jeevaashmavijnyaaan

jeevaashmiki ya jeevaashm vigyaan ya pailentolauji (Paleontology), bhaumiki ki vah shaakha hai jiska sambandh bhaumikeeya yugon ke un praaniyon aur paadapon ke avasheshon se hai jo ab bhooparpati ke shailon mein hi paae jaate hain.

jeevaashmiki ki paribhaasha dete hue tveb hofel aur aak ne likha hai : jeevaashmiki vah vigyaan hai, jo aadim paudhein tatha jantuon ke ashmeebhoot avasheshon dvaara prakat bhootakaaleen bhoogarbhik yugon ke jeevanaki vyaakhya karta hai. is prakaar yeh spasht hai ki jeevaashm vigyaan aadikaaleen jeevajantuon ka, une ashmeebhoot avasheshon ke aadhaar par adhyayan karta hai. jeevaashm shabd se hi yeh ingit hota hai ki jeev + ashm (ashmeebhoot jeev) ka adhyayan hai. aaingreji ka Palaentology shabd bhi Palaios = praacheen + Onto = jeev ke adhyayan ka nirdesh karta hai.

anukram

parichay

jeevaashm vigyaan ka adhyayan jeevavijnyaaan ki nai shaakha hai aur iska vikaas gat 200 varshon se hi adhik hua hai.

vigyaan ki is shaakha ke vikaas ke bahut pehle se aadimaanav ki jaankaari mein yeh tha ki kuchh prakaar ke shailon mein ek vichitr prakaar ke avashesh paae jaate hain jo samudri jeevon ke anuroop hote hain. gyaan ke abhaav mein usane pehle-pahal in avasheshon ko jaivik utpatti ka na samajhakar, prakruti ke vinod ki saamagri samajh rakha tha, jo pruthvi ke andar kisi shakti ke kaaran ban gaye. parantu shanai:-shanai: gyaan ki vruddhi ke saath saath manushya ko is disha mein bhi apne vichaaron ko badalna pada aur usane yeh pata laga liya ki shailon mein paae jaanevaale avasheshon ke praani kisi na kisi samay mein jeevat jeev the aur vah sthaan jahaaain par ham aaj in jeevaashmon ko paate hain bhaumikeeya yugon mein samudra ke garbh mein tha.

san‌ 1820 tak keval 127 ashmeebhoot vanaspatiyon tatha 2,100 jantuon ka hi pata chala tha, jo 1840 tak badhkar kramash: 2,050 tatha 24,300 ki sankhya tak pahuainch gaya. tab se ab tak in sankhyaaon mein abhootapoorv vruddhi hui hai. maanav kshamata ke adheen yeh sambhav naheen hai ki sansaar ke jine bhi jeevaashmon ke srot hain, un sabki khojabeen kar li jaae. doosare, pruthvi par jeevon ki utpatti arabon varsh poorv se hi hoti I hai. teesare, sansaar ki bhaugolik aakruti jaisi aaj drushtigochar hoti hai, vaisi un dinon naheen thi. jeev jantu ek sthaan se doosare sthaan par chale jaaya karte the. at: hamein unke ashmeebhoot namoonon se jo gyaan praapt hota ya ho sakta hai, vah vichhinn hi hai, ya hoga. ant mein yeh kabhi sambhav naheen hai ki jitne bhi jeevajantu itihaas ke us andhakaar yug mein upasthit the, un sabka ashmeekaran ho hi gaya ho. ashmeekaran ki kuchh dashaaeain hoti hain, jinke kaaran jeevajantu ke mrut shareeron ka ashmeekaran ho jaata hai. sabhi jeevon ka ashmeekaran na to aavayashyak hi hai, na hi sambhav hai. is kaaran bhi aadi jeevon ke jeevan ka shrunkhalaabaddh itihaas likhna durooh kaarya hai.

ab tak jitne bhi jeevaashmeeya pramaan hamein praapt ho chuke hain, unke aadhaar par jeevon ke kramik vikaas par achha khaasa prakaash padta hai. jeevaashmon ke adhyayan se hamein un jeevon ka pata chalta hai jo ab ya to lupt (extinct) ho gaye hain, ya unka vartamaan svaroop paryaapt parivrtit ho gaya hai. jeevaashm praacheen jeevon ke ve avashesh hain, jo shilaakhandon ya anya sthaanon par patthar jaise ho gaye hain. jeevon ke kuchh aise bhi avashesh praapt hue hain, jo prasteerabhoot (stratified) na hokar apne mool roop mein hi hain. himsaagareeya kshetron mein praapt maimathon tatha anya jantuon ke mrut shareer roos tatha England aur amareeka ke sangrahaalayon mein surakshit hain.

jeevaashmon ke abhilkshan

jeevaashm bhi, aadhunik jeevon ki aakruti se, nyoonaadhik roop mein, milte-julate hain. jeevaashm keval avasaadi shilaakhandon mein hi (kuchh apavaadon ko chhodkar) mila karte hain. anek prakaar ke jeevajantuon ki anek paristhitiyon mein mrutyu ke uparaant unke shavon par jo avasaad (Sediment) jama haate hate hain, kaalaantar mein ve hi jeevaashm ban jaaya karte hain. kuchh jeevaashm to itne poorn hain ki unki aanveekshikeeya pareeksha (microscopic examination) karne par jeevon ki koshika tak ki rachanaaeain spasht deekh padti hain. jeevon ke ashmeebhoot pramaan (fossilized specimens) apne (jeevon ke) jeevit shareer ke roop mein hi mil jaaeain, yeh aavashyak naheen hai. unke shavon mein sadaaaindh, aakseekaran (oxidation), hinsak jeevon dvaara vikrut kar dene, sheet, varsha, dhoop aadi ke kaaran vikaar utpann ho jaata hai. kuchh jantu, jinke shareer kailsiym kaarbonet, silika aadi jaise akaarbanik padaarthon dvaara bane hote hain, unapar vikaar ka prabhaav apekshaakrut kam padta hai. aise jeevon ke jeevaashm bahut kam sankhya mein upalabdh hain. jo upalabdh hain bhi ve aadhunik jeevit jeevon se tulana karne ke liye apoorn hain.

jeevon ki ek anya visheshata yeh bhi hai ki ek prakaar ke jeevaashm kuchh vishesh prakaar ke shilaakhandon mein hi milte hain. in shilaakhandon se jeevaashmon ke poorn jeevan ke parivesh ka gyaan ho jaata hai. jeevaashmon se yeh bhi maaloom hota hai ki jeev kaise sthaan par raha karta tha aur kya khaata-peeta tha. inse tatkaaleen bhaugolik paristhitiyon par bhi prakaash padta hai.

him kshetron mein paae gaye jeevaashm athva sampoorn jeevashareer jeevaashm vaigyaaniko ke liye varadaan siddh hue hain. visheshat: saaiberiya ke sudoor uttar dhruvasaagareeya kshetr mein lagbhag sampoorn jeev jyon ke tyon praapt hue hain. inse sudoor ateet ke jeevon par achha khaasa prakaash padta hai. saadhaaran roop se jantuon ke shareer ke kade bhaag-haddiyaaain, daaaint, khol (shell) aadi-prastareekrut (petrifacted) ho jaate hain. lal ne Italy ke paampiaai nagar ko 'jeevaashmanagar' (fossil city) ki sanjnyaa dete hue batalaaya ki isvi san‌ 79 mein visooviys jvaalaamukhi ke udgaar ke falasvaroop is sundar nagar mein kam se kam 2,000 vyaktiyon ki jaanein gain. jvaalaamukhi ki dhadhakati aag, tapt raakh aadi ne sampoorn nagar ko kai foot moti part se dhaink diya. ant mein parvat ke bade-bade jalate tukadon ne gharon ki khidkiyaaain tatha darvaajon ke bheetar ghuskar unke bheetar mrut manushyon evam pashupakshiyon ko ghar mein hi dafan kar diya. jhrarisrch svaan lal : aargainik revolyooshan, maikmiln kan. Toronto (kaineda), 1929t.

kabhi-kabhi ashmeebhoot jantuon ki khokhali asthiyon, jaise kapaal (skal), haath pair ki haddiyon, kholon aadi ke bheetar ki vasa ya majja nasht ho jaati hai aur usamein doosare padaarthon ke avasaad bhar jaate hain. kaalaantar mein ye itne kathor ho jaate hain ki yadi oopari khol ko tod diya jaae to bheetar ek moorti jaisi pratikruti (cast) jaati hai. isi prakaar daladalon, geeli mittayon aur bhoomi par pade pashupakshiyon ke padachihn bhi ashmeebhoot ho gaye hain. in padachihnon se jantuon ke pairon ke talavon ki rachanaakruti evam aakaar ka hi gyaan naheen hota varan‌ unke aavaagaman ke maarg ka bhi nirdesh hota hai. kuchh jantuon ki vishtha bhi ashmeebhoot roop mein praapt hoti hain. inke raasaayanik adhyayan se un jantuon ke aahaar ka gyaan hota hai. kuchh samudri machhaliyon tatha anya jantuon ki annanali mein doosari chhoti machhaliyaaain ya keede makode, pashupakshi, adhapake maans (ashmeebhoot) aadi bhi paae gaye hain.

jeevaashmon ki upayogita

in jeevaashmon ko ateet ki thaati samajhna chaahiye kyonki inse pruthvi ke laakhon karodon varsh poorv ki avastha ke pramaan milte hain. shailastaron (rock strata) ke abhinirdhaaran (identification) tatha in staron ke varshakram (aayu) ko nishchit karne mein jeevaashmon se bahat sahaayata milti hai. inki kuchh pramukh upayogitaaeain nimnalikhit hain :

(1) kaalaanukramik (Chronological)-jeevashmon mein utkeern athva sampoorn ya apoorn roop mein praapt pramaanon ke aadhaar par praacheen bhoogarbhik (geological) avastha ka pata chalta hai. kisi bhoogarbhik kaalavishesh ka nirdhaaran karne mein jeevaashmon se bahut sahaayata milti hai. stareeya sthiti (stratigraphic) athva staran vinyaas ka jeevaashmon se avichhinn sambandh maana gaya hai.

pruthvi par jo bhautik-raasaayanik parivartan pehle ho chuke hain, lagbhag vaise hi parivartan aaj bhi ho rahe hain. kintu, jeevon ka vikaas kramik roop se hota raha he. unka jo svaroop pehle tha, usamein mahaan, antar pad gaya hai. khanij padaarthon ki prakruti poorvavat‌ hoti hui bhi kaarbanik padaarthon ki prakruti parivrtanasheel rahi hai. at: khanij padaarthayukt shailakhandon se unki praacheenata ka nirdhaaran kathin hota hai. kintu unke beech praapt jeevaashmon ke avasaadon ka adhyayan karne par yeh kaarya saral ho jaata hai. kuchh jeevaashmon ko nirdeshak jeevaashm (Index fossil) ki sanjnyaa is aadhaar par de di gayi hai ki unase yeh siddh ho jaata hai ki amuk jantu ya vanaspati amuk bhoogarbhik kaal mein hi utpann hue ya ho sakte hain.

(2) aadim parivesh (Ancient environment)-jeevon ke jeevan ke liye, chaahe ve vanaspatiyaaain ho, chaahe jaanavar, vishesh prakaar ke bhaugolik vaataavaran hi upayukt hote hain. doosare shabdon mein kah sakte hain ki vishesh vaataavaran mein vishesh prakaar ke jeev jantu jeevit rahate hain. jeevaashmon se pata chalta hai ki tatkaaleen jeev jantuon ke jeevanayaapan ke liye kis prakaar ka bhaugolik vaataavaran tha. in jeevajantuon ki mrutyu kis prakaar hui athva kis sthaan par kis avastha mein hui thi, iski bhi ek jhalak jeevaashm de dete hain. iske saath hi praacheen bhoomi, saagar, jalaashaya aadi ki seema tatha vistaar, jantuon aur pakshiyon ke parvraaijn (migration) aadi par bhi jeevaashm prachur prakaash daalte hain. inheen jeevaashmon ke adhyayan ka parinaam yeh hua ki ki praacheenakaaleen bhaugalik maanachitron ki rachana saral evam sulabh ho sakti hai. jeevaashmon dvaara prakat bhaugolik parivesh ke adhyayan ke liye ab ek naveen vigyaan ka janm ho chuka hai, jise puraabhoogol (Palaeogeography) kehte hain.

(3) puraapaaristhitiki (Palaeoecology)-sajeev praaniyon ko jeevit rahane ke liye vividh prakaar ke pariveshon ki aavashyakta padti hai. kuchh jeev anya jeevon ke shareer ke oopar ya bheetar rahakar jeevanayaapan karte hain; inhein parajeevi ya paraashrayi (Parasites) kehte hain. kuchh jeev anya jeevon ke nikat sampark mein ya unase sanlagn rahakar apna jeevan nirvaah karte hain. jeevaashmon dvaara jeev jantuon ke is ant:sambandh ka gyaan hamein sahaj hi ho jaata hai.

(4) jeevon ka udvivikaas (Organic Evolution)-Charles daarvin ke jeevon ke udvivikaas sambandhi siddhaant ki pushti ke liye jin pusht pramaanon ya tarkon ko unke samarthak upasthit kiya karte hain, unamein 'jeevaashmeeya pramaan' bhi ek hai. pratyek jeevaashm apne aap mein jeevavishesh ki apni satta ka swayam pramaan hai. inke adhyayan se inke kramik vikaas par prachur prakaash padta hai. jeevaashmon ke adhyayan se gyaat hota hai ki praacheen kaal mein ek aisa bhi samay tha, jab daainaasaur daityaakaar jantuon se pruthvi aakraant thi, athva seelaakainthas machhaliyon (Coelacanthus) ke jeevit avashesh ab sambhavat: samaapt ho chale hain. isi prakaar, udvivikaas sambandhi anya anek samasyaaon ka samaadhaan jeevaashm karte rahe hain.

jeevaashm vigyaan ki shaakhaaeain aur unka kshetr

jeevaashm vigyaan kai shaakhaaon mein vibhkt kiya gaya hai. suvidha ki drushti se ab yeh niyam sa ban gaya hai ki jab ham 'jeevaashmiki' shabd ka upayog karte hain tab hamaara abhipraaya keval akasheruki jeevon ke jeevaashmon ke adhyayan se hota hai.

jeevaashmiki ki jis shaakha ke antargat kasheruk jeevaashmon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai use kasheruki jeevaashm vigyaan (Vertebrate paleontology) kehte hain.

paadap jeevaashmon ka adhyayan ek bhinn shaakha ke antargat kiya jaata hai jise paadapaashm vigyaan (Palaeobotany) kehte hain.

aadhunik samay mein jeevaashmiki ki kuchh anya pramukh shaakhaaon ka bhi vikaas hua hai, jinke adhyayan ka kshetr kramash: ati laghu jeev aur jeevaashm maanav hain.

jeevaashmiki ka kshetr bada vyaapak hai aur usaki seema nishchit roop se nirdhaarit naheen ki ja sakti. yadi saiddhaantik drushti se dekha jaae, to jeevaashmiki ka abhyudaya pruthvi par jeev ke praadurbhaav ke saath saath praarambh ho jaata hai, parantu bhaumikeeya aadhaar par keval itna hi kaha sakta hai ki pruthvi par sampoorn jeev ke itihaas ke aadhe, ya usase bhi kam ke, jeevon ke abhilekh hamein milte hain. jeevaashm vaigyaanik anveshanon ka praaranbhakaal aise praacheenatam praapya jeevaashmon se kiya ja sakta hai jinke jaivik gun jaivikeeya aadhaar par batalaae ja sakte hain.

anya vijnyaaanon se sambandh

jeevaashmiki aur bhaumiki

jeevaashmiki ka bhaumiki, visheshakar starit-shail-bhaumiki, se ati ghanishth sambandh hai. ateet kaal ke jeevon ke avashesh starit shailon mein paae jaate hain. in shailon ke nirmaan ke vishay mein aur unka anukram sthaapit karne mein unamein paae jaanevaale jeevaashm bahut sahaayak siddh hue hain. vaastav mein bina jeevaashmon ke starit-shail-bhaumiki, ek prakaar se, vyaavahaarik jeevaashmiki hai.

jeevaashmiki aur jaiviki

jeevaashmiki ka jaiviki (biology) ke saath ghanishth sambandh hai. jaiviki ke antargat vartamaan jeevit praaniyon aur paadapon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai, jab ki jeevaashmiki mein bhaumikeeya yugon ke un jeevon aur paadapon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai jo kabhi jeevit the aur ab jeevaashm ke roop mein hi praapya hain. lekin jeevaashmiki ko jaiviki ki ek shaakha naheen maana ja sakta hai, kyonki jeevaashmiki ke adhyayan ki saamagri aur uske sangrah ka dhang jaiviki ke adhyayan ki saamagri aur uske sangrah ke dhang se sarvatha bhinn hain.

yeh nishchit karna ki kis sthaan par jeevaashmiki ko jaiviki (biology) se pruthak kiya ja sakta hai, praaya: asambhav sa hai. parantu mote taur se jeevaashm ka ant aur jaiviki ka praarambh atyant-nootan yug (pleistocene) aur aadhunik yug ke sandhisthaan se le sakte hain. is prakaar se anishchit aur sandigdh kainbriyn-poorv mahaakalp praani evam paadapajaat tatha vartamaan kaal ke nishchit tatha anek prakaar ke jeevon aur paadapon ke beech mein anek tatha vibhinn prakaar ke jeev avashesh milte hain, jo jeev par prakaash daalte hain. bhooparpati ke avasaadi shailon mein milnevaale ye jeevaashm hi, jeevaashmiki ke adhyayan ke aadhaar hain.

jeevaashmiki aur jaativrutt (Phylogeny)

jeevavijnyaaani jeevaashmiki mein isliye atyadhik abhiruchi rakhate hain ki iska jeevavikaas jaise vishay se nikat sambandh hai. praaniyon aur paadapon ki jaatiyon ka itihaas athva jaativrutt, starit shailon ke anukramit staron se praapt kiye jeevaashmon ke adhyayan ke aadhaar par adhik vishvaasapoorvak anurekhit kiya ja sakta hai. parantu jeevon ke apoorn abhilekh ke kaaran unke jaativrutt ke anurekhan mein atyadhik baadha padti hai, kyonki bhaumikeeya yugon mein paae jaanevaale praaniyon aur paadapon mein se kuchh hi aur unamein se adhikaansh apoorn dasha mein, in shailon mein parilkshit paae jaate hain. abhilekh ki is apoornata ke baavajood anek jeevavarg mein, jab unka anurekhan shailon ke ek star se doosare star mein kiya jaata hai tab, shanai: shanai: parivartan hone lagte hain. jab jeevaashmon ke pratiroop vibhinn anukramit staron se ekatrit kiye jaate hain, tab pratyaksh roop se do bhinn dikhaai padnevaali jaatiyaaain beech ke jeevaashmon dvaara sambandhit dikhaai padti hain aur nimnatam star mein pai jaanevaali jaati se lekar uchchatam star mein milnevaali jaati tak ke beechavaale staron ke jeevaashmon ke jeevon mein hue parivrtanon ko dekha ja sakta hai.

jeevaashmon se jaativrutt ka pata lagaane ke liye, stareeya reeti ke atirikt shaareer tatha vyativrutt (ontogeny) ki tulanaatmak reetiyon ka bhi prayog kiya ja sakta hai. at: jeevaashmiki is dhaarana ki pushti karta hai ki jeevavikaas shanai: shanai: tatha kramash: honevaale parivrtanon ke parinaamasvaroop hua. is baat ke bataane ka bhi pramaan hai ki jeev vikaas niytavikaaseeya (orthogenetic) tha. kehne ka taatparya yeh hai ki kuchh jeevon ke varg mein jeevavikaaseeya parivartan yug yugaantar tak kisi nishchit disha mein hue aur iske atirikt aise sambaddh varg jo ek hi Patrick utpatti ke hain, ek doosare se tatha baahya dashaaon se bina prabhaavit hue, apne vikaas mein samaan avasthaaon athva usase milti julati avasthaaon mein se gujre, jisse yeh prakat ho jaata hai ki jeevon ke vibhinn vargon mein vikaas ki disha, sarvasaadhaaran poorvaj se Patrick gunon dvaara nishchit ho jaati hai.

jeevaashmiki aur bhrauniki (Embryology)

jeevit paadapon aur praaniyon ka ekakoshika ande se le karke antim dasha tak vikaas ki sampoorn avasthaaon ka anurekhan karna, bhraumiki aur jeevavrutti ke antargat aata hai. kisi varg ke paadapon aur praaniyon ki jaatiyon ka vikaas, kam se kam apni praarambhik avasthaaon mein lagbhag samaan hota hai aur ek varg ke antargat aanevaale sampoorn bhroonon mein, kisi ek avastha tak ek doosare mein itni sadrushyata hoti hai ve pruthak naheen kiye ja sakte. is tathya ne un aakaaron mein atyadhik bandhutv pragat kiya hai, jo praudhaavastha mein ek doosare se atyadhik bhinn hote hain. is baat ki vaastavikta kasherukiyon mein dekhne ko milti hai, jinke bhroon praarambhik avasthaaon mein ati kathinaai ke saath ek doosare se alag kiye ja sakte hain aur jo bahut dheere dheere apne varg athva gan ki laakshanik aakrutiyon ko dhaaran kar lete hain.

in bhrooneeya anveshanon ke parinaamon ka jeevaashmiki ke saath vishesh sambandh hai. aise anek jeevaashm jaankaari mein hain jo apne mein apne se sambandhit aadhunik jeevon ki tulana mein bhrooneeya, athva kam se kam dinbheeya, athva kishoraavasa ke lakshan dikhaate hain. isaprakaar ke aadim aava bhrooneeya prakaaron ke udaaharan kasherukon mein vishesh karke dekhne ko milte hain, kyonki inmein kankaal jeevan ke ati praarambhik kaal hi mein ashmeebhoot ho jaate hain. at: aadhunik jeevon ki apraudh avasthaaon ki tulana seedhe praudh jeevaashm se ki ja sakti hai.

naamapaddhati aur vargeekaran

jeevaashmon ko nishchit naam dena jeevaashm vigyaani ke liye isliye mahatva ka hai ki jeevaashmon mein vah adhik yathaarth vibhed kar sake. jeevaashmon ka naamakaran saamaanyat: unheen siddhaanton par aadhaarit hai jinpar praaniyon ka. praanijgat anek sanghon mein vibhkt hai aur pratyek sangh anek vargon, ganon, kulon, vanshon aur jaatiyon mein vibhkt hai.

jeevaashmon ke kai prakaar ke praroop hote hain. yadi anveshak kisi jaati ke jeevaashm ke ek pratiroop ke aadhaar par us sampoorn jaati ka varnan karta hai, to vah jeevaashm pratiroop us jaati ka naam praroop (Holotype) kahalaata hai.

yadi kisi ek ke naamapraroop ka nishchaya karne mein anveshak anya jeevaashm namoonon ki sahaayata leta hai, to in atirikt namoonon ko pairaataaip (Paratype) kehte hain.

yadi anveshak bina naamapraroop ka nishchaya kiye hi kai anya jeevaashm namoonon ki sahaayata leta hai, to in jeevaashm namoonon ko sahapraroop (Cotype) kehte hain.

yadi kisi jaati ke jeevaashm ka sahapraroop us jaati ke praarambhik varnan ke pashchaat ki us jaati ka praaroop chun jaata hai, to vah jeevaashm praroop lektotaaip (Lectotype) kahalaata hai.

jis prakaar ek jaati ke varnan ke liye jeevaashm namoone hote hain usi prakaar ek vansh ke varnan ke liye praroop jaati athva samajeeni (genotype) jeevaashm hote hain.

yadi koi anveshak kisi ek nae vansh ka varnan kisi ek vishesh jaati ke aadhaar par karta hai, to vah jaati us vansh ke liye jenoholotaaip (genoholotype) ho jaati hai.

yadi anveshak nae vansh ke varnan mein aisi jaatiyon ki soochi de deta hai jinko vah yeh samajhta hai ki ve nae vansh ke antargat aate hain, to in sab jaatiyon ko jenosintaaip kehte hain.

bahut se jenosintaaipon mein se baad mein aadi anveshak dvaara athva baad mein kisi anya anveshak dvaara ek jenolektotaaip (genolectotype) chhaaainta ja sakta hai.

bhaumikeeya kaal ke anusaar jeevaashm

bhaumikeeya kaal paaainch bruhat bhaagon mein bainta hua hai. ye kramash: nimnalikhit hain-

  • aarkiyojoik mahaakalp (Archeozoic Era),
  • praagjeev mahaakalp (Proterozoic Era),
  • puraajeevi mahaakalp (Paleozoic Era),
  • madhyajeevi mahaakalp (Mesozoic Era) aur
  • nootanajeev mahaakalp (Cenozoic Era)

inmein aarkiyojoik mahaakalp sabse praacheen hai. bhaumikeeya kaal ke in paaainch mahaakalpon mein vibhaajan mukhyat: in mahaakalpon mein milnevaale praaniyon aur paadapon ke jeevaashmon par hi aadhaarit hai. inmein se aarkiyojoik mahaakalp jeevashoonya tha. is mahaakalp mein na kisi prakaar ke jeevajantu aur na paudhe hi the. at: is kaal ke shailon mein hamako kisi bhi prakaar ke jeevaashm naheen milte hain. praagjeev mahaakalp mein protojoaa jaise ati saadhaaran prakaar ke jeevajantu astitv mein aae. parantu in saadhaaran jeevon mein kisi bhi prakaar ke kade bhaag ke abhaav ke kaaran ve shailon mein parirkshit na ho sake. at: praagjeev mahaakalp ke shailon mein bhi jeevaashm naheen milte. anya teenon mahaakalp, arthaat puraajeevi mahaakalp (Palaeozoic) madhyajeevi mahaakalp (Mesozoic) aur nootanajeevi mahaakalp (Cenozoic) jeevaashmamaya hain. in mahaakalpon ke antargat aanevaale jitne bhi chhote se lekar bade tak vibhaajan hain ve sab poornat: us kaal mein paae jaanevaale jeevon ke jeevaashm par hi aadhaarit hain. at: ham dekhte hain ki starit shailavijnyaaani ka kaam bina jeevaashm vigyaan ki sahaayata ke naheen chal sakta. yahi kaaran hai ki jeevaashm vigyaan starit shailavijnyaaan ka merudand kahalaata hai.

mote taur par jeevaashm vigyaan ke adhaar par nimnalikhi chaar mukhya praani tatha paadap jaateeya mahaakalp sthaapit kiye ja sakte hain :

(1) poorv puraajeevi mahaakalp - iske antargat kainbriyn (cambrian), ordovishn (ordovician) aur silyooriyn (silurian) kalp aate hain.

(2) uttar puraajeevi mahaakalp - iske antargat diyoni (devonian), kaarbani (carboniferous) aur paramiyn kalp aatein hain.

(3) madhyajeevi mahaakalp

(4) nootanajeev mahaakalp - Abhinav kaal bhi iske antargat hai.

poorv puraajeevi mahaakalp ke praani

praaya: sab pramukh akasheruki praaniyon ke pratinidhi jeevaashm kainbrin staron mein paae jaate hain aur unamein se traailobaait jaise kuchh praani aadikrainbriyn kaal mein hi apekshaya adhik viksit ho chuke the. at: yeh dhaaran ki kainbriyn staron mein paae jaanevaale sab vargon ke poorvaj kainbriyn poorv kaal mein paae jaate the, bilkul uchit hai, yadyapi unke avashesh kainbriyn poorv shailon mein naheen milte. yeh kalpana ki ja sakti hai ki kainbriynapoorv samudron mein sab prakaar ke praani rahate the, parantu ve sab komalaangi poorvaj the, jinhonne apne astitv ke vishay mein kisi bhi prakaar ke chihr naheen chhodein hain. chooainki sab prakaar ke praani pratyaksh athva apratyaksh roop se paudhon par nirbhar rahate hain aur paudhon mein hi keval akaarbanik khaadya padaarth ke paripaachan ki shakti hoti hai, at: yeh bhi dhaarana uchit prateet hoti hai ki kainbriyn poorv kaal mein paudhe astitv mein the. parantu yeh aashcharya ki baat hai ki paudhon ke avashesh puraajeevi mahaakalp ke staron mein naheen paae gaye hain.

poorvapuraajeevi mahaakalp ke praaneejagat ke mukhya lakshanon ka sankshipt varnan is prakaar hai :

  • paudhon ka abhaav tha.
  • kasherukiyon ka bhi adhikaansh roop mein abhaav raha. yeh akasherukiyon ka yug tha.
  • aarthopoda - ismein taailobaait ki ati prachurata thi. adhikaanshat: ye uthale jalavaasi the aur unka upayog kshetreeya jeevaashm ke roop mein kiya jaata hai. inmein se kuchh gahre jal ke vaasi the, jo ya to badi badi aaainkhonvaale the, athva netraheen the. krasteshiya (crustacia) virl the, kintu yooripterida (eurypterida) ka silyooriyn kalp mein baahulya ho gaya tha.
  • molaska (Mollusca) - ismein gaistropoda ka baahulya tha, kintu laimleebrainkiya praarambhik praroop mein the. sefelopoda ka nautilaait ke roop mein baahulya tha.
  • braikiyopoda (Brachiopoda) - inka kainbriyn evam silyooriyn kalp mein baahulya tha. fausfeti kavachavaale praani kailsiymi kavachavaale praaniyon ki apeksha adhik the.
  • ekaainodarmaata (Echinodermata) - aadi sistid aur kraainauids (crinoids) mahatva ke the.
  • seelenootareta (Coelenterata) - graipatolaaiteej (Graptolites) ati mahatva ke the. ve adhikaanshat: gahre aur shaant jal ke vaasi the.
  • paaainrifera (Porifera) - spanj mahatva ke naheen the.
  • protojoaa (Protozoa) - yadyapi rediyoleriya aur foraimineefera ati saral aakaar ke the, tathaap ve poorv puraajeev mahaakalp mein mahatva ke naheen the.

uttar puraajeevi mahaakalp ke praani

yeh matsya aur parnaang samaan sthal paadapon ka, jinhein teridosparms kehte hain, yug tha. inke saath goniyotaaits, speereeferid baahupaad aur ryoogos pravaal paae jaate the.

  • paadap - beejapaadap parantu parnaang samaan teridosparms, is yug ke madhya kalp mein mahatva ke ho gaye the.
  • kasheruki - uparyukt mahaankalp devoni kalp matsyon ka kalp tha. anya paae jaanevaale kasherukiyon mein kuchh ubhayachar aur sareesrup (Reptile) hain, jo uchchatar staron mein milte hain.
  • sandhipaad praani (Arthropoda) - uparyukt mahaakalp mein traailobaaints ka patan praarambh hua aur kalp ke ant tak ve tatha yoorepteridis mrut ho gaye, parantu keeton ki vruddhi hui.
  • molaska - uttar puraajeeveemahaakalp goniyetaainteej (goniatites) ka kalp tha. ye is kaal mein ati prachur the. inke atirkt anya seedhe athva kundalaakaar aimonaaiteej (Ammonites) bhi bahutaayat mein the, jinki seevanarekha saadhaaran prakaar ki thi. naatilaaiteej ka dheere dheere hraas praarambh ho gaya tha.
  • braikiyopoda - uparyukt mahaakalp mein prodaktids aur speereefirids kahalaanevaale braikiyopoda atyadhik foole fale.
  • ekaainodarmaata - uttarapuraajeev mahaakalp blaastauids (Blastoids) ka mahaakalp tha, jinke saath aadim ekaainauids (Echinoids) paae jaate hain.
  • seeleintareta - uparyukt mahaakalp mein graiptolaaits. mrut ho gaye. pravaalon mein ryoogos pravaal ati mahatva ke the.
  • protojoaa - rediyoleriya aur foraimineefera, donon poorv puraajeev mahaakalp ki apeksha is kalp mein adhik mahatva ke ho gaye the.

madhyajeevi mahaakalp ke praani

madhyajeevi mahaakalp sareesrupon aur aimonaaiteej ka kalp kahalaata hai. inke saath belemnauiteej (Belemnites) braikiyopoda mein rinkoneelids aur pravaalon ki bhi pradhaanata thi.

  • paadap - uparyukt mahaakalp saaikaids (cycads) aur ekabeejapatri paadapon ka kalp tha. shankuvruksh (conifer) aur farn (fern) bhi milte hain.
  • kasheruki - uparyukt mahaakalp mein sareesrupon ka ati baahulya tha. is kalp ko sareesrupon ka kalp kaha jaata hai. sareesrup vaayu, jal aur sthalavaasi the. staniyon aur pakshiyon ka praadurbhaav ho gaya tha, parantu sareesrupon ki tulana mein ve naganya tatha ati chhote aakaar ke the aur sankhya mein bhi bahut kam the.
  • orthropoda - ye mahatva ke nahi the.
  • molaska - laimleebrainkiya aur gaistropoda (Gastropoda) ka atyadhik vikaas hua. aimonaaiteej aur belemnauiteej ka madhyajeeveemahaakalp ke praani jagat mein sabse adhik pradhaanata aur baahulya raha. inmein emonaaiteej atyadhik mahatva ke the. inka upayog kshetreeya jeevaashm ke roop mein hota hai. vaastav mein yeh kalp inheen jeevon ka kalp kahalaata hai.
  • braikiyopod - madhyajeevi mahaakalp mein jin brainkiyopoda ki pradhaanata thi ve tereebraitulits aur rinkoneelids ke antargat aate hain.
  • ekaainodarmaata - madhyajeevi mahaakalp mein sistids aur blaistaaids mrut ho gaye.
  • seeleintareta (antaraguhika) - inmein pravaal mahatva ke the.
  • paurifera (porifera) - inmein spanj kabhi kabhi shailanirmaataaon ke roop mein prasiddh the.
  • protojoaa - inmein foraimineefera mahatva ke the.

nootanajeev mahaakalp ke praani

yeh kalp staniyon, pakshiyon, foraimineeferon aur aavrutabeeji (angiosperms) paadapon ka kaal tha. praani aur paadapon ke aadhaar par ham nootanajeev mahaakalp ko aadhunik samay se pruthak naheen rakh sakte.

  • paadap - nootanajeevamahaakalp mein vartamaan samay mein paae jaanevaale dvibeejapatri tatha ekabeejapatri paadap, jinmein taad (palm) aur usi ke samaan anya paadap sammilit hain, paae jaate hain.
  • kasheruki - madhyajeeveemahaakalp ke vishaal aur vikhyaat sareesrupon ka atyadhik hraas aur patan hua aur inke bahut se varg aur gan lupt ho gaye. inka saan staniyon ne le liya, jo is nootanajeev mahaakalp mein apne vikaas ki charam seema tak pahuainche aur jinki is kalp mein pradhaanata thi.
  • othopodaanootanajeevamahaavakalp - mein vahi orthropoda milte hain jo aajkal paae jaate hain.
  • vraikiyopoda - ye nootanajeevamahaakalp mein virl the.
  • molaska - donon gaimstropoda aur lainmleebrainkiya nootanajeevamahaakalp mein paae jaate hain.
  • ekaainodarmaata - ye nootanajeevamahaakalp mein virl the.
  • seeleintareta - nootanajeevamahaakalp mein shailamaala banaanevaale medareeporeriya pravaal aajkal ke samaan ushn jal mein atyadhik foole fale.
  • paurifera - ye mahatva ke naheen the.
  • protojoaa - nootanajeevamahaakalp mein foraimineefera atyadhik mahatva ke hain, jinmein nyoomyoolaaiteej ki is kalp ke aadi mein aur globijeraaina ki vartamaan samay mein pradhaanata hai.

jeevavikaaseeya pramaan

sampoorn shailon ke anukram ka kram bhali bhaaainti nishchaya ho jaane aur unamein paae jaanevaale jeevaashmon ki pehchaan ho jaane ke uparaant yeh pata chala ki jeevon ke vikaas mein shanai:-shanai: pragati hui. ati saadhaaran prakaar ke jeev sabse pehle prakat hue, jo sabse praacheen avasaadi shailon mein paae jaate hain aur inke uparaant jatiltar jeev kramash: tarunatar shailon mein aate gaye. is prakaar sampoorn akasheruki sanghon ke pratinidhi, jo jeevaashm roop mein parirkshan yogya hain, kainbriyn shailon mein milte hain, parantu pratyek sangh ke antargat paae jaanevaale jeev apni rachana mein praaya: samaan the aur bahut kam parivartan dikhaate the. aakaareeya aadhaar par ham unhein alpaviksit vansh kah sakte hain, parantu baad ke yugon mein paae jaanevaale sanghon me se pratyek sangh mein milnevaale jeevon ki rachana adhik bhinn thi aur is tathya ki pushti kisi seema tak vanshon ki sankhya mein vruddhi se ho jaati hai. kasherukiyon mein rachana ke aadhaar par aadim varg samjha jaanevaala saaiklosotomaata varg hai, jiska sabse pehle praadurbhaav hua aur jiske uparaant kramash: matsya, ubhayachar, sareesrup, pakshi aur stani aae aur ye varg usi kram se prakat hote gaye jaisa unki rachana se aasha ki jaati thi. at: is prakaar se bhaumikeeya yugon mein jeevon ki praapti ka kram jeevavikaas ke siddhaant ki sachchaai pratipaadit karta hai, kyonki jitne praacheenatar shail hote hain utane hi saral unke hi saral unke jeev avashesh hote hain aur jaise jaise bhaumikeeya kaalasaarani ke anusaar niktatam shailon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai vaise vaise jatil jeev avashesh paae jaate hain.

jeevavikaaseeya siddhaant ka pratipaadan karne ke liye ghode ke vikaas ka adhyayan achha udaaharan hai. vah sampoorn saamagri jis par ghode ke vikaas ka itihaas aadhaarit hai, uttari amareeka ke truteeyak shailon se praapt ki gayi hai. iske vikaas ki mukhya dishaaeain ye hain :

(1) aakaar mein vruddhi, (2) gati mein vruddhi, (3) sir aur greeva mein vruddhi.

ghode ka sabse praacheenatam jeevaashm iohips (Eohippus) hai, jo nimn ioseen shailon mein paaya gaya hai aur jo aakar mein billi se lekar lomadi ke baraabar tha. madhya ioseen ka ghoda orohips (Orohippus) ke naam se jaana jaata hai, jo aakaar mein iohips se kuchh hi bada tha. uttar ioseen ka ghoda epihips (Epihippus) kahalaata hai, jiske vishay mein poori jaankaari naheen hai. mesohips (Mesohippus) ke naam se prachalit ghoda, nimnatar aur madhya oligoseen shailon mein milta hai. yeh aakaar mein bhed ke baraabar, ya usase kuchh chhota, tha. maayohips (Miohippus), jo uttar oligoseen aur nimnatar maayoseen yug mein paaya jaata tha, bhed se kuchh hi bade aakaar ka tha. pairaahips (Parahippus) nimn maayoseen yug mein ati prachur tha. madhya maayoseen ka ghoda, merikips (Merychippus) kahalaata tha. jo pairaahips hi ke samaan tha. plaayoseen yug ka ghoda, plaayohips (Phiohippus) aakaar mein gadhe ke baraabar tha, par truteeyak yug mein milnevaala ghaada vartamaan kaal mein paae jaanevaale ghode ke baraabar tha. is prakaar ham dekhte hain ki ghode ke aakar mein dheere-dheere vruddhi hui.

isi prakaar ghode ki baahu aur paadon ki aantarik rachana mein parivartan se usaki gati mein vruddhi hui. is parivartan ka mukhya lakshan paarshv bhaagon ka hraas aur madhya athva aksheeya bhaag ka vistaar aur vardhan tha, jisse vah daudte samay drudhta ke saath bojha sanbhaal sake. isi prakaar kalaai ke beech ki haddi ko chhodkar anya sabka hraas ho gaya, jisse kalaai drudh ho gayi. isi prakaar teesare angul ki vruddhi hui, aas paas ke anya angul lupt ho gaye aur ant mein keval vahi rah gaya.

isi prakaar sir aur greeva mein dheere dheere vruddhi hui, jisse ghoda sugamata se char sake.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • kasheruk jeevaashmiki
  • paadapaashm vigyaan

baahari kadiyaaain