jaunasaar baavar

jaunasaar baavar masoori ke 15 kilometer door chakaraata tahaseel mein deharaadoon jile ka ek gaaainv hai. yeh sthaan jaunasaari janajaati ka mool sthaan hai.

anukram

jaunasaar baavar kshetr

The Jaunsar Bawar region, is a tribal valley, spread over 1002 sq km and 400 villages,[1], between 77.45' and 78.7'20" East to 30.31' and 31.3'3" North[2]. It is defined in the east, by the river Yamuna and by river Tons in the west, the northern part comprises Uttarkashi district, and some parts of Himachal Pradesh, the Dehradun tehsil forms its southern peripery[2].

Modes of livelihood in this region are agriculture and animal husbandry, which in the upper region is mostly for self-sustenance, as merely 10 percent of cultivated area is irrigated. Milk, wool and meat are the animal product which are integral part of the local economy[3].

itihaas

In 1829, Jaunsar-Bawar was incorporated in Chakrata tehsil, prior to which it had been a part of Punjab state of Sirmur, till the British conquered it along with Dehradun after the 1814 war with the Gurkhas[4].

Before the establishment of British Indian Army cantonment in 1866, the entire was known as Jaunsar Bawar, and the name continued to be in popular use for the region, till early 20th century[5]. While western Hindi was popular in most of the neighbouting hill areass, 'Jaunsari' language, part of the Central Pahari languages was spoken by most of the people of the region[6].

bhoogol

Traditionally, Jaunsar Bawar region has been known as its rich reserves of forested areas, in the high hills region, with trees of Deodar, Pine, and spruce, made for it becoming a important destination for the timber even during the British period, when the logs were rolled down the slopes and floated on Yamuna river to Delhi[7].

sanskruti

The culture of the local Jaunsari tribe is distinct from other hill tribes in Garhwal, Kumaon and Himachal Pradesh[8], a fact demonstrated by the presence of polygamy and polyandry in the local traditions, with richer tribesmen practicing polygamy, while their poor counterparts, choose to share a wife (polyandry), though the husbands should be brothers[9], a fact which is often connected to, the five Pandava brothers in the Mahabharata, marrying Draupadi, from whom Jaunsaries trace their ethinic origin[10][3][11]. Though, anthropology studies in the 1990s revealed that these practises were fast phasing out, and is being replaced by monogamy[12][13]

An important aspect of their culture are festive sports and dances like the folk dance named 'Barada Nati' during all festive occasions[14], like 'Magh Mela' which is the most important festival of the Jaunsaries, it is marked by an animal sacrifice ritual, which celebrates the killing of 'Maroj', an ogre, which according to local legends, stalked the valleys for years[1].

During festivals, people wear the Thalka or Lohiya, which is a long coat. The dancers - both boys and girls - wear colorful traditional costumes[8].

chikitsa

The Jaunsari tribe of the region has been using over 100 plants for the treatment of various ailments, which have remained a subject for many Ethnobotanical and Ethnopharamcological studies[15][16].

baindhuaa majdoori

Traditionally, due to abject poverty, arising from infertile land and adverse climatic conditions in the region, bonded labour has been a fact of life, but the situation improved after the implementation of the 'Bonded Labour Abolition Act, 1976', when over 20,000 bonded labours were reported from the region, but practise never left the region, and in 2005, presence bonded labourers was reported again in the Jaunsar Bawar region[17], especially amongst poorest of the tribal communities, like Koltas, Das and Bajgi communities, who are entrapped in the bonded labour for generations, by their rich counterparts in the tribal belt[18], this is despite the fact that, due to not availability of local land records, the government had made a separate legislation for this area, 'The Jaunsar Bawar Zamindar Abolition of Land Reform Act 1956 (U.P. Act XI of 1956)', which came into effect in July 1961[19].

Places of Interest

A temple built in the Huna architectural style - at an altitude of 1,700 m - is one of the principal attractions of Jaunsar-Bawar. The village is endowed with natural beauty and here one can see the sprawling Doon Valley and the magnificent Garhwal Himalayas flanked by rivers Yamuna and Tons. The ideal time to visit this village is between May and June. The closest airport is Jolly Grant and the nearest railway station is at Dehradun.

One of the places to visit is the village called Lakhamandal, on the banks of river Yamuna[20] for its Himalayan view, and the 5th century Shiva temple, apart from natural caves that are said to have been used by the Pandavas.

Basic facilities exist for travellers. Warm clothes may be suggested for the winters and basic medication is recommended. Buses and taxis are available from Dehradun and Mussoorie.

In Media

Raaste Band Hain Sab, a film based on the work of Dr. Jayoti Gupta, Dept. of Sociology, Delhi University, on Jaunsar Bawar, and made by Manjira Dutta, won the National Film Award for Best Anthropological/Ethnographic Film in 1988[21].

Further reading

  • Himalayan Polyandry: Structure, Functioning and Culture Change. A Field-Study of Jaunsar-Bawar by D. N. Majumdar. New York, Asian Publishing House. 1962.[22]
  • The Abode of Mahashiva: Cults and Symbology in Jaunsar-Bawar in the Mid Himalayas by Madhu Jain. 1995, Indus Publishing Company, ISBN 81-7387-030-6[23].
  • Ritual complex and social structure in Jaunsar Bawar (Census of India, 1971, series 1, India), Office of the Registrar General, India 1974.

References

  1. a aa Maroj The Tribune, January 15, 2005.
  2. a aa sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; smta naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  3. a aa Jaunsaris
  4. Dehra Dun District The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 11, p. 213-214.
  5. Chakrata Tahsil & Town The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 10, p. 125.
  6. Agriculture The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 11, p. 215.
  7. Forests The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 24, p. 196.
  8. a aa Jaunsaries www.garhwalhimalayas.com.
  9. United Provinces The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909]], v. 24, p. 168.
  10. Anthropology Pahari Polyandry: A Comparison American Anthropologist by Gerald D. Berreman, 1962, Vol.64(1):60 –74., www.publicanthropology.org.
  11. Jaunsar Bawar People's Union for Civil Liberties, PUCL Bulletin, September 1982.
  12. Role of Culture in... ENVIS Bulletin vol 7 no. 1., G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Almora.
  13. Polyandry a Social System in India: Now State of Disappearance Madan Mohan.L, 12-11-2007.
  14. Barada Nati
  15. Ethno medicinal plants of Jaunsar-Bawar hills, Uttar Pradesh, India, by S.P. Jain, and H.S. Puri Journal of Ethno Pharmacology. Limerick : Elsevier Scientific Publishers. Nov 1984. v. 12 (2) p. 213-222. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services website.
  16. Ethnobotanical observation among Jaunsaris of Jaunsar-Bawar, Dehra Dun, TS Rana, B. Datt 1997, International Journal Pharmacology. 35. 371-374.
  17. Villages sold out to drudgery The Tribune, June 27, 2005.
  18. 6.4, Wrong classification Policies for Tribal Development, Prime Minister of India Official website.
  19. Implementation of Land Reforms Planning Commision of India, August, 1966, #14, pp 143.
  20. Lakhamandal temple Official website of Dehradun city.
  21. Department of Sociology, DElhi School of Economics Delhi University.
  22. Himalayan Polyandry From 1932 to 1960, Professor D. N. Majumdar, of Lucknow University worked extensively in this region, along with his student, studying the locla tribes.
  23. Cults and Symbology in Jaunsar-Bawar in the Mid Himalayas

baahari kadiyaaain