jayashankar prasaad

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jayashankar prasaad
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janm 30 January 1890
Varanasi, uttar pradesh, Bhaarat
mrutyu November 15, 1937(1937-11-15) (umr 47)
Varanasi, Bhaarat
upajeevika upanyaasakaar, naatakakaar, kavi

jayashankar prasaad (30 January 1890 - 15 November 1937) hindi kavi, naatakaar, kathaakaar, upanyaasakaar tatha nibndhakaar the. ve hindi ke chhaayaavaadi yug ke chaar pramukh stambhon mein se ek hain. unhonne hindi kaavya mein chhaayaavaad ki sthaapana ki jiske dvaara khadi boli ke kaavya mein kamaneeya maadhurya ki rasasiddh dhaara pravaahit hui aur vah kaavya ki siddh bhaasha ban gayi.

aadhunik hindi saahitya ke itihaas mein inke krutitv ka gaurav akshunn hai. ve ek yugapravartak lekhak the jinhonne ek hi saath kavita, naatak, kahaani aur upanyaas ke kshetr mein hindi ko gaurav karne laayak krutiyaaain Dean. kavi ke roop mein ve niraala, pant, mahaadevi ke saath chhaayaavaad ke chauthe stambh ke roop mein pratishthit hue hai; naatak lekhan mein bhaarateindu ke baad ve ek alag dhaara bahaane vaale yugapravartak naatakakaar rahe jinke naatak aaj bhi paathak chaav se padhate hain. iske alaava kahaani aur upanyaas ke kshetr mein bhi unhonne kai yaadagaar krutiyaaain Dean. vividh rachanaaon ke maadhyam se maanaveeya karoona aur bhaarateeya maneesha ke anekaanek gauravapoorn pakshon ka udghaatan. 48 varsho ke chhote se jeevan mein kavita, kahaani, naatak, upanyaas aur aalochanaatmak nibandh aadi vibhinn vidhaaon mein rachanaaen ki.

unhein 'kaamaayani' par mangalaaprasaad paaritoshik praapt hua tha. unhonne jeevan mein kabhi saahitya ko arjan ka maadhyam naheen banaaya, apitu ve saadhana samajhakar hi saahitya ki rachana karte rahe. kul milaakar aisi vividh pratibha ka saahityakaar hindi mein kam hi milega jisne saahitya ke sabhi angon ko apni krutiyon se samruddh kiya ho.

anukram

jeevan parichay

prasaad ji ka janm maagh shukl 10, sanvat‌ 1946 vi. (tadanusaar 30janavari 1890i• din-guruvaar) ko kaashi ke saraayagovardhan mein hua. inke pitaamah babu shivratan saahoo daan dene mein prasiddh the aur inke pita babu deveeprasaad ji kalaakaaron ka aadar karne ke liye vikhyaat the. inka kaashi mein bada sammaan tha aur kaashi ki janta kaasheenaresh ke baad 'har har mahaadev' se babu deveeprasaad ka hi svaagat karti thi. kishoraavastha ke poorv hi maata aur bade bhaai ka dehaavasaan ho jaane ke kaaran 17 varsh ki umr mein hi prasaad ji par aapadaaon ka pahaad toot pada. kachchi gruhasthi, ghar mein sahaare ke roop mein keval vidhva bhaabhi, kutubinyon, parivaar se sambaddh anya logon ka sampatti hadapne ka shadyantr, in sabka saamana unhonne dheerata aur gambheerta ke saath kiya. prasaad ji ki praarambhik shiksha kaashi me kveens kaalej mein hui, kintu baad mein ghar par inki shiksha ka vyaapak prabandh kiya gaya, jahaaain sanskrut, hindi, urdoo, tatha faarasi ka adhyayan inhonne kiya. deenabandhu brahmachaari jaise vidvaan‌ inke sanskrut ke adhyaapak the. inke guruon mein 'rasamaya siddh' ki bhi charcha ki jaati hai.

ghar ke vaataavaran ke kaaran saahitya aur kala ke prati unamein praarambh se hi ruchi thi aur kaha jaata hai ki nau varsh ki umr mein hi unhonne 'kalaadhar' ke naam se vrajabhaasha mein ek savaiya likhkar 'rasamaya siddh' ko dikhaaya tha. unhonne ved, itihaas, puraan tatha saahitya shaastr ka atyant gambhir adhyayan kiya tha. ve baag-bageeche tatha bhojan banaane ke shaukeen the aur shataranj ke khilaadi bhi the. ve niyamit vyaayaam karanevaale, saatvik Khan paan evam gambhir prakruti ke vyakti the. ve naagareeprachaarini sabha ke upaadhyaksh bhi the. kshaya rog se November 15, 1937 (din-somvaar) ko praat:kaal (umr 48) unka dehaant kaashi mein hua.

krutiyaaain

prasaad ji ke jeevanakaal mein aise saahityakaar kaashi mein vartamaan the jinhonne apni krutiyon dvaara hindi saahitya ki shreevruddhi ki. unke beech rahakar prasaad ne bhi ananya gauravashaali saahitya ki srushti ki. kavita, kahaani, upanyaas, naatak or nibandh, saahitya ki praaya: sabhi vidhaaon mein unhonne aitihaasik mahatva ki rachanaaeain keen tatha khadi boli ki shreesanpada ko mahaan‌ aur maulik daan se samruddh kiya. kaalakram se prakaashit unki krutiyaaain ye hain :

urvashi (chanpoo) ; samraat chandragupt maurya (nibandh); shokochhavaas (kavita); premaraajya (k) ; sajjan (ekaank), kalyaani parinya (ekaakeen); chhaaya (kahaaneesangrah); kaanan kusum (kaavya); karunaalaya (geetikaavya); premapathik (kaavya); praayashchit (ekaanki); mahaaraana ka mahatva (kaavya); raajashri (naatak) chitraadhaar (isame unki 20 varsh tak ki hi rachanaaeain hain). jharana (kaavya); vishaakh (naatak); ajaatashatru (naatak); kaamna (naatak), aaainsoo (kaavya), janamejaya ka naagayajnya (naatak); pratidhvani (kahaani sangrah); skandagupt (naatak); ek ghooaint (ekaanki); akaashadeep (kahaani sangrah); dhruvasvaamini (naatak); titli (upanyaas); lahar (kaavya sangrah); indrajaal (kahaaneesangrah); kaamaayani (mahaakaavya); iraavati (adhoora upanyaas). prasaad sangeet (naatakon mein aae hue geet).

kaavya

naatak

kahaani sangrah

upanyaas

kaavya

prasaad ne kaavyarachana brajabhaasha mein aarambh ki aur dheer-dheere khadi boli ko apnaate hue is bhaaainti agrasar hue ki khadi boli ke moordhanya kaviyon mein unki ganana ki jaane lagi aur ve yugavartak kavi ke roop mein pratishthit hue.

unki kaavya rachanaaeain do vargo mein vibhkt hai : kaavyapath anusandhaan ki rachanaaeain aur rasasiddh rachanaaeain. aaainsoo, lahar tatha kaamaayani doosare varg ki rachanaaeain hain. is samast rachanaaon ki visheshataaon ka aakalan karne par hindi kaavya ko prasaad ji ki nimnaankit den maani ja sakti hai.

unhonne hindi kaavya mein chhaayaavaad ki sthaapana ki jiske dvaara khadi boli ke kaavya mein kamaneeya maadhurya ki rasasiddh dhaara pravaahit hui aur vah kaavya ki siddh bhaasha ban gayi. unki sarvapratham chhaayaavaadi rachana 'kholo dwaar' 1914 E. mein indu mein prakaashit hui. ve chhaayaavaad ke pratishthaapak hi naheen apitu chhaayaavaadi paddhati par saras sangeetamaya geeton ke likhnevaale shreshth kavi bhi hain. unhonne hindi mein 'karunaalaya' dvaara geet naatya ka bhi aarambh kiya. unhonne bhinn tukaant kaavya likhne ke liye maulik chhandachayan kiya aur anek chhand ka sambhavat: unhonne sabse pehle prayog kiya. unhonne naatakeeya dhang par kaavya-katha-shaili ka manovaigyaanik path par vikaas kiya. saath hi kahaani kala ki nai tekaneek ka sanyog kaavyakatha se karaaya. prageeton ki or vishesh roop se unhonne gadya saahitya ko sanpusht kiya aur neeras itivruttaatmak kaavyapaddhati ko bhaavapaddhati ke sinhaasan par sthaapit kiya.

kaavyakshetr mein prasaad ki keerti ka moolaadhaar 'kaamaayani' hai. khadi boli ka yeh adviteeya mahaakavya manu aur shraddha ko aadhaar banaakar rachit maanavata ko vijyini banaane ka sandesh deta hai. yeh roopak kathaakaavya bhi hai jismein man, shraddha aur ida (buddhi) ke yog se akhand aanand ki upalabdhi ka roopak pratyabhijnyaa darshan ke aadhaar par sanyojit kiya gaya hai. unki yeh kruti chhaayaavaad or khadi boli ki kaavyagarima ka jvalant udaaharan hai. sumitraanandan pant ise 'hindi mein Tajmahal ke samaan' maanate hain. shilpavidhi, bhaashaasaushthav evam bhaavaabhivyakti ki drushti se iski tulana khadi boli ke kisi bhi kaavya se naheen ki ja sakti hai.

kahaani tatha upanyaas

katha ke kshetr mein prasaad ji aadhunik dhang ki kahaaniyon ke aaranbhayita maane jaate hain. san‌ 1912 E. mein 'indu' mein unki pehli kahaani 'gram' prakaashit hui. praaya: tabhi se gatipoorvak aadhunik kahaaniyon ki rachana hindi me aarambh hui. prasaad ji ne kul 72 kahaaniyaaain likhi hain. unki adhiktar kahaaniyon mein bhaavana ki pradhaanata hai kintu unhonne yathaarth ki drushti se bhi kuchh shreshth kahaaniyaaain likhi hain. unki vaataavaranapradhaan kahaaniyaaain atyant safal hui hain. unhonne aitihaasik, praagaitihaasik evam pauraanik kathaanakon par maulik evam kalaatmak kahaaniyaaain likhi hain. bhaavana-pradhaan premakathaaeain, samasyaamoolak kahaaniyaaain likhi hain. bhaavana pradhaan premakathaaeain, samasyaamoolak kahaaniyaaain, rahasyavaadi, prateekaatmak aur aadarshonmukh yathaarthavaadi uttam kahaaniyaaain, bhi unhonne likhi hain. ye kahaaniyaaain bhaavanaaon ki mithaas tatha kavitv se poorn hain.

prasaad ji Bhaarat ke unnat ateet ka jeevit vaataavaran prastut karne mein siddhahast the. unki kitni hi kahaaniyaaain aisi hain jinmein aadi se ant tak bhaarateeya sanskruti evam aadarsho ki raksha ka safal prayaas kiya gaya hai. unki kuchh shreshth kahaaniyon ke naam hain : Akashdeep, gunda, puraskaar, saalavati, svarg ke khandahar mein aaaindhi, indrajaal, chhota jaadoogar, bisaati, madhuaa, viraamachihn, samudrasantaran; apni kahaaniyon mein jin amar charitron ki unhonne srushti ki hai, unamein se kuchh hain chanpa, madhulika, laila, iraavati, saalavati aur madhuaa ka sharaabi, gunda ka nanhakoosinh aur gheesoo jo apne amit prabhaav chhod jaate hain.

prasaad ne teen upanyaas likhe hain. 'kankaal', mein naagrik sabhyata ka antar yathaarth udghaatit kiya gaya hai. 'titli' mein graameen jeevan ke sudhaar ke sanket hain. pratham yathaarthavaadi unyaas hain ; doosare mein aadarshonmukh yathaarth hai. in upanyaason ke dvaara prasaad ji hindi mein yathaarthavaadi upanyaas lekhan ke kshetr me apni garima sthaapit karte hain. iraavati aitihaasik prushthabhoomi par likha gaya inka adhoora upanyaas hai jo romance ke kaaran aitihaasik romance ke upanyaason mein vishesh aadar ka paatr hai. inhonne apne upanyaason mein gram, nagar, prakruti aur jeevan ka maarmik chitran kiya hai jo bhaavukata aur kavitv se poorn hote hue bhi praudh logon ki shailpik jijnyaaasa ka samaadhaan karta hai.

naatak

prasaad ne aath aitihaasik, teen pauraanik aur do bhaavaatmak, kul 13 naatakon ki sarjana ki. 'kaamna' aur 'ek ghooaint' ko chhodkar ye naatak moolat: itihaas par aadhrut hain. inmein mahaabhaarat se lekar harsh ke samay tak ke itihaas se saamagri li gayi hai. ve hindi ke sarvashreshth naatakakaar hain. unke naatakon mein saanskrutik aur raashtreeya chetna itihaas ki bhitti par sansthit hai.

jayashankar prasaad ne apne daur ke paarasi rangamanch ki parampara ko asveekaarate hue Bhaarat ke gauravamaya ateet ke anmol charitron ko saamane laate hue avismaraneeya naatakon ki rachana ki. unke naatak skandagupt, chandragupt aadi mein svarnim ateet ko saamane rakhakar maanon ek soye hue desh ko jaagane ki prerana di ja rahi thi. unke naatakon mein deshaprem ka svar atyant darshaneeya hai aur in naatakon mein kai atyant sundar aur prasiddh geet milte hain. 'himaadri tung shrung se', 'Arun yeh madhumaya desh hamaara' jaise unke naatakon ke geet suprasiddh rahe hain.

inke naatakon par abhineya na hone ka aarop hai. aakshep lagta raha hai ki ve rangamanch ke hisaab se naheen likhe gaye hai jiska kaaran yeh bataaya jaata hai ki iname kaavyatatv ki pradhaanata, svagat kathanon ka vistaar, gaayan ka beech beech mein prayog tatha drushyon ka trutipoorn sanyojan hai. kintu unke anek naatak safalataapoorvak abhineet ho chuke hain. unke naatakon mein praacheen vastuvinyaas aur rasavaadi bhaarateeya parampara to hai hi, saath hi paarasi naatak companiyon, baingala tatha bhaarateinduyugeen naatakon eve sheksapiyr ki naatakeeya shilpavidhi ke yog se unhonne naveen maarg grahan kiya hai. unke naatakon ke aarambh aur ant mein unka apna maulik shilp hai jo atyant kalaatmak hai. unke naayak aur pratinaayak donon chaaritrik drushti ke gathan se apni visheshata se mandit hain. inki naayikaaeain bhi naareesulabh gunon se, prem, tyaag, utsarg, bhaavuk udaarata se poorn hain. unhonne apne naatakon mein jahaaain raaja, aachaarya, sainik, veer aur kootneetigya ka chitran kiya hai vaheen ojasvi, mahimaashaali striyon aur vilaasini, vaasanaamayi tatha ugr naayikaaon ka bhi chitran kiya hai. charitrachitran unke atyant safal hain. charitrachitran ki drushti se unhonne naatakon mein raajashri evam chaanakya ko amar kar diya hai. naatakon mein itihaas ke aadhaar par vartamaan samasyaaon ke samaadhaan ka maarg prastut karte hue ve milte hain. kintu gambhir chintan ke saath svachhand kaavyaatmak drushti unke samaadhaan ke mool mein hai. kathopakathan svaabhaavik hai kintu unki bhaasha sanskrutagarbhit hai. naatakon mein daarshanik ganbheetarata ka baahulya hai par vah gadyaatmak na hokar saras hai. unhonne kuchh naatakon mein svagat ka bhi prayog kiya hai kintu aise naatak keval chaar hain. bhaarateeya naatya parampara mein vishvaas karne ke kaaran unhonne naatyaroopak 'kaamna' ke roop mein prastut kiya. ye naatak prabhaav ki ekta laane mein poorn safal hain. apni kuchh trutiyon ke baavajood prasaad ji naatakakaar ke roop mein hindi me apratim hain.

nibandh

prasaad ne praarambh mein samay samay par 'indu' mein vividh vishyon par saamaanya nibandh likhe. baad mein unhonne shodhaparak aitihaasik nibandh, yatha: samraat chandragupt maurya, praacheen aaryavart aur usaka pratham samraat aadi: bhi likhe hain. ye unki saahityik maanyataaon ki vishleshanaatmak vaigyaanik bhoomika prastut karte hain. vichaaron ki gaharaai, bhaavon ki prabalata tatha chintan aur manan ki gambheerta ke ye jaajvalya pramaan hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain