jeevaanu

jeevaanu

jeevaanu ek ekakoshikeeya jeev hai. iska aakaar kuchh milimeetar tak hi hota hai. inki aakruti gol ya mukt-chakraakaar se lekar chhad, aadi aakaar ki ho sakti hai. ye akendrik, koshika bhittiyukt, ekakoshakeeya saral jeev hain jo praay: sarvatr paaye jaate hain. ye pruthvi par mitti mein, amleeya garm jal-dhaaraaon mein, naabhikeeya padaarthon mein[1], jal mein, bhoo-papadi mein, yahaan tak ki kaarbanik padaarthon mein tatha paudhaun evam jantuon ke shareer ke bheetar bhi paaye jaate hain. saadhaaranat: ek gram mitti mein 4 karod jeevaanu kosh tatha 1 mileeleetar jal mein 10 lakh jeevaanu paae jaate hain. sampoorn pruthvi par anumaanat: lagbhag 5X1030 jeevaanu paae jaate hain. [2] jo sansaar ke baayomaas ka ek bahut bada bhaag hai.[3] ye kai tatvon ke chakr mein bahut mahatvapoorn bhoomika ada karte hain, jaise ki vaayumandaleeya naaitrojan ke sthareekaran mein. halaaki bahut saare vansh ke jeevaanuon ka shreni vibhaajan bhi naheen hua hai tathaapi lagbhag aadhi prajaatiyon ko kisi na kisi prayogashaala mein ugaaya ja chuka hai.[4] jeevaanuon ka adhyayan baiktiriyoloji ke antargat kiya jaata hai jo ki sookshm jaiviki ki hi ek shaakha hai.
maanav shareer mein jitni bhi maanav koshikaaen hai, usaki lagbhag 10 guna sankhya to jeevaanu kosh ki hi hai. inmein se adhikaansh jeevaanu tvacha tatha ahaar-naal mein paae jaate hain.[5] haanikaarak jeevaanu imyoon tantr ke rakshak prabhaav ke kaaran shareer ko nuksaan naheen pahuncha paate. kuchh jeevaanu laabhadaayak bhi hote hain. anek prakaar ke parajeevi jeevaanu kai rog utpann karte hain, jaise - haija, miyaadi bukhaar, nimoniya, tapedik ya kshayarog, pleg ityaadi. sirf kshaya rog se prativrsh lagbhag 20 lakh log marate hain, jinmein se adhikaansh up-sahaara kshetr ke hote hain.[6] viksit deshon mein jeevaanuon ke sankraman ka upachaar karne ke liye tatha krushi kaaryon mein pratijaivik ka upayog hota hai, isliye jeevaanuon mein in pratijaivik davaaon ke prati pratirodhak shakti viksit hoti ja rahi hai. audyogik kshetr mein jeevaanuon ki kinvan kriya dvaara dahi, paneer ityaadi vastuon ka nirmaan hota hai. inka upayog pratijaiviki tatha aur rasaayanon ke nirmaan mein tatha jaivapraudyogiki ke kshetr mein hota hai.[7]
pehle jeevaanuon ko paudha maana jaata tha parantu ab unka vargeekaran prokairiyots ke rup mein hota hai. doosare jantu koshikon tatha yookairiyots ki bhaanti jeevaanu kosh mein poorn viksit kendrak ka sarvatha abhaav hota hai jabki dohari jhilli yukt koshikaang yada kada hi paae jaate hai. paaramparik roop se jeevaanu shabd ka prayog sabhi sajeevon ke liye hota tha, parantu yeh vaigyaanik vargeekaran 1990 mein hui ek khoj ke baad badal gaya jismein pata chala ki prokairiyotik sajeev vaastav mein do bhinn samooh ke jeevon se bane hain jinka kram vikaas ek hi poorvaj se hua. in do prakaar ke jeevon ko jeevaanu evam aarkiya kaha jaata hai.[8]

anukram

itihaas

looi paashchar

jeevaanuon ko sabse pehle dach vaigyaanik entani vaaainn lyoovonahook ne 1676 E. mein apne dvaara hi banaae gaye ekal leins sookshmadarshi yantr se dekha,[9] par us samay usane inhein jantuk samjha tha. usane raayal society ko apne avalokanon ki pushti ke liye kai patra likhe.[10][11][12] 1683 E. mein lyoovenahauk ne jeevaanu ka chitran kar apne mat ki pushti ki. 1864 E. mein fraansanivaasi looi paashchar tatha 1890 E. mein coach ne yeh mat vyakt kiya ki in jeevaanuon se rog failate hain.[13] paashchar ne 1989 mein prayogo dvaara yeh dikhaaya ki kinvan ki raasaayanik kriya sookshm jeevon dvaara hoti hai. coach sookshmajaiviki ke kshetr mein yugapuroosh maane jaate hain, inhonne kaulera, ainthreks tatha kshaya rogo par gahan adhyayan kiya. antat: coach ne yeh siddh kar deeya ki kai rog sookshm jeevon ke kaaran hote hain. iske liye 1905 E. mein unhein Nobel puraskaar se sammaanit kiya gaya.[14] coach na rogon evam unke kaarak jeevon ka pata lagaane ke liye kuchh pariklpanaaen ki thi jo aaj bhi istemaal hoti hain.[15] jeevaanu kai rogon ke kaarak hain yeh 19veen shataabdi tak sabhi jaan gaye, parantu fir bhi koi prabhaavi pratijaiviki ki khoj naheen ho saki.[16] sabse pehle pratijaiviki ka aavishkaar 1910 mein paul eharich ne kiya. jisse siflis rog ki chikitsa sambhav ho saki.[17] iske liye 1908 E. mein unhein chikitsaashaastr mein Nobel puraskaar pradaan kiya gaya. inhonne jeevaanuon ko abhiranjit karne ki kaaragar vidhiyaan khoj nikaali, jinke aadhaar par gram sten ki rachana sambhav hui.[18]

utpatti evam kramavikaas

aadhunik jeevaanuon ke poorvaj ve ek koshikeeya sookshmajeev the, jinki utpatti 40 karod varshon poorv pruthvi par jeevan ke pratham roop mein hui. lagbhag 30 karod varshon tak pruthvi par jeevan ke naam par sookshmajeev hi the. inmein jeevaanu tatha aarkiya mukhya the.[19][20] strometolaaits jaise jeevaanuon ke jeevaashm paaye gaye hain parantu inki aspasht baahya sanrachana ke kaaran jeevaanuon ko samajhne mein inse koi khaas madad naheen mili.

vargeekaran

jeevaanuon ka vargeekaran aakruti ke anusaar kiya jaata hai. udaaharan-

1. dandaanu (baisilaai) – dand jaise,

2. golaanu (kokkaai)- bindu jaise,

3. sarpilaanu (spirilaai) – laharadaar aadi.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Fredrickson J, Zachara J, Balkwill D, et al (2004). "Geomicrobiology of high-level nuclear waste-contaminated vadose sediments at the Hanford site, Washington state". Appl Environ Microbiol 70 (7): 4230–41. doi:10.1128/AEM.70.7.4230-4241.2004. PMID 15240306. http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/full/70/7/4230?view=long&pmid=15240306.
  2. Whitman W, Coleman D, Wiebe W (1998). "Prokaryotes: the unseen majority". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S a 95 (12): 6578–83. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.12.6578. PMID 9618454. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/95/12/6578.
  3. Whitman W, Coleman D, Wiebe W (1998). "Prokaryotes: the unseen majority". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S a 95 (12): 6578–83. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.12.6578. PMID 9618454. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/95/12/6578.
  4. Rappé MS, Giovannoni SJ (2003). "The uncultured microbial majority". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 57: 369–94. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.57.030502.090759. PMID 14527284.
  5. Sears CL (2005). "A dynamic partnership: celebrating our gut flora". Anaerobe 11 (5): 247–51. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2005.05.001. PMID 16701579.
  6. "2002 WHO mortality data". http://www.who.int/healthinfo/bodgbd2002revised/en/index.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-01-20.
  7. Ishige T, Honda K, Shimizu S (2005). "Whole organism biocatalysis". Curr Opin Chem Biol 9 (2): 174–80. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2005.02.001. PMID 15811802.
  8. Woese C, Kandler O, Wheelis M (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S a 87 (12): 4576–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576. PMID 2112744. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/87/12/4576.
  9. Porter JR (1976). "Antony van Leeuwenhoek: Tercentenary of his discovery of bacteria". Bacteriological reviews 40 (2): 260–269. PMC 413956. PMID 786250. http://mmbr.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=786250.
  10. van Leeuwenhoek A (1684). "An abstract of a letter from Mr. Anthony Leevvenhoek at Delft, dated Sep. 17, 1683, Containing Some Microscopical Observations, about Animals in the Scurf of the Teeth, the Substance Call'd Worms in the Nose, the Cuticula Consisting of Scales". Philosophical Transactions (1683–1775) 14: 568–574. http://www.journals.royalsoc.ac.uk/content/120136/?k=Sep.+17%2c+1683. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-19.
  11. van Leeuwenhoek A (1700). "Part of a Letter from Mr Antony van Leeuwenhoek, concerning the Worms in Sheeps Livers, Gnats, and Animalcula in the Excrements of Frogs". Philosophical Transactions (1683–1775) 22: 509–518. http://www.journals.royalsoc.ac.uk/link.asp?id=4j53731651310230. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-19.
  12. van Leeuwenhoek A (1702). "Part of a Letter from Mr Antony van Leeuwenhoek, F. R. S. concerning Green Weeds Growing in Water, and Some Animalcula Found about Them". Philosophical Transactions (1683-1775) 23: 1304–11. doi:10.1098/rstl.1702.0042. http://www.journals.royalsoc.ac.uk/link.asp?id=fl73121jk4150280. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-19.
  13. "Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory". LSU Law Center's Medical and Public Health Law Site, Historic Public Health Articles. http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/cphl/history/articles/pasteur.htm#paperII. abhigman tithi: 2006-11-23.
  14. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905". Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1905/. abhigman tithi: 2006-11-22.
  15. O'Brien S, Goedert J (1996). "HIV causes AIDS: Koch's postulates fulfilled". Curr Opin Immunol 8 (5): 613–618. doi:10.1016/S0952-7915(96)80075-6. PMID 8902385.
  16. Thurston A (2000). "Of blood, inflammation and gunshot wounds: the history of the control of sepsis". Aust N Z J Surg 70 (12): 855–61. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1622.2000.01983.x. PMID 11167573.
  17. Schwartz R (2004). "Paul Ehrlich's magic bullets". N Engl J Med 350 (11): 1079–80. doi:10.1056/NEJMp048021. PMID 15014180.
  18. "Biography of Paul Ehrlich". Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1908/ehrlich-bio.html. abhigman tithi: 2006-11-26.
  19. Schopf J (1994). "Disparate rates, differing fates: tempo and mode of evolution changed from the Precambrian to the Phanerozoic". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S a 91 (15): 6735–42. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.15.6735. PMC 44277. PMID 8041691. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=8041691.
  20. DeLong E, Pace N (2001). "Environmental diversity of bacteria and archaea". Syst Biol 50 (4): 470–78. doi:10.1080/106351501750435040. PMID 12116647.