dvaara di gayi samvidhaan ke 179 khand ki vyaakhya galat thi kyonki NPA ka aisa koi daayitv naheen tha aur isliye ve jooma par aarop lagaane ke liye svatantr tha joki usane kiya. nikholasan ke mabeki dvaara diye gaye raajaneetik dakhal ke vishay mein diye gaye tark ke savaal par, haarms DP ne paaya ki "nichli adaalat ne apne adhikaaron ka ullanghan kiya hai".

khaarij aarop

6 April 2009 ko, raashtreeya abhiyog praadhikran (NPA) ne, abhiyojan paksh mein gambhir doshon ke nae rahasyodghaatan ki raushani mein, jooma aur sah abhiyukt French hathiyaar company thint ke khilaaf sabhi aaropon ko vaapas le liya.[45] yeh rahasyodghaatan phone vaarta ke tukadon ke roop mein the jo yeh dikhaate the ki skorpiyn ke adhyaksh, leeonaard maikaarthi aur saarvajanik abhiyojan ke poorv raashtreeya nideshak, bulelaani ngakuka ne jooma par abhiyog chalaae jaane ke samay ko lekar saajish rachi thi, jo sanbhaavyat: jooma ke raajaneetik pratidvandvi, raashtrapati thaabo mabeki ke raajaneetik laabh ke liye tha. aarop vaapas lene ki ghoshana NPA ke kaaryakaari adhyaksh, mokothedi empshe dvaara kiya gaya, jinhonein is baat par jor diya ki aaropon ki vaapasi un durupayogon ke kaaran hui jise kaanooni prakriya ko "daagi" banaaya aur yeh doshamukti ke baraabar naheen hai.[46]

NPA ki ghoshana ke turant baad, haalaanki, kam se kam do raajaneetik dalon ne soochit kiya ki aaropon ko vaapas liye jaane ki sthiti mein ve apne se kaanooni kaarravaai par vichaar kareinge.[47] democratic elaayans ne baad mein NPA ke faisale ki ek nyaayik sameeksha karne ki appeal daayar ki, jiske sandarbh mein unke party ke neta helen jile ne spasht kiya ki empshe ne "kaanoon par aadhaarit nirnaya naheen liya, lekin [uske bajaae] raajaneetik dabaav se bandha hua nirnaya liya".[48] 9 June 2009 ko, is maamale ki sunavaai ka din tay kiya gaya.[49] jabki jooma ne apni pratikriya ko kaalochit roop se daayar kiya, empshe ne maamale ki sunavaai mein deri ki, jismein unhonne NPA ki pratikriya ko pesh karne ke liye do vistaaran ka anurodh kiya. NPA ke pravakta mthunji mahaaga ne kaha ki ve kaagajaat daakhil naheen kareinge kyonki "bakaaya maamale" aise hain jinhein hal kiya jaana baaki hai. democratic elaayans party pramukh jile ne tark diya ki jooma ki pratikriya maulik roop se galat hai aur "unamein koi samvaidhaanik aadhaar naheen hain".[50] jabki kaanooni chunautiyaan jaari rahi, June 2009 ko hue ek sarvekshan se pata chala ki, aadhe se jyaada dakshin afreeki yeh maanate hain ki raashtrapati jekab jooma achha kaam kar rahe hain. June 2009 ke ant mein TNS research stadeej dvaara kiye gaye chunaav mein yeh jaahir ho gaya ki jooma ke anumodan star mein lagaataar sudhaar hua hai. sarvekshan mein shaamil logon mein se lagbhag 57% ne kaha ki ve sochate hain ki jooma ek saksham neta hain - yeh taadaad April 2009 mein raashtrapati ke naam udghaatan ke mukaabale 3% tak adhik thi. November 2008 mein, poorv raashtrapati thaabo mabeki ka naam vaapas le liye jaane aur jooma ke bhrashtaachaar ke aaropon ka saamana karne ke bas kuchh hi maheene baad, keval 36% dakshin afreeki hi unke vishay mein sakaaraatmak the.[51]

balaatkaar ke aarop

December 2005 mein, jooma par apne faurest taaun, Johannesburg vaale ghar mein ek 31 varsheeya mahila ka balaatkaar karne ka aarop lagaaya gaya. kathit peedita ANC ke ek mahatvapoorn parivaar ki thi, vah jooma ke sangharsh ke dinon ke divangat saathi ki putri thi aur ek eds kaaryakarta thi jise echaaaivi positive se grasit maana jaata tha. jooma ne in aaropon ka khandan kiya aur daava kiya ki yeh yaun sambandh aapasi sahamati se bana tha.

Johannesburg uchch nyaayaalaya ke baahar samarthakon aur utsuk logon ki bheed.

aarop daakhil kiye jaane se pehle hi, jaise hi November mein balaatkaar ke aaropon ke baare mein afavaahein udi, jooma ki raajaneetik sambhaavnaaen patan ki or agrasar prateet hone lagi. unke uchch star ke adhikaansh raajaneetik samarthakon ne in nae aaropon ke sandarbh mein us tarah se pratikriya naheen di jis tarah se unhonne bhrashtaachaar ke aaropon ke khilaaf di thi. balaatkaar mukadame se pehle ki ek sunavaai mein, hajaaron ki taadaad mein unke samarthakon ki bheed adaalat ke samaksh ikattha hui, jabki chand balaatkaar-virodhi chhote samoohon ne kathit balaatkaar peedita ke liye pradarshan kiya.[52] jaise ki jooma ne mukadame ke dauraan kiya, ve bheed ke saath lethu masheeni vaami (meri machine gan laao) gaate rahe aur ANC yuva league aur baam panthi party yuva league ke pravakta ne jooma ke samarthan mein baat ki.[53]

jaise-jaise balaatkaar ka mukadama aage badta gaya, yeh report saamane aati gayi ki, dakshin afreeki vaam panthi dal mein is baat ko lekar bhaari matabhed tha ki jooma ke maamale ko aur unke saath SACP ke sambandh ko kaise sambodhit kiya jaae. party ki yuva shaakha ke kai sadasyon ne jooma ka samarthan kiya jabki SACP ke anya sadasya, shaasan ke mahatvapoorn siddhaanton ke viruddh ek vishesh vyakti ke liye pradarshan karne ke moolya ke vishay mein sanshaya mein the.[54][55][56]

kuchh poorv samarthakon ke dalabadal lene ke baavajood, kai jooma samarthakon ne adaalat ke baahar pradarshan karna jaari rakha, abhiyokta ki akhandata aur naitikta par nirantar pratighaat karne, abhiyokta ke ek kareebi dost par apashabd uchhaalane aur abhiyokta samajh kar kisi anya mahila par patthar feinkane jaise krutyon ne balaatkaar virodhi samoohon ki aalochna ko badhaava diya.[57] jooma ke pratirkshak dal ne peedit mahila ke yaun ateet se sambandhit saboot pesh kiye aur jor dekar kaha ki yeh shaareerik sambandh donon ki sahamati se hua. abhiyojan paksh ne is baat par jor diya ki us mahila ka pratirodh na karna uske sadme ki sthiti mein hone ke kaaran tha aur un donon ke beech ka sambandh pita putri ke sambandh jaisa tha.[58][59]

is mukadame ne tab raajaneetik vivaad bhi utpann kar diya jab jooma, jo us samay raashtreeya eds parishad ka netrutv kar rahe the, ne yeh sveekaar kiya ki unhonne balaatkaar ka aarop lagaane waali us mahila ke saath bina kandom ke asurakshit sanbhog kiya, yeh jaante hue bhi ki vah HIV positive thi. unhonne adaalat mein yeh kaha ki "HIV sankraman ke khatre ko kam karne ke liye" uske turant baad unhonne snaan kar liya. is bayaan ki ninda nyaayaadheesh, svaasthya visheshagyon aur eds kaaryakartaaon dvaara ki gayi. dakshin Africa ki lokapriya kaumik strip, maidam aur iv aur jaane maane raajaneetik kaartoonist jaapiro ne is maamale ka majaak udaaya. HIV ki shiksha dene vaalon ne jor diya ki yeh HIV sankraman ko rokane ke liye kuchh naheen kar paayega.[60]

8 May 2006 ko, adaalat ne jooma ko nirdosh paaya aur jooma ki is baat par sahamat hui ki savaalon se ghira yaun krutya sahamati se hua. nyaayaadheesh vain dar marave ne abhiyokta ko adaalat mein jhooth bolne ke liye buri tarah se fatakaara, lekin jooma ko bhi apni laaparavaahi ke liye doshi thaharaaya.

jab unke balaatkaar ka mukadama khatm hua, kai dakshin afreekeeyon ne socha ki jooma ke mukadame dvaara apne raajaneetik pranaali mein banaai gayi daraaron ko kaise bhara jaae. mel end gaardiyn ke ek vishleshan ne in ghatnaaon ko vishesh roop se pareshaan karne wala bataaya:

raajaneetik nuksaan behisaab hai, jahaan sattaaroodh afreeki national Congress ab ek khuleaam vibhaajit aur ladkhadaata aandolan hai. dakshin afreeki vaamapanthi dal aur dakshin afreeki vyaapaar sangh Congress par iska ek apratyaksh prabhaav pada hai, jo tab ladkhada kar dhvast ho gaya jab ek aise aadmi ke khilaaf iljaam laga jiska majboot samarthan unhonne desh ke agale raashtrapati ke roop mein kiya tha.
yeh mukadama mabeki aur jooma ke beech uttaraadhikaar ke ek katu yuddh ki prushthabhoomi par lada gaya... ANC mein mabeki ka samarthan gir gaya hai, jahaan party ke vafaadaaron ne is baat ko asveekaar kar diya hai ki vah kisi neta ko gaddi deinge ... lekin yahaan tak ki jooma ke adhikaansh kattar samarthakon ne niji taur par sveekaar kiya hai ki vah ab raashtrapati naheen ban sakte, chaahe mukadame ka kuchh bhi faisala ho.[61]

fir bhi, balaatkaar mukadame ke khatm ho jaane ke baad, business de ki kareema brown ne di gaarjiyn ko bataaya "jekab jooma vaapas aa gaye hain. yeh ANC netrutv ke liye ek gambhir duvidha khadi karta hai. ab jooma vaapas luthuli house [ANC party mukhyaalaya] ki or agrasar hain.] ve vaapas upaadhyaksh ke pad par bahaal kiye jaane ki maang kareinge aur doosaron ko unka raasta rokane mein kathinaai hogi... yeh jooma ke raajaneetik kairiyr ke liye ek badi jeet hai."[62]

raashtrapati pad ke liye ek pratiyogi ke roop mein jooma ki vaapasi ki sambhaavana antararaashtreeya niveshakon ke liye chinta ka kaaran ban gayi. ek svatantr vishleshak ne sujhaav diya, "haaliya sarvekshanon ke anusaar, jooma aur unke machine gan chalaanevaale kaafile ko union bilding ki or badte hue dekhna mukhyat: madhyam varg aur vyaapaariyon ko hatotsaahit karne wala hai."[63]

bhrashtaachaar aaropon ke baad bhi jaari samarthan

upaadhyaksh ke roop mein kaarya karte hue jooma ne ANC ke vaam paksh ka samarthan haasil kiya, jinmein ANC yuva league, dakshin afreeki communist paarteeaur dakshin afreeki trade union Congress (COSATU) ke kai sadasya shaamil the.[krupaya uddharan jodein] jab jooma bhrashtaachaar ke aaropon ka saamana kar rahe the, tab bhi in sangathanon ka samarthan bana raha. party ke bheetar ardh svaayatt sanrachanaaon ne jooma ke samarthan ko tab bhi banaae rakhane mein sahaayata ki jab ve desh ke up raashtrapati pad se hata diye gaye.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

jooma ki barkhaastagi ki do tareekon se vyaakhya ki gayi. kai antararaashtreeya paryavekshakon ne iska svaagat ek spasht sanket ke roop mein kiya ki dakshin afreeki sarkaar apne bheetari rainkon se bhrashtaachaar ko ukhaad fainkane ke liye samarpit hai. doosari or, dakshin Africa mein kuchh logon ne is tathya par prakaash daala ki jooma aur mabeki afreeki national Congress mein do vibhinn nirvaachan kshetron ka pratinidhitv karte hain. kuchh vaamapanthi samarthakon ne daava kiya ki mabeki aur unka baajaar-unmukhi paksh ANC mein apna varchasv kaayam rakhane ke uddheshya se jooma ko baahar nikalne ki saajish kar raha hain.[64]

2005 mein jooma ke pratyek bhrashtaachaar se sambandhit adaalati haajri mein unke samarthakon ki bade taadaad mein bheed lagti thi. adaalat ki ek taareekh mein, jooma ke samarthakon ne mabeki ke chitr vaale ti shart jalaae, is ghatna ne ANC ki ninda arjit ki; jooma aur unke sahayogiyon ne baad ke ekatreekaranon ke liye party ke anushaasan ke daayare mein rahane ka aagrah kiya. November mein adaalat ki agali taareekh par, hajaaron ki taadaad mein jooma ke samarthak unka samarthan karne ke liye ekatrit hue; jooma ne juloo bhaasha mein daraban ki bheed ko sambodhit kiya aur unase party ki ekta ko banaae rakhane ki appeal ki aur rangabhed sangharsh ke dinon ke geet lethu masheeni vaami ko gaaya jiske bolon ka shaabdik anuvaad hai "meri machine mujhe la do" lekin jiska arth machine gan ke sandarbh mein samjha jaata hai. October mein ANC yuva league ke liye ek daure mein desh mein kisi anya jagah jooma ne ek badi bheed ki vaahavaahi jeeti. jabki unki raajanaitik taakat ka kam se kam ek aanshik bhaag antar-daleeya sambandhon par aadhaarit hai, ek vishleshak ne tark diya ki unke samarthakon ki vafaadaari ki jadein, vafaadaari aur aapasi sahaayata ke juloo drushtikon mein nihit theen.[65]

party tatvon ke beech unke samarthan ki vajah se, jooma ek shaktishaali raajaneetik vyaktitv bane rahe, jiske kaaran desh ke up raashtrapati ke pad se apni barkhaastagi ke baad bhi ve ANC mein ek uchch pad par bane rahe. November 2005 mein, sanyojit vishleshakon ke ek panel ne is baat par sahamati jataai ki yadi jooma ko bhrashtaachaar ke aaropon mein nirdosh paaya jaata hai, to 2009 mein, desh ke raashtrapati pad ki daud mein jooma ko haraana kisi anya sambhaavit ANC pratyaashi ke liye mushkil hoga. haalaanki, in vishleshakon ka yeh bhi savaal tha ki kya jooma vaastav mein ek vaamapanthi ummeedavaar hain jaisa ki unke kai samarthak samajhte hain aur yeh bataaya ki jo vaishvik aur raashtreeya aarthik baadhaaen mabeki ke shaasan kaal mein vyaapt thi ve agale raashtrapati pad ke kaaryakaal mein bhi naheen badaleingi.[66]

vyaktigat jeevan

patniyaan

jekab jooma ek bahupat‍aaneevaadi vyakti hain, unhonne paanch baar vivaah kiya hai,[67][68] aur unke 20 bachche hain.[69][70][71]

  1. garatrud sijaakele khumaalo, jinse ve 1959 mein mile aur 1973 mein jail se riha hote hi vivaah kar liya.[72] ve abhi unke nkaanadala, kvaajuloo netaal ke ghar mein rahati hain. unako koi santaan naheen hai.
  2. nakosaajaana dalaamini-jooma, 1999 se cabinet mantri raheen, jinse unhein chaar bachche hue, masholoji (janm 1982), gugulethu (janm 1987), thooli (nokoothoola nomaakhaave) (janm 1988) aur thoothoo (thoothookile ksolile nomonde) (janm 1988). unhonne June 1998 mein talaak le liya.[73]
  3. mojaambik ki Kate maantsho, jinse unhein paanch bachche praapt hue, mksolisi saidi (janm 1980) judvaan bachche dudoojile aur dudoojaane (janm 1984), fumajile (janm 1989) aur vusi (janm 1993). 8 December 2000 ko unhonne aatmahatya kar li.[73]
  4. 8 January 2008 ko unka vivaah nomapumelelo ntuli (maantuli) se hua. ntuli, janm 1975, steingar ke paas kvaamaafumulo ki nivaasi hai aur jooma se unhein do bachche hai thandeeseeve janm 2002, sinkobile janm February 2006.[73]
  5. thobeka stesi maadeeba (janm ke samay mabaheeja, unki maan ka naam), ke saath unka vivaah 4 January 2010 ko hua aur inse unhein ek bachcha hai.[74] jooma ne 2007 mein apne vansh ko lobola ka bhugataan kiya. October 2007 mein unka bachcha paida hua. uske saath jooma ki ek naajaayaj santaan bhi rahati hai.[74] maabheeja, umlaaji mein badi hui aur unhonne umlaaji vaanijyik haai school se maitrik paas ki. unhonne standard bank, ithaala, ke sel si aur la loosiya mein SA homalons ke liye kaam kiya.[75][76][77]

mangetar

  1. 2002 mein jooma ne svaaji Rajkumari sebeinteele dalaamini ke liye 10 pashuon ka lobola ada kiya.[78]
  2. gloriya bonagekile nagema ke liye bhi lobola ka bhugataan kiya gaya tha, jisse unhein ek 3 varsh ka putr hai.[79][80]

anya bachche

  • unka ek anya putr, Edward minaah shongve se janma hai jo judge jeremiaa shongve ki bahan hai, jinhonne is sambandh ke kaaran jooma ke balaatkaar mukadame se khud ko baahar rakhe jaane ki baat ki thi.[81]
  • unako, peetaramairitsabarg ki mahila vyavasaayi priskila nonakvaaleko mhalongo se do betiyaan huin, jinka janm 18 January 1998 aur 19 sitmbar 2002 ko hua.[82]
  • chaar anya santaanon ke hone ki bhi khabar hai - Johannesburg ki ek mahila se teen aur ek richrd be ki ek mahila se.[74]

2009 'love-child'

January 2010 ko the Sunday times ki khabar ke anusaar iravin khoja ki beti, sonono khoja ne, 8 October 2009 ko jooma ke 20ve bachche ko janm diya jo ki ek kanya hai aur usaka naam thaanadekile maatina jooma hai.[69][83]

  • jooma ki pratikriya
    • 3 fravari ko, jooma ne is baat ki pushti ki ki vah bachcha unka hai aur unhonne inhlaavulo ke samaksh pitrutv ko sveekaar kiya hai. unhonne bachche ke naam ko prakaashit karne par virodh jataaya aur kaha ki yeh bachche ka avaidh shoshan hai. unhonne is baat se inkaar kiya ki is ghatna ki sarkaar ke eds kaaryakram ke saath koi praasangikta hai aur gopaneeyata ke liye appeal ki.[84] 6 fravari jooma ne kaha ki ve "apne parivaar, ANC, gathabandhan aur sampoorn dakshin Africa ko pahunchi chot ke kaaran gahra khed vyakt karte hain".[85]
  • sonono khoja ki pratikriya
    • bachche ki maan ne kaha, "tum kaun se bachche ki baat kar rahe ho? mere do bachche hain. ve school mein hain. yeh logon ka jeevan hai. mujhe jeene do," unhonne sovetan se kaha.[86]
  • preseedeinsi ki pratikriya
    • raashtrapati ke kaaryaalaya ki tippani thi ki yeh ek niji maamala hai.[87].
  • ANC ki pratikriya
    • ANC ne jooma ka bachaav yeh karke kiya, ki use apni HIV/eds neetiyon aur jooma ke vyaktigat jeevan ke beech koi sambandh naheen nazar aata.[88] 5 fravari ko, ANC ne vyaapak roop se faili asveekruti ko yeh kehte hue sveekaar kiya ki is anubhav ne hamein kai moolyavaan sabak sikhaaye hain.[89]
    • ANC yuva league ke neta jooliys maalema ne kaha, "ham afreeki hain aur ham sab yahaan baithe hain, jooma hamaare pita hain aur isliye ham unki aalochna karne ke yogya naheen hai". maalema ne kaha ANCYL desh bhar mein chalne vaale ek jaagrukta abhiyaan mein apne HIV kaaryakram par aur "ek premi ek premika ke svaroop par jor dega.[90]
    • ANC vumen league ke upaadhyaksh nosifo dorothi ntvaanaambi ne kaha: "yadi aap vivaah sambandh ke prati swayam ko pratibaddh maanate hain to aapke liye vivaah uparaant prem sambandh rakhana uchit naheen hai. lekin prathaagat vivaah adhiniyam ke tahat, yadi pehli patni raaji hai aur yadi in sabhi muddon par uske saath charcha ki gayi hai, to ham kuchh naheen kar sakte hain."[91]
    • COSATU jo ek ANC ka gathabandhan saathi hai, ne koi nirnaya paarit naheen kiya lekin yeh aasha vyakt ki ki yeh "jooma ki antaraatma ka maamala hoga"[89] vaavi ne is saptaah jooma ki appeal ko doharaaya ki raashtrapati ko unki "nijta ka adhikaar" milna chaahiye aur bachche ka avaanchhit prachaar se bachaav hona chaahiye.
  • vipaksh ki pratikriya
    • democratic elaayans ke helen jile ne kaha ki jooma ne dakshin afreekiyon ko jo sarvaadhik eds peediton mein se ek hai, surakshit sex karne ke apne saarvajanik sandesh ka khandan kiya.[92] unhonne kaha ki is maamale ko poori tarah niji bataana galat tha aur nirvaachit saarvajanik adhikaariyon ko un siddhaanton aur moolyon ko sannihit karna chaahiye jinke liye unhein jaana jaata hai.[93]
    • afreeki krishchiyn democratic party ne kaha ki jooma ne sarkaar dvaara logon ko HIV aur eds se mukaabala karne ke liye surakshit sex ke liye raaji karne ke prayaas ko kamjor kar diya.[92]
    • di Congress of di peepal (COPE) ne kaha jooma ab apne svachhand sanbhog ko afreeki saanskrutik prathaaon ki aad mein uchit naheen thahara sakte.[92]
    • indeepenadeint democrat ke neta petreesiya di lile ne kaha, jooma logon se kah rahe the "vah karo, jo main kehta hoon, vo naheen jo main karta hoon."[94]

jooma aur Zimbabwe

jooma ki adhyakshata waali afreeki raashtreeya Congress ne, ZANU-PF party ko aitihaasik roop se apna ek praakrutik sahayogi maana hai, jo angrejon dvaara utpeedn ke khilaaf aapasi sangharsh se janmi hai. poorv dakshin afreeki raashtrapati thaabo mabeki ne mugaabe ki neetiyon ki saarvajanik roop se kabhi aalochna naheen ki - jo mugaabe ke netrutv ke kathor pashchimi ninda ke liye unke diye hue naam "megaafon kootaneeti" ke bajaay "shaant kootaneeti" ke pakshadhar the.[95][96] haalaanki, party ka baam bhaag aur atirikt party sangathan jaise ANC yuva league, dakshin afreeki baam panthi party aur dakshin afreeki trade union Congress (COSATU) ne Zimbabwe par ek kada ravaiya rakhane ki pairavi ki hai.[97][98][99]. yahi sangathan hain jinse jooma apne liye samarthan jutaate hain.

Zimbabwe par jooma ka rukh mishrit raha. 2006 mein jarman patrika der speegel ko diye ek saakshaatkaar mein, unhonne mugaabe ke prati bhaavanaatmak sahaanubhooti vyakt karte hue kaha ki "Europeeya aksar is tathya ki anadekhi karte hain ki mugaabe afreekiyon ke beech bahut lokapriya hain. unki najron mein, unhonne ashveton ko sadiyon ke upaniveshavaad ke baad unka desh vaapas dilvaaya." unhonne aage kaha ki "log unase pyaar karte hain, to ham unki ninda kaise kar sakte hain? Africa mein kai logon ka yeh maanana hai ki Europeeya aur amerikeeyon dvaara mugaabe ki aalochna kiye jaane mein ek naslavaadi pahaloo hai. angola, kaango ganaraajya aur ravaanda mein laakhon ashvet maare gaye. Zimbabwe mein kuchh goron ki durbhaagyavash mrutyu ho jaane ke kaaran pashchimi desh pehle se hi asantusht ho gaye hain."[100]

haalaanki, December 2007 tak, ve jimbaabve ke netrutv ki aalochna karne mein adhik spashtavaadi rahe, jiske tahat unhonne apni neetiyon ko mabeki ki neetiyon ke saath adhik vipreet tulanaatmak roop se paribhaashit kiya:

yeh aur bhi dukhad hai ki anya vishv ke anya netaaon jinhonein daman dekha hai yeh bahaana karte hain ki aisa kabhi hua hi naheen, ya yeh atishyoktipoorn hai. jab itihaas antat: taanaashaahon ki charcha karta hai, tab ve log jinhonein bagal mein khade rah kar tamaasha dekha, unhein bhi parinaam bhugatne chaahiye. aadhunik duniya ka ek sharmanaak gun hai, anyaaya dekhkar munh fer lena aur doosaron ki kathinaaiyon ki upeksha karna.[101]

mabeki dvaara unapar taanaashaahon ke prati udaar hone ka aarop lagaae jaane par jooma ne unki aalochna ki.[102]

29 March 2008 ko Zimbabwe mein hue vivaadit chunaavon ke baad, unhonne Zimbabwe ki chunaav prakriya ke vishay mein aalochanaatmak ravaiya apnaaya[103] aur parinaam mein deri ko "sandigdh" bataaya.[104] 24 June ko ek samvaadadaata sammelan mein unhonne kaha "ham ZANU-PF ke saath sahamat naheen ho sakte hain ham unke saath moolyon par sahamat naheen ho sakte. humne logon ke vote karne ke adhikaar ke liye ladaai ladi, ham lokatantr ke liye lade."[105] July mein ek ANC dinr ke dauraan, unhonne mugaabe ko apna pad na chhodne ke kaaran daanta.[106]

jooma banaam media

unke balaatkaar mukadame ke peechhe paagal media par pratighaat karte hue jooma ne 30 June 2006 ko dakshin afreeki midiya ke khilaaf unki saarvajanik chhavi ko kaartoonon, tippaneeyon, photo aur pairodiyon ke roop mein malin karne ke liye maanahaani ka mukadama kiya. jo media aautalet is daave se prabhaavit hue ve the di star par 20 million raind, raipport par 10 million raind, haaiveld steerio par 6 million raind, di sitijn par 5 million raind, Sunday san par 5 million raind, Sunday indeepenadeint par 5 million raind aur Sunday world par 5 million raind ka daava kiya gaya.

jooma ne kanjarvetiv party ke poorv saansad adhivakta edavoket jurg prinsloo aur saath hi viklif mothuloe ko apne tathaakathit "media dvaara krooseefikshan" se nipatne ke liye niyukt kiya. jooma ne kaha:

"paanch varsh ki avadhi mein mera vyaktitv media ke maadhyam se aur prabhaavi raaston se sabhi prakaar ke aaropon aur vyangya ko sahata hua gujra hai aur un aaropon ko abhi jaancha bhi naheen gaya hai. is prakaar main apne uttar dene aur apna bachaav karne ke samvaidhaanik adhikaar se vanchit kar diya gaya hoon.", 29 June 2005.[107]

chunauti praapt media ne atyadhik mahatvapoorn pratikriya di aur vibhinn media ke aautalet ko mili likhit pratikriyaaon mein unke bolne ki svatantrata ko chunauti dene par jooma ki aalochna ki gayi.

aage chal kar pronto kandom ke vigyaapan mein jooma ke prasiddh shaavar bayaan ki pairodi banaai gayi.[108]

media upasthiti

raajaneetik pad

samalaingik vivaah par tippaniyaan

samalaingik samoohon dvaara jooma ki aalochna ki gayi jab unhonne 24 sitmbar 2006 mein stainagar mein heritej diwas samaaroh ke dauraan samalaingik vivaah ki aalochna yeh kehte hue ki ki samalaingik vivaah "raashtra aur parameshvar ke liye apamaanajanak hai": "jab main bada ho raha tha, ek angkvigili (ek samalaingik) mere samaksh tik naheen sakta tha. main use maar kar gira deta."[110]

joint varking group (ek samalaingik lobby sangathan) ne jooma ke netrutv kaushal par savaal uthaaya aur kaha ki ek "sachcha neta buddhi aur soojh-boojh ke saath shaasan karta hai - lokapriyta ya paksh paat se naheen. is tarah ke sankeern vichaaron vaale vyakti se hamaare raashtra ka netrutv karne ki ummeed kaise ki ja sakti hai?"[111] baad mein jooma ne un sab se maafi maangi jinhein unhonne apne bayaan se naaraaj kiya,[112] unhonne kaha, "main un samalaingik bhaaiyon aur bahanon ke hamaare svatantrata ki ladaai mein saath dene aur ek gair nasleeya, gair bhedabhaavapoorn dakshin Africa ke nirmaan mein apna yogadaan dene par unka sammaan karta hoon, sveekaar karta hoon aur prashansa karta hoon."

pashchimi sahaara par tippaniyaan

dakshin Africa mein morakko ke raajadoot habeeb defauad, ne June 2007 mein pashchimi sahaara ke svatantrata ke liye jooma ke samarthan ki aalochna ki.[113] 1970 ke baad se ANC ne mabeki aur mandela ke shaasan kaal mein saharaavi svatantrata aandolan polisaariyo morcha ka samarthan kiya. 2004 mein, dakshin Africa ne saharaavi arab lokataantrik ganaraajya ya SADR ko ek maanyata praapt nirvaasit sarkaar ke roop mein pehchaan deti hai.

kishor garbhaavastha par tippaniyaan

dakshin afreeki kishoron mein garbhaavastha ke vishay mein jooma ka samaadhaan yeh tha ki unke bachchon ko raajyaadheen kar liya jaae aur maaon ko collegeon mein bhej kar degree praapt karne ke liye "majaboor" kiya jaae.[114][115]

pun: vaapasi par tippaniyaan

jooma dhaarmik aur dharmanirpeksh samoohon ke bhi ninda ke paatr bane jab unhonne ghoshana ki ki ANC dakshin Africa par tab tak shaasan karega jab tak ki yeeshu vaapas naheen aate aur ANC ka shaasan ko jaari rakhana ishvar ki marji hai:

ishvar chaahata hai ki ham is desh par shaasan karein kyonki ham ek maatr aisa sangathan hain jiske banane ke samay paadariyon dvaara aasheervaad diya gaya tha. ise svarg dvaara bhi aasheervaad diya gaya hai. yahi kaaran hai ki ham tab tak shaasan kareinge jab tak yeeshu vaapas naheen aate. hame hamaare shaharon ko kisi aur ke dvaara shaasan karne ki anumati naheen deni chaahiye jab ham swayam sattaaroodh hain.[116][117]

jooma ne baad mein apni tippaniyon ka bachaav yeh kah kar kiya ki ve "raajaneetik abhivyakti" hain: "yeeshu ke baare mein baat karna unke naam ka apamaan karna naheen hain; balki yeh vaastav mein aitihaasik kahaavat hai, 'aur yahi ANC hai.' yeh sirf ek raajaneetik abhivyakti hai ki ham majaboot hain aur ek lambe samay tak majaboot raheinge. main maafi chaahata hoon yadi yeh sach kisi ko bura laga ho to"[118] unhonne aage kaha ki unhein bapatisma diya gaya tha aur ve yeeshu ko jaante hain: "main ishvar se darata hoon .... iska arth yeh naheen hai ki main ishvar ka tirskaar kar raha hoon, aisa bilkul naheen hai."[118]

afreekainars par tippaniyaan

NPA dvaara unke khilaaf aaropon ko vaapas liye abhi jyaada din bhi naheen hue the ki jooma ek baar fir vivaadon se ghir gaye. saindatan Johannesburg ke Hilton hotel mein jahaan ke afreekaans samudaaya ko sambodhit karte hue (unhonne daava kiya ki chunaav prachaar prayojanon ke liye naheen) jooma ne kaha,

dakshin Africa mein rahane vaale sabhi gore samoohon mein se, keval afreekainars hi sahi arth mein sachche dakshin afreeki hain.

aaj tak, ve do passport naheen rakhate, ve ek hi rakhate hain. ve yahaan rahane ke liye hain.[118]

rangabhed ke maamale ko sambodhit karte hue jooma ne haasya ke liye "parivrtanaat‍aamak" afreekainar ke virodh ki vyangapoorn tareeke se prashansa ki, jo unke anusaar apne jurm ko "alag vikaas" jaise shabdon ke tah ke neeche chhupaate hain. unhonne police ke bhrashtaachaar ke maamale ka bhi saamana yeh kehte hue kiya ki "tum desh ka bharosa ek aise insaan par naheen daal sakte ho jo swayam ek mujarim hai."[118]

vivaad

shaik pairol

March 2009 mein, schaabir shaik ko pandrah saal ki mili kaid mein se keval 28 maheene mein hi riha kar diya gaya. unhein chikitsa pairol di gayi, ek aisi narami jo keval gambheer roop se beemaar ke liye hi bani hai, unke doctoron ke is rai ke baavajood bhi ki ve poorn roop se svasth hain aur aspataal ke muft kiye jaane ki sthiti mein hai.

media ne atkalein lagaai ki is ghatna mein jooma ka haath ho sakta hai, lekin ANC ke raashtrapati ke pravakta ne drudhta se iska khandan kiya. iske kuchh hi din pehle, haalaanki, unhonne saarvajanik roop se kaha tha ki dakshin Africa ke raashtrapati ke roop mein, ve vyaktigat roop se shaik ki rihaai sunishchit kareinge.[119]

mukhya nyaayaadheesh ke roop mein nagakobo ka naamaankan

6 August 2009 mein, jooma ne saindile nagakobo ko dakshin Africa ke mukhya nyaayaadheesh ke roop mein manoneet kiya,[120] iske kasrn unhein chaar vipakshi samoohon ke aalochna ka saamana karna pada.[121] 1 October 2009 ko, unke niyukti ki pushti ki gayi. democratic elaayans, Congress of di peepal, inkaatha freedom party aur indeepenadeint demokrets ne jooma par yeh iljaam lagaaya ki ve nagakobo ka naamaankan karne se pehle in paartiyon se theek se charcha karne mein asafal rahe. vipaksh ne jooma se is prakriya ko shuroo se pun: aarambh karne ka aagrah kiya aur kaha ki ve vartamaan up mukhya-nyaayaadheesh dikgaing moseneke ko us pad par dekhna chaaheinge.[122]

dakshin Africa ke raashtrapati ka pad lene ke baad parisampattiyon ka khulaasa karne mein vifal.

dakshin Africa ke raashtrapati ke roop mein, jooma ke liye kaaryabhaar sambhaalane ke 60 dinon ke bheetar apne vitteeya hiton ki ghoshana karna anivaarya tha. lekin, March 2010 tak, nau maheenon apna kaaryabhaar sambhaalane ke baad bhi, ve aisa karne mein asafal rahe. iske kaaran unapar aisa karne ke liye vipakshi dalon aur ANC ke gathabandhan saathi COSATU ki or se dabaav badhta gaya.[1] . ANC pravakta Brian sokutu ne kaha ki jooma ka "maamala vishesh" hai kyonki unke "bade parivaar" ke kaaran unhein sampatti ghoshit karne mein mushkil pesh aa rahi hain. ANC ne baad mein apne aap ko is bayaan se alag kar liya [2]. jooma ne iske sheegra baad apne hiton ka khulaasa kiya [3] .

angarakshak dvaara kathit hanan

2010 mein, jooma ke angarakshakon ko kai janta aur patrakaaron se jude maamalon mein shaamil ghatnaaon mein ulajha paaya gaya. February mein, kep taaun ke ek chhaatr, chumaani maiksvele ko jooma ke kaafile ki or "abhadr ishaara" karne ke jurm mein police dvaara hiraasat mein le liya gaya. maiksvele, jo ek sakriya ANC sadasya hain [4], police ko ek likhit kshama yaachana diye jaane ke 24 ghante ke baad riha kiye gaye, jo unke anusaar majaboori mein likha gaya tha. unhonne yeh bhi daava kiya hai ki unke ghar par bina vardi vaale police ne chhaapa maara aur unhein bandook ki nok par vaahan mein baithane par majaboor kiya gaya. maiksvele ne baad mein police ke khilaaf kaanooni kaarravaai ki [5] aur unki aur se maanav adhikaar aayog mein ek shikaayat darj kiya gaya.[6] jab is ghatna ki charcha sansad mein ki gayi tab isanein ek vivaad ka roop le liya.[7].

March mein, patrakaar tshepo lesole ko police dvaara apne camere se kheenchein gaye jooma ke kaafile ki tasveeron ko nasht karne ke liye majaboor kiya gaya aur do fotograafaron ko police ne usi samay hiraasat mein le liya jab ve jooma ke Johannesburg vaale ghar ki tasveerein le rahe the [8]. skaai news ki reporter emma hard ne yeh daava kiya ki 2009 unhein jooma ke angarakshakon dvaara dhakka diya gaya, haathaapaai ki gayi aur unhein "tatola" bhi gaya. [9].

inhein bhi deinkhe

South Africa portal
Biography portal


atirikt pathan

  • elek Russel (2009), aaftar mandela: di baital for sol of saaooth efrika, hachinsan.

sandarbh

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bahaari kadiyaaain

raajaneetik kaaryaalaya
poorvaadhikaari
thaabo mbeki
Deputy President of South Africa
1999–2005
uttaraadhikaari
Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka
poorvaadhikaari
Kgalema Motlanthe
President of South Africa
2009–present
padasth
party raajanaitik adhikaari
poorvaadhikaari
thaabo mbeki
President of the African National Congress
2007–present
padasth