jefri chaasar

jefri chaasar

jefri chaasar (Geoffrey Chaucer ; lagbhag 1343-1400) angreji bhaasha ke kavi, lekhak, daarshanik evam raajanayik the. unke saath hi angreji saahitya mein aadhunik yug ka praarambh maana jaata hai. 'kaintarabari tels' unki prasiddh rachana hai. unki rachanaaeain saahitya ke atirikt jeevan ke vyaapak kshetr mein nae mod ka sanket karti hain. John draaiden ne unako 'angreji kavita ka janak' kaha hai.

parichay

chaasar ka janm London mein san 1340 E. ke lagbhag hua tha. pita sharaab ke vyaapaari the. 17 varsh ki avastha mein inhonne England ke raaja Edward truteeya ke putr alstar ke arl ke parivaar mein naukri kar li. is prakaar inhein raajadarabaar ke taur tareekon ki achhi jaankaari praapt karne ka avsar mila jiska upayog inhonne apni kavita mein kiya. raajaparivaar ki naukri ne inki saahityik pratibha ke vikaas ke kuchh aur bhi avsar diye. do varsh baad inhein shatavarsheeya yuddh ke sambandh mein France jaana pada jahaan inhonne kuchh din fraanseesi shatruon ki kaid mein bitaae. yeh yaatra inke saahityik jeevan mein badi hi mahatvapoorn siddh hui. is samay ki fraanseesi kavita mein krutrimta ka dosh hote hue bhi usamein saundarya aur kalaatmakata ke gun bhi the. chaasar ne apna saahityik jeevan tatkaaleen fraanseesi kavita ko vyaapak roop se prabhaavit karne waali rachana 'romaan de la roj' ke anuvaad se kiya. fraanseesi kavita ka aur visheshataya is kaavyagranth ka amit prabhaav unki praarambhik rachanaaon par naheen varan jeevan ka yathaarth chitr prastut karanevaali antim aur sarvottam rachana 'kaintarabari tels' par bhi dekhne ko milta hai.

raajadarabaar mein chaasar ko apni kaaryakushalata ke falasvaroop paryaapt khyaati praapt ho chuki thi. san 1372 E. ke kareeb inhein kuchh mahatva poorn vyaapaarik mantrana ke liye Italy bheja gaya. chh: saal baad inhonne Italy ki doosari baar yaatra ki. Italy ki yaatra ne inke saahityik jeevan ko naya mod diya. isi ke falasvaroop ye fraanseesi prabhaav se mukt ho sake. ab inki prerana ke strot Italy ke prasiddh kavi aur kathaakaar daante, petraark tatha bokeshiyo ho gaye the. inapar sabse adhi prabhaav bokeshiyo ka pada. 'traayalas aur kresid' k du:khaant kahaani chaasar ne bokeshiyo se hi li.

chaasar ki antim aur sarvottam rachana kaintarabari tels mein ham unke svatantr vyaktitv ki abhivyakti paate hain. is granth ki rachana ke samay tak unhonne fraanseesi tatha itaaliyn saahityik prabhaavon ko poornataya aatmasaat kar liya tha. kaintarabari tels mein chaasar kisi videshi saahityik shaili ka anusaran na kar jeevan ke apne anubhav tatha vyaapak adhyayan ke aadhaar par maulik rachana prastut karte hain.

striyon tatha vaivaahik jeevan ke sambandh mein inhonne saamaanyataya vyangyaatmak dhang se likha hai. sambhav hai aisa inhonne keval vinod ke liye kiya ho. inki patni ka naam filippa tha. san 1400 E. mein chaasar ki mrutyu hui.

chaasur ke jeevanakaal mein kuchh mahatvapoorn ghatanaaeain hui. sabse mahatvapoorn England aur France ke beech lagbhag sau varsh tak chalanevaala yuddh hi tha jismein inhonne swayam bhaag liya tha. lekin inki kavita mein na is yuddh ka ullekh hai aur na shatruon ke viruddh durbhaavana ki abhivyakti. isi samay kisaanon ka vidroh tatha vinaashakaari pleg jaisi aitihaasik mahatva ki ghatanaaeain hui. lekin inka bhi koi jikr inki rachanaaon mein naheen milta. fir bhi kaintarabari tels mein na keval England ke tatkaaleen saamaajik jeevan ki, Europeeya jeevan mein ho rahe mahatvapoorn parivrtanon ki spasht jhalak dekhne ko milti hai. is samay tak rom ke church mein vyaapt bhrashtaachaaron ki or logon ka dhyaan jaane laga tha. yatratatr paadariyon ki chaaritrik trutiyaan ki khari aalochna bhi hone lagi thi. dharm dvaara vyaapak roop se prabhaavit Europeeya vichaaradhaara mein yeh mahaan parivartan ka lakshan tha jise ham kaintarabari tels mein bhi dekhte hain. saath hi saath logon ka dhyaan ab paaralaukik baaton se hatkar bhautik jagat ki samasyaaon tatha dainik jeevan ke sukh du:kh ki or jaane laga. Europeeya jeevanadarshan ki yeh mahatvapoorn pravrutti bhi kaintarabari tels tatha chaasar ki anya rachanaaon mein parilkshit hoti hai. madhyayugeen saahitya adhikaanshat: kalpanaapradhaan tha ya adhyaatm tatha naitikta ki shiksha dene ka maadhyam maatr. chaasar ne use varg tatha naitikta ke aagrah se mukt kar svatantr astitv diya. saahitya rachana mein unka uddeshya pradhaanat: jeevan ke prati apni vyaktigat anubhatiyon ki manoranjak abhivyakti tha. chaasar ke saahitya ki ye saari visheshataaeain lagbhag do sau varsh baad Elizabeth kaaleen saahitya mein apne poore nikhaar ke saath dekhne ko milti hain. is prakaar ham unhein Europeeya punarjaagaran ka aadya angreji kavi kah sakte hain.

jaisa kaha ja chuka hai, chaasar ne apna saahityik jeevan 'romaaain de la roj' ke anuvaad se praarambh kiya. roopak shailo mein prem ki vyaakhya prastut karanevaala vah kaavya bhinn hi naheen apitu paraspar virodhi prakruti ke do fraanseesi kaviyon ki kruti hai. svapn mein ek premi ek sundar udyaan mein prem ke pushp ko todne ka prayatn karta hai. praarambhik bhaag prem ka bada hi shisht, sundar evam prabhaavotpaadak chitr prastut karta hai lekin baadavaale bhaag mein doosare kaviyon ne striyon tatha prem ke varnan mein dhyangyaatmak shaili apnaai hai. chaasar ki kai rachanaaon mein ham fraanseesi kaavya ka prabhaav dekhte hain. 'book aaainv dachej' 'house ov fame' tatha 'paarlameint ov faauls' roopak shaili mein hain. teenon mein varnit ghatanaaeain svapn mein dekhi prateet hoti hain. book ov dachej tatha paarlameint ov faauls mein kavi darabaari parampara ke anusaar prem ki vyaakhya prastut karta hai. prem ka aisa hi aadarsh chitran ham ron de la roj mein bhi paate hain.

'traayals aind kresid' ki kahaani bokeshiyo se li hui hai. yeh du:khaant kaavya chaasar ke oopar pade itaaleeya prabhaav ki pushti karta hai. traayalas niraash premi hai jiski premika kresid usase alag ho jaane par ek anya purush ka varan kar leti hai.

chaasar ne 'legend ov gud vimen' ki rachana jaisa usane swayam iski prastaavana mein kaha hai, raani ke yeh shikaayat karne par ki ki usane 'kresid ke charitra dvaara poori stri jaati par avishvasaneeya hone par aarop lagaaya tha. is adhoori pusatak mein lagbhag das aitihaasik tatha pauraanik khyaatipraapt naariyon ka prashansaatmak jeevanavruttaant hai.

chaasar ki antim aur sarvashreshth rachana 'kaintarabari tels' hai. angreji samaaj ke vibhinn staron tatha peshon ka pratinidhitv karanevaale lagbhag tees teerthayaatri jo kaintarabari nagar mein taamas beket ki samaadhi par apni shraddhaanjali arpit karne jaanevaale hain ek saraaya mein ikattha hote hain. raaste ki thakaan na khale aur sabka manoranjan ho, is vichaar se saraaya ke svaami ke sujhaav par yeh tay hota hai ki pratyek yaatri chaar kahaaniyaaain do jaate samay aur do lautati baar kahe. jiski kahaaniyaaain bahumat dvaara sarvottam samajhi jaaeain, use sab log milkar usi saraaya mein achhi daavat dein. 'kaintarabari' ki kahaaniyaaain chaasar ki apni rachana na hokar poore Europeeya upaakhyaan saahitya se li hui hain. usaki mailikta yaatriyon ke charitra ke sookshm adhyayan mein dekhne ko milti hai. charitrachitran mein uchch koti ki patuta dikhaane ke saath apne tees yaatriyon ke maadhyam se chaasar ne tatkaaleen brutish samaaj ka vyaapak chitr prastut karne mein bhi prashansaneeya safalta praapt ki hai. kaintarabari tels mein hamein yug ke saamaajik jeevan ki jhaaainki milti hai.

chaasar ki ek anya visheshata usaka unmukt haasya hai. yahaaain vah maanavacharitr ki chhoti badi kamjoriyon par hainsata hai, vaheen use manushya maatr se, usaki saari trutiyon ke baavajood apaar sahaanubhooti bhi hai. inheen kaaranon se usaka saahitya svasth tatha aaj bhi Akshay prerana ka strot bana hua hai.

baahari kadiyaaain