jeevaashm

ek jeevaashm machhali

pruthvi par kisi samay jeevit rahane vaale ati praacheen sajeevon ke parirkshit avasheshon ya unke dvaara chattaanon mein chhodi gayi chhaapon ko jo pruthvi ki satahon ya chattaanon ki paraton mein surakshit paaye jaate hain unhein jeevaashm (jeev + ashm = patthar) kehte hain. jeevaashm se kaarbanik vikaas ka pratyaksh pramaan milta hai. inke adhyayan ko jeevaashm vigyaan ya pailentolauji kehte hain. vibhinn prakaar ke jeevaashmon ke nireekshan se pata chalta hai ki pruthvi par alag-alag kaalon mein bhinn-bhinn prakaar ke jantu hue hain. praacheenatam jeevaashm nikshepon mein keval saralatam jeevon ke avashesh upasthit hain kintu Abhinav nikshepon mein kramash: adhik jatil jeevon ke avashesh praapt hote hain. jyon-jyon ham praacheen se nootan kaalon ka adhyayan karte hain, jeevaashm jeevit sajeevon se bahut adhik milte-julate prateet hote hain. anek madhyavarti lakshanon vaale jeev bataate hain ki saral rachana vaale jeevon se jatil rachana vaale jeevon ka vikaas hua hai. adhikaansh jeevaashm abhilekhapoorn naheen hai parantu ghoda, ooaint, haathi, manushya aadi ke jeevaashmon ki lagbhag poori shrrunkhalaaon ka pata lagaaya ja chuka hai jisse kaarbanik vikaas ke thos pramaan praapt hote hain.

jeevaashm ko angreji mein fausil kehte hain. is shabd ki utpatti laitin shabd "fausils" se hai, jiska arth "khodakar praapt ki gayi vastu" hota hai. saamaanya: jeevaashm shabd se ateet kaal ke bhaumikeeya yugon ke un jaiv avasheshon se taatparya hai jo bhooparpati ke avasaadi shailon mein paae jaate hain. ye jeevaashm yeh batalaate hain ki ve jaiv udgam ke hain tatha apne mein jaivik pramaan rakhate hain.

anukram

jeevaashm banane ke liye aavashyak shartein

praaniyon aur paadapon ke jeevaashm banane ke liye do baaton ki aavashyakta hoti hai. pehli aavashyak baat yeh hai ki unamein kankaal, athva kisi prakaar ke kathor ang, ka hona ati aavashyak hai, jo jeevaashm ke roop mein shailon mein parirkshit rah sakein. jeevon ke komalaang ati sheegra vightit ho jaane ke kaaran jeevaashm dasha mein parirkshit naheen rah sakte. bhaumikeeya yugon mein pruthvi par aise anek jeevon ke samudaaya rahate the jinke shareer mein koi kathor ang athva kankaal naheen tha at: fausil vigyaani aise jeevon ke samoohon ke adhyayan se vanchit rah jaate hain, kyonki unka koi ang jeevaashm svaroop parirkshit naheen paaya jaata, jiska adhyayan kiya ja sake. at: jeevaashm vigyaan kshetr unheen praaniyon tatha paadapon ke vargon tak seemit hai jo fausil banane ke yogya the. doosari aavashyak baat yeh hai ki kankaalon athva kathor angon ko kshaya aur vightan se bachane ke liye avasaadon se tunrat dhak jaana chaahiye. thalavaasi jeevon ke sthaayi samaadhisth hone ki sambhaavana ati virl hoti hai, kyonki sthal par aise bahut kam sthaan hote hain jahaaain par avasaad satat bahut badi maatra mein sanchit hote rahate hon. bahut hi kam paristhitiyon mein thalavaasi jeevon ke kathor bhaag baaloogiri ke baaloo mein dabane se athva bhooskhalan mein dabane ke kaaran parirkshit paae gaye hon. jalavaasi jeevon ke fausil hone ki sambhaavana atyadhik anukool isliye hoti hai ki avasaadan sthal ki apeksha jal mein hi bahut adhik hota hai. in jaleeya avasaadon mein bhi, aise jaleeya avasaadon mein jinka nirmaan samudra ke garbh mein hota hai, bahut badi sankhya mein jeev avashesh paae jaate hain, kyonki samudra hi aisa sthal hai jahaaain par avasaadan sabse adhik maatra mein satat hota rahata hai.

vibhinn vargon ke jeevon aur paadapon ke kathor bhaagon ke aakaar aur rachana mein bahut bhed hota hai. keeton tatha haaidra (hydra) vargon mein kathor bhaag aise padaarth ke hote hain jise kaaitin kehte hain, anek spanj aur daayatam (diatom) baaloo ke bane hote hain, kasheruki ki asthiyon mein mukhyat: kailsiym kaarbonet aur fausfet hote hain, pravaalon (coral), ekaainodarmaata (Echinodermata), molaska (mollusca) aur anek anya praaniyon mein tatha kuchh paadapon mein kailsiym kaarbonet hota hai aur anya paadapon mein adhikaanshat: kaashth ootak hote hain. in sab padaarthon mein se kaaitin badi kathinaai se ghulaaya ja sakta hai. baaloo, jab use praani utsarjint karte hain, tab bada sheegra ghul jaata hai. yahi kaaran hai ki baaloo ke bane kankaal bade sheegra ghul jaate hain. kailsiymi kankaalon mein choone ka kaarbonet aise jal mein, jismein kaarbonik aml hota hai, ati sheegra ghul jaata hai, parantu vileyata ki maatra choone ke kaarbonet ki maatra ke anusaar bhinn bhinn hoti hai. choorneeya kankaal kailsaait (calcite) athva airegonaait (aragonite) ke bane hote hain. inmein se kailsaait ke kavach airegonaait ke kavachon ki apeksha adhik drudh aur tikaaoo hote hain. adhikaansh praaniyon ke kavach kailsaait athva airegonaait ke bane hote hain.

jeevaashm ke prakaar

avasaadi shailon mein parirkshit jeevaashm nimn prakaar ke hote hain :

(1) sampoorn parirkshit praani - aisa bahut virl hota hai ki bina kisi prakaar ke vightan ke kisi praani ka jeevaashm praapt ho, kintu aise parirkshit jeevaashm ke udaaharan maimath aur raainosirs ke jeevaashm hain, jo tundra ke him mein jame hue paae gaye hain.

(2) praaya: aparivrtit dasha mein parirkshit paae jaanevaale kankaal - kabhi-kabhi jab shailon mein keval kankaal hi parirkshit paaya jaata hai tab yeh dekha gaya hai ki vah apni pehle jaisi, tab ki avastha mein hai jab vah samaadhisth hua tha. parivartan keval itna hota hai ki fausil dasha mein kankaal se kaarbanik dravyon ka lop ho jaata hai.

(3) kaarbaneekaran - kuchh paadapon aur kuchh praaniyon mein, jaise graiptolaait (graptolite), jinmein kankaal kaaitin ka bana hota hai, mool dravya kaarbaneekrut ho jaata hai. jeev mein aghatan hota hai, jiske falasvaroop okseejan aur naaitrojan ka lop ho jaata hai aur kaarban rah jaata hai.

(4) kankaalon ka saaaincha - kabhi-kabhi kankaal ya kavach vileen ho jaate hain aur unke sthaan par unka keval saaaincha rah jaata hai. yeh is prakaar hota hai ki kavach ke avasaad se dhak jaane ke uparaant, kavach ka aantarik bhaag bhi avasaadavaale dravya se bhar jaata hai. iske uparaant kaarbonik aml mishrit jal, shail mein rista hua us sthaan tak pahuainch jaata hai jahaaain par kavach gada hua rahata hai aur use kailsiym ke baaikaabonet ke roop mein poornat: vileen kar deta hai. iske parinaamasvaroop kavach ke sthaan par kavach ke aantarik aur baahya aakaar ka keval ek saaaincha dekhne ko milta hai. in donon ke beech ke sthaan mein moolat: kavach tha aur yadi yeh sthaan mom se bhar diya jaae to kavach ka yathaarth saaaincha mil jaata hai.

(5) ashmeebhavan (Petrification) - kabhi kabhi fausilon mein un jeevon ke, jinke ye fausil ho gaye hain, sookshm aakaar tak dekhne ko milte hain. antar keval itna hota hai ki kankaalon ka mool dravya kisi khanij dvaara pratisthaapit ho jaata hai. is kriya ko ashmeebhavan kehte hain. ashmeebhavan ka ati uttam udaaharan ashmeebhoot kaashth hain jo dekhne mein bilkul vaise hi dikhlaai padte hain jaisa jeevit paadapon ka kaashth hota hai. yeh parivartan is prakaar hota hai ki jab aadikaashth ka ek kan hatata hai tab uske sthaan par turant baaloo athva anya kisi khanij ka ek kan aa jaata hai, jisse kaashth ka aadi aakaar jyon ka tyon bana rahata hai.

is vidhi se mool dravya ko hataanevaale mukhya khanij ye hain : (1) kailsiym ka kaarbonet, (2) baaloo, (3) lohamaakshik, (4) loh oksaaid aur (5) kabhi kabhi kailsiym ka salfet aadi.

(6) chinh - kabhi-kabhi jeev jantuon ke paadachihn bill, chhidr aadi shailon mein paae jaate hain. yadyapi ye jeevajantuon ke kathor angon ke koi bhaag naheen hain aur isliye inko fausil naheen kaha ja sakta, fir bhi ye utane hi mahatva ke samajhe jaate hain jitne fausil.

jeevaashmon ke upayog

jeevaashmon ke upayog nimnalikhit hain :

(1) shailon ke sahasanbandh (correlation) mein jeevaashmon ka upayog - ve jeev jo aaj hamein jeevaashm ke roop mein milte hain, kisi bhaumakeeya yug ke kisi nishchit kaal mein avashya hi rahe honge. at: ve hamaare lae bade mahatva ke hain. William smith aur kyoovye mahodaya ke, jo starit bhaumiki ke janmadaata hain, samay se hi yeh baat bhali bhaaainti vidit hai ki avasaadi shailon mein paae jaanevaale jeevaashmon aur unke bhaumikeeya stambh (column) ke sthaan mein ek nishchit sambandh hai. yeh bhali bhaaainti pata lag chuka hai ki shailein jitni alpaayu hongi utana hi unamein praapt praani vibhinn prakaar ke aur paadapasamudaaya jatil hoga aur ve jitni deerghaayu hongi utana hi saral aur saadhaaran unka jeevaashmasamudaaya hoga. at: shailon ka stareeya sthaan nishchaya karne mein jeevaashmon ka pramukh sthaan hai aur ve bade mahatva ke siddh hue hain.

kainbriynapoorv ke praacheen shailon mein jeevaashm naheen paae jaate. at: jeevaashmon ke abhaav mein jeevaashmon ki sahaayata se in shailon ka sahasanbandh naheen sthaapit kiya jaata hai. kainbriyn se lekar aaj tak ke bhaumikeeya stambh ke samast bhaagon ke praani aur paadapon ka pata laga liya gaya hai. at: pruthvi ke kisi bhi bhaag mein in bhaagon ke sam bhaagon ka pata lagaana ab apekshaya saral hai.

(2) jeevaashm praacheen kaal ke bhoogol ke soochak - puraabhoogol ke antargat, praacheen kaal ke sthal aur samudra ka vistaran, us kaal ki saritaaeain, jheel, maidaan, parvat aadi aate hain. kisi vishesh vaataavaran ke anusaar hi jeev apne ko sthit ke anukool kar lete hain, yeh baat jitni sachchi aadhanik samay mein hai utani hi sachchi ateet ke bhaumikeeya yugon mein bhi thi. at: jeevaashmon ki sahaayata se ham yeh pata laga sakte hain ki kis sthaan par delta, parvat, nadi, samudratat, chhichhle athva gahre samudra the, kyonki sthal mein rahanevaale jeev, jalavaale jeevon se aur jal mein rahanevaale jeevon mein alavan jalavaasi jeev lavan jalavaasi jeevon se sarvatha bhinn hote hain.

(3) jeevaashm puraajalavaayu ke soochak - jeevaashmon ki sahaayata se bhaumikeeya yugon ki jalavaayu ke vishay mein bhi kisi seema tak anumaan lagaaya ja sakta hai. is disha mein sthal paadapon dvaara pradaan kiye gaye pramaan vishesh mahatva ke hote hain, kyonki unka vistaran samudri jeevon ki apeksha adhikaanshat: taap ke anusaar hota hai aur ve saralataapoorvak jalavaayu ke anusaar bhinn bhinn bhaagon mein pruthak kiye ja sakte hain. samudri jeevon mein kuchh ka vistaran jalavaayu ki dashaaon ke anusaar hota hai, jaise pravaal, jo garam jalavaayu mein rahate hain.

(4) jeevaashm jeevavikaas ke soochak - jeevaashmon ne jeevavikaas ke siddhaant par bahut prakaash daala hai aur bina jeevaashmon ki sahaayata ke jeevavikaas ka anurekhan karna asambhav sa hai.

jeevaashm sangrah ka uddeshya

jeevaashmon ka sangrah jeevaashmeeya tatha starit shail vigyaan donon ki drushti se kiya jaata hai. jeevaashmon ke sangrah ke samay nimnalikhit baaton ka sadaiv dhyaan rakhana chaahiye :

(1) yadi bhaumikeeya rachana ka alpajeevaashmeeya ho to sab jeevaashmon ka sangrah karna chaahiye, chaahe ve poorn hon athva khandamaya.

(2) yadi jeevaashmon ka nikaalna asambhav na ho to kabhi bhi poorn jeevaashmon ko chhod na dena chaahiye. unhein sugamata se nikaal lena chaahiye.

(3) aisa khandamaya jeevaashm, jismein savistaar aakaarakeeya lakshan milte hon un anek poorn jeevaashmon se kaheen adhik mahatva ka hai, jinmein aakaarakeeya lakshanon ka abhaav ho.

(4) kabhi bhi kshetr mein jeevaashmon ko pahachaanane ka prayatn na karna chaahiye.

(5) yadi jeevaashmon ka sangrah starit-shail-vigyaan ki drushti se kiya gaya ho to alag alag pratyek rachana se jeevaashmon ka sangrah aavashyak hai.

jeevaashm ke starit shailavijnyaaaneeya sthaan ka mahatva

yeh nishchaya karna bada mahatvapoorn hai ki jeevaashm kis star se sangraheet kiye gaye hain, kyonki bina yeh maaloom kiye jeevaashmon ka sangrah praaya: arthaheen sa ho jaata hai. iska nishchaya sugamata ke saath jeevaashmasangrah ke samay kiya ja sakta hai. jeevaashmon ke sangrah ke saath saath shaileeya rachanaaon ke mukhya mukhya aur vishisht lakshanon ko bhi likh lena chaahiye.

jeevaashmasangrah ke vishay mein kuchh pramukh baatein

jeevaashmasangrah mein jeevaashm vigyaani ke liye ek halka hathauda, chheni, chhoti-chhoti thailiyaaain aur raddi kaagaj bade upayogi hote hain.

yadi bade-bade jeevaashmon ki khoj ho, to sabse pehle rituksharit staron ki or dhyaan dena chaahiye. yadi jeevaashm yahaaain naheen dikhaai padte, to haal hi mein bhang hue aadhaar mein paae jaane ki sambhaavana rahati hai. yadi koi jeevaashm kathor shail mein laga hua dikhaai pade, to ekaaek nikaalne ka prayaas na karna chaahiye balki uske aaspaas ke sthaan mein daraaron ka pata laga lena chaahiye. in daraaron se shail ke vah bhaag aasaani se tode ja sakte hain jinmein jeevaashm lage hue hain. is prakaar se jeevaashmon ke nikaalate samay is baat ka sadaiv dhyaan rakhana chaahae ki shail par hathauda, jeevaashm se jitni door sambhav ho, chalaana chaahiye. aisa karne se jeevaashm ke tootane ki sambhaavana kam ho jaati hai aur shail sahit jeevaashm alag ho jaata hai.

yadi foraimineefera (Foraminifera) jaise chhote jeevaashmon ka sangrah karna hai, to inka ek ek karke sangrah karna spashtat: asambhav sa hai. aisi dasha mein aabaddh shailon, athva shail namoonon ka hi sangrah karna uchit hoga. is prakaar se laai gayi saamagri baad mein prayogashaala mein sankalan ki jaati hai aur usako ek hast leins se dekhne par usamein anek laghu jeevaashm dikhaai padte hain, jinko chalaniyon ki sahaayata se aadhaar se alag kar sakte hain.

kshetr mein jeevaashmon ke sangrah ke uparaant pratyek jeevaashm ke saath ek leb (label) laga dena chaahiye, jismein do baaton ka ullekh bada aavashyak hota hai : (1) vah yathaarth star, jisse jeevaashm liya gaya hai aur (2) sthaan ka naam, jahaaain se jeevaashm ka sangrah kiya gaya hai. aisa karne ke uparaant jeevaashm ko raddi kaagaj mein lapetakar aur dore se baaaindhakar prayogashaala mein laana chaahiye.

shail aadhaar se jeevaashm ke pruthakkaran ki vidhi

shail aadhaar se jeevaashm nikaalne ki vidhi ek prakaar ki kala hai. is vashaya mein koi pakke niyam naheen batalaae ja sakte, kyonki bhinn bhinn prakaar ki samasyaaeain saamane aati hain. kis vidhi se aur kaise jeevaashm ko prastar se alag kiya ja sakta hai, isko ek anubhavi jeevaashm vigyaani jeevaashm ko dekhkar samajh leta hai. jin shail aadhaaron mein jeevaashm khachit rahate hain ve mrudu mruda se lekar saghan shail tak hote hain, jinki kathorata ispaat ke baraabar ho sakti hai. jeevaashm ki kathorata ki seema mein itna adhik antar naheen hota. jeevaashm nikaalate samay jeevaashm vigyaani ka yeh dhyeya hota hai ki jeevaashm ko bina kisi prakaar kshati pahuainchaae shail se pruthak kar de.

yadi aadhaar jeevaashm ki apeksha mrudu prakruti ka hai, to use sugamataapoorvak ek brush ki sahaayata se hata sakte hain. yadi jeevaashm abaddh choonaapatthar mein khachit paae jaate hain, to use bhi ham daaaint saaf karanevaale brush ki sahaayata se alag kar sakte hain. yadi shail aadhaar chaak prakruti ka hai to dant upakaran mein bhramit brush ki sahaayata se use alag kar sakte hain.

anya avsaron par jab jeevaashm bhangur ho aur badi drudhta ke saath shail ke aadhaar mein jude hon tab hathaude maar maarkar jeevaashmon ka alag karna kathin hota hai. aisi dasha mein prastar ko kai baar garam karke tunrat paani mein daal dene se, jeevaashmon ka prastar se alagaav saralata se ho jaata hai. baaloo aur anya choonedaar shailon s foraimineefera jaise jeevaashmon ke nikaalne mein, shail ko pehle tod lete hain aur fir usako kai prakaar ki chalaniyon mein chhaan lete hain. ismein jeevaashm shail bhaag se alag ho jaate hain. jab shail kathor hote hain tab doosra dhang upayog mein laaya jaata hai. shail ko chhote chhote tukadon mein tod lete hain aur fir unako itna garm karte hain ki ve poornat: sookh jaaeain aur fir unako isi garm avastha mein hi thande paani mein daal dete hain. is prakaar se kathor mruda keech mein apavightit ho jaati hai aur fir ant mein jeevaashmon ko prastar bhaag se dho karke alag kar lete hain.

jab yaantrik reetiyon se jeevaashmon ka pruthakkaran sambhav naheen hota tab raasaayanik vidhiyaaain prayog mein laai jaati hain. inmein sabse saralatam rituksharan ki vidhi hai, jo bahut si dashaaon mein bina jeevaashmon ko kisi prakaar haani pahuainchaae hue shail aadhaar ko apaghatat kar deta hai. bahut hi tanu aml ke upayog mein laane se yeh kriya sheegh ho jaati hai. yahaaain yeh batala dena theek hoga ki aml ka prayog badi saavadhaani ke saath karna chaahiye, kyonki adhikaansh jeevaashmon ke panjar choonedaar hote hain aur unapar aml ka prabhaav turant hota hai.

saadhaaranat: kaustik potaash theek prakaar ka abhikaarak hai, jiska bina kisi bhaya ke upayog kar sakte hain. iske chhote chhote kanon ko sookhi avastha mein us saare shail aadhaar par daal dete hain jise hataana hota hai. chooaink kaustik potaash prasvedya (deliquescent) prakruti ka hota hai. at: yeh aadhaar ke andar pravisht kar jaata hai aur usako apaghatit kar deta hai. yeh ekinodarma (Echinoderma), athva molask, ko koi kshati naheen pahuainchaata. braikiyopoda (Brachiopoda) mein iska upayog naheen karna chaahiye, kyonki yeh inke paratadaar panjaron mein sugamataapoorvak pravisht kar jaata hai, jiske kaaran inki paratein alag ho jaati hain. ant mein jeevaashmon ko achhi prakaar jal se dho daalna chaahiye.

shel (shale) jais shailon mein parirkshit graiptolaait (graptolite) aur paadap jeevaashm ka pruthakkaran "sthaanaantaran vidhi" se kiya jaata hai. is pruthakkaran ki mukhya mukhya baatein nimnalikhit hain :

(1) namoone k vah tal, jismein jeevaashm hai, neeche karke kainaada baalasam ki sahaayata se kaach ki slaaid mein chipka dete hain.

(2) shel ka jitna bhaag sugamata se kaata ya ghisa ja sakta ho use kaat athva ghis lete hain.

(3) shel tal ko bhigo lete hain aur fir usako pighle hue mom mein duba dete hain. mom aardr tal se sugamata se pruthak ho jaata hai aur kaach par koi raasaayanik kriya naheen hone deta.

(4) shel yukt sampoorn jeevaashm ko haaidroflorik aml ke amlataapak (acid bath) mein rakh dete hain. yeh jeevaashm ko tanik bhi kshati pahuainchaae bina shel bhaag ko gala deta hai.

(5) dhone ke uparaant paadap athva graiptolaait jeevaashm ko kavar glaas se dhaink dena chaahiye.

is prakaar se nikaale gaye graiptolaait aur kuchh paadap jaise komal jeevaashmon ke aadhunik jeevon ki bhaaainti sookshmadarshi ki sahaayata se parichhed banaae ja sakte hain. kathor jeevaashmon ke bhi parichhed ghis karke banaae ja sakte hain. ismein ghiste samay niyamit avadhiyon par foton lena padta hai. is vidhi mein sabse bada dosh yeh hai ki jis jeevaashm ka pareekshan is vidhi se kiya jaata hai vah nasht ho jaata hai.

jeevaashmon ke pruthakkaran ki uparyukt vidhiyon ke atirikt braikiyopoda ke baahukuntalon (brachial spiral) ke anurekhan ke liye kuchh vishesh vidhiyaaain hoti hain. in vidhiyon se traailobaaiteej (Trilobites), aimonaaiteej (Ammonites) aur ekaainodarameej mein seevanarekha ka anurekhan bhi ati mahatva ka kaarya hai. yeh kisi prakaar ke abhirjann ki sahayata se vishisht banaaya ja sakta hai. bhaarateeya masi is kaarya ke liye uttam hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain