jarman bhaasha ka saahitya

jarman saahitya, sansaar ke praudhtam saahityon mein se ek hai. jarman saahitya saamaanyat: chhah-chhah sau varshon ke vyavadhaan (600, 1200, 1800 E.) mein vibhkt maana jaata hai. praacheen kaal mein maukhik evam likhit do dhaaraaeain theen. isaai mishnariyon ne jarmanon ko rune (Rune) varnamaala di. praarambh mein (900 E.) isaamaseeh par aadhaarit saahitya (anuvaad evam chanpoo) racha gaya.

praarambh mein veerakaavya (epik) milte hain. skaaps ka "daasahilde braandasldi", (pita putr ke beech maranaantak yuddhakatha) jarman bailed saahitya ki ullekhya kruti hai. old testaameint ke anek anuvaad hue.

jarman saahitya ke vibhinn kaal
Expressionismus (Literatur) Realismus (Literatur) Romantik Aufklärung (Literatur) Barock (Literatur) Spätmittelalter Hochmittelalter Literatur in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus Innere Emigration Naturalismus Junges Deutschland (Literatur) Junges Deutschland (Literatur) Empfindsamkeit Renaissance-Humanismus Renaissance Postmoderne Impressionismus (Literatur) Weimarer Klassik Literatur der Weimarer Republik Literatur der Weimarer Republik Heimatkunst Heimatkunst Vormärz Biedermeier Sturm und Drang Sturm und Drang DDR-Literatur Trümmerliteratur Symbolismus (Literatur) Neue Sachlichkeit (Literatur) Fin de siècle

anukram

darabaari veerakaavya

hindi ke tathaakathit "veeragaathaakaal" ki bhaaainti vaakyatu, ghumakkad, peshevar bhattabhadnton (gaayak) ki veer bailerde bani. yadyapi inse shilp, bhaasha evam naitik moolyon mein hraas hua tathaapi saath hi vishyavaividhya bhi hua. France evam islaam ke abhyudaya tatha prabhaav se anek "epik" bane. hohestaafen samraaton ke anek kaviyon mein se vulafraam ne "paarjeevaal" mahaan kaavyakruti rachi. ajnyaaatanaama chaaranakrut "nivelaingenaleed" vaise hi veeralokakaavya hai jaise hindi mein "aalha" hai.

pranayakaavya

veeron evam unki naayikaaon ke paarasparik pranaya aur yuddh vishyak vishisht saahityadhaara "minesaaaingar" ke pramukh kaviyon mein se vaalthar, faunader fogalavaaid ko sarvashreshth pranayageetakaar (jaise vidyaapati) kaha gaya hai.

avanati ka dviteeya daur (1220-1450 E.)

paravarti jarman saahitya adhikaanshat: pallavagraahi raha. isi kaal mein kavi banaane ke "school" khule, jinhein inheen kaviyon ke naam par unki pecheeli evam alankrut shaili ke kaaran "maaistesinger" kaha gaya. padya ka vikaas fraanseesi lekhakon ke prabhaav se hua. pandrahavi shataabdi se mudran ke kaaran gadya, kathaasaahitya bahut likha gaya. mahaan sudhaarak Martin loothar mahaan saahityakaar na tha kintu baaibil ke uske adbhut anuvaad ko tatkaaleen janta ne "raamacharitmaanas" ki tarah sveekara tatha paravarti lekhak isse prerit evam prabhaavit hue.

punarjaagaran : lootharakaal (17veen shati)

hans saks

renesaaain ke kaaran anek saahityik evam bhaashaavaijnyaaanik sansthaaeain janmeen, aalochanaasaahitya ka angreji, visheshat: sheksapiyr paddhativaale, rangamanch ke pravesh se (1620 E.) kaavya pradhaanat: dhaarmik evam rahasyavaadi raha. kaviyon mein opits, Simon daakh tatha paal fleming pramukh hain.

satrahaveen shataabdeen ke ant tak navasangeetasarjana hui. laaibanits jaise daarshanikon ke prabhaav se saahitya mein taarkikta evam buddhivaad aaya. greemelsahaausen ka yathaarthavaadi yuddhaupanyaas "sipleesisims" kruti hai. atishyokti evam vaichitryapradhaan naatak tatha vyangya saahitya ka bhi pranayan hua kintu vastut: dhaarmik sangharshon ke kaaran koi vishesh saahityik pragati na hui.

18veen shati

prasiddh naatakakaar gaadashed ke pratinidhitv mein yarvaadaavaadi evam buddhivaadi jarman saahitya praarambh hua. kaapastaaf ne unmaadak rasapravaahi kaavya likha. laising ke naatak (1779 E.), aalochna evam saundaryashaastr ke kshetr mein mahatvapoorn nirnaayak yogadaan kiya. iske aalochna ke ke maanadandon ev krutitv ne shataabdiyon tak jarman saahitya ko prabhaavit kiya hai.

aadhunik yug

fredarik shilr

18veen shataabdi ke teesare charan ke jarman saahitya ka yug praarambh hota hai. uparyukt buddhivaad ke viruddh "stoormaushtraanv" (toofaan aur aagrah) naamak tarkashoonya, bhaavuk, saahityik aandolan chal pada. iska prerak graantafeetahardar tha. navayuvak gete tatha shikhar prachaarak the. saamaajikta, raashtreeyata, ateendriya satta par vishvaas aur tarkashoonyabhaavukata iski visheshataaeain hain.

iske baad classic kaal (1786 E. se) ke dedeepyamaan nakshatr johaanavolageing gete ne vishvavikhyaat naatak "fast" likha. ismein gete ne "abhigyaan shaankutalam" ka prabhaav sveekaara hai. "vilhem meistar" prasiddh upanyaas hai. gete ke hi takkaravaale fredarik shilr (saahityakaar aur itihaasakaar) ne "rooso" se prabhaavit prasiddh naatak "di raaubar" (daakoo) likha. daarshanik can't usi samay hue. is kaal ka saahitya aadarshonmukhi, janapriya evam shaashvat moolyonvaala hai.

19veen shataabdi

romantic kaal

is shataabdi mein romantic evam yathaarthavaadi do paraspar virodhi chetanaaeain vikseen, parinaamat: klaasikl kaaleen aadarshon, maanyataaon ka virodh hua tatha oohaatmak, svapnil, aabhaasagarbhit vigat ateet athva sudoor bhavishya ka sukhad dhoomil vaataavaranapradhaan saahitya likha jaane laga. iska sootrapaat "aarthanaaum" (1798) patrika ke prakaashan se praarambh hota hai. ateendriya tatvon ki sveekruti, binbaatmak evam prateekaatmak (visheshat: pariyon ke kathaanakon dvaara), pranayageetaatmak roomaani saahitya ki pramukh visheshataaeain theen. got libfikhte, sheling, shlegal, bandhudvap aadi pramukh rumaani saahityakaar hain. haafamaan gaayak, geetkaar aur in sabse badhkar kathaakaar tha. uske paatr bheeshan tatha apaarthiv hote the. iska prabhaav paravarti jarman saahitya par bahut pada.

paravarti shataabdiyon tak prabhaavit karanevaali sarvaadhik upalabdhi sheksapiyr ke naatakon ka chhandaviheen kaavya mein anuvaad hai. Germany ke raajaneetik sangharshon (jena yuddh 1806 E. mukti yuddh 1813 E.) mein naipoliyn virodhi raashtrabhaavanaaparak saahitya racha gaya. naatakon mein deshaprem, balidaan evam prateekaatmakata hai.

ateetonmukhata ke parinaamasvaroop lokasaahitya ka sangrah praarambh hua, saath hi jarman kaanoon, paranparaaon bhaasha, saahitya evam sangeet ko naveen vaigyaanik sandarbhon mein dekha gaya. prasiddh bhaashaavaijnyaaanik "grim" ne bhaashaakosh likha. anya bhaashaavishleshak "baap" bhi usi samay hue. grim bandhuon ka kahaaneesangrah "kindar uaind house maarkheinv" (ghareloo kahaaniyaaain) sheegra hi jarman bachchon ka upaasya ban gaya.

maarksavaad ke aate-aate varsh-sangharsh-virodhi saahitya ka pranayatr praarambh hua. aise saahityakar (haainrukh highway, kaarl gutsako, haainrukh laaube, thyodor gunt aadi) "tarun-jarman" kahalaae. sarkaar ne inki krutiyaaain japt karke anek ko deshanikaala de diya. haaine antim romantik kavi tha kintu usamein thaileeshaahon ka khula vidroh milta hai. us samay aitihaasik evam samasyaapradhaan naatak bane. bhaav evam bhaasha donon hi drushtiyon se aanchalikta aane lagi. raajaneetik kavitaaon ke liye George harve, fardeeneinth fraaleegraath (vaaltahvit ka pehla anuvaadak) aadi prasiddh hain. feedrikh haivel ne du:khaant naatakon se videshiyon ko bhi prabhaavit kiya.

yathaarthavaadi upanyaasadhaara mein medhaavi Swiss lekhak graantafeed kailar hua. oto ludavig ka kathaasaahitya kalpanaapradhaan hai. saamaajik upanyaas vastut: isi kaal mein uchchata pa sake. thyodar storm ne manovaigyaanik kahaaniyaaain tatha prageet likhe. Swiss lirikkaaron mein mahaan "konaraad fardeeneind mayor" ne atyant lalit, bhaavapradhaan sugathit praanjal bhaasha mein prageet likhe. saahitya ki samast yathaarthavaadi vidhiyon ne videshi saahitya se preranaaeain grahan keen.

vaaganar aur neetase

in donon ke prabhaav se niraashaavaadi, pratikriyaapradhaan saahitya racha gaya. neetse ki "mahaamaanav" sambandhi maanyataaeain uske saahitya mein vyakt huin. isi se baad mein naaji dhaara prabhaavit hui.

"aarneehols" ke netrutv mein prakrutivaadi saahitya (yathaatathya praakrutik niroopan) ki bhi ek dhaara pai jaati hai.

beesaveen shataabdi

taamas maan

rasavaadi parampara

barlin ke prakrutivaadi saahitya ke samaanaantar viyna ki kalaatmak rasavaadita ki dhaara bhi I. ismein saundarya ke naveen aayaamon ki khoj hui. upanyaasajagat mein atyadhik upalabdhi hui. "taamas maan" jarman madhyavarg ka mahaan vyaakhyaata (upanyaasakaar evam gadya-mahaakaavya-praneta) tha. usane darajaubavarg (jaadoo ka pahaad 1924 E.) mein patanonmukh Europeeya samaaj ka chitran kiya. manovaigyaanik vishleshan, aitihaasik mith evam prateekaatmakata ke maadhyam se usane paravarti saahityikon ko bahut prabhaavit kiya. haraman gas ne vaiyaktik anubhootiyon ke sookshm vishleshan prastut kiye. is kaal ke sabhi saahityikon mein rahasyavaad aur prateekaatmakata hai tatha praakrutik saahitya ka virodh paaya jaata hai.

vartamaan yug

vartamaan yug ke sootr pehle se hi paae jaane lage the. "taamas maan" swayam vartamaan ka prerak tha. prabhaavavaadi dhaara (inpreshanist-lagbhag 1910 E.), jismein vartamaan ki dhvansaatmak aalochna ya aantarik anubhootiyon ki pratyaksh anubhooti pai jaati hai tatha jismein jaarjahim, henarish larsh aadi pramukh saahityik hain, vastut: aadhunik saahityak chetna ki ek manjil hai.

abhivyanjanaavaad

mahaasamar ke baad abhivyanjanaavaad ki dhaara vegavati hui. inki drushti antashchetana ke satyodghaatan mein hi hai. naatak ke kshetr mein nai takaneek, kathaavastu evam uddeshya ki naveenata ke kaaran rangamanch ki aavashyakta badhi. jaarjakainsar, arnast taalar ke naatak, vepeinl ke lirik prasiddh hain. vepeinl ke 1914 ke baad ke lirikon mein vyaapak vedaant - mrutyu, mokshajagat mein brahm satta ka astitv - milta hai. "vaaltar vaan molo" ne aitihaasik naatak likhe. arnest tatha thyodar ne mahaakaavya likhe. fraayad tatha aainsteen ke siddhaanton ka prabhaav is kaal ke saahitya mein pada tatha alochana ke nae maanadand aae. spleinjar aadikon ki maanavata ki naveen vyaakhya atyant prabhaavakaari hui.

1939 E. ke yuddh ke dauraan jarman saahitya mein bhi uthal-puthal machi tatha "Thomas maan" jaise lekhak deshanishkaasit kar diye gaye. naatseevaad (naaji) ke samarthak saahityakaaron mein paal arnast, haans grim, haramaan steh, vil vespar aadi pramukh the. yuddhotar saahitya mein bhi asthirta rahi, dhaarmik drushtikon se vartamaan samasyaaon ko dekha gaya. kaavya evam upanyaason mein yuddhavibheeshaka chitrit hui. "gardagesar" tatha henarich baal ne yuddhottar paristhitiyon ka lomaharshak chitran prastut kiya.

samagr roop mein ham paate hain ki jarman saahitya mein saarvabhaum drushtikon ka abhaav hai aur sambhavat: isi se yeh Europeeya saanskrutik dhaara se kinchit pruthak padta hai. sankeern aur ekaangi drushtikon ki prabalata, atyadhik taatvikta, baahar se adhik grahan karne ki paaramparik pravrutti aadi kaaranon se angreji, French jaise saahityon ki tulana mein jarman saahitya videshon mein apekshit prasiddhi na pa saka. fir bhi kaalpanikta, ateendriybodh, romance tatha lokataatvik bhoomika ke kaaran yeh itar saahityon se pruthak evam mahatvapoorn hai.

Nobel puraskaar vijeta

2009 tak 13 jarman saahityakaaron ko saahitya ka Nobel puraskaar diya ja chuka hai. sankhya ke anusaar angreji aur French ke baad yeh teesara sabse bada samooh hai.

haraman hes
  • 1902 thiodor maumasen (Theodor Mommsen)
  • 1908 Rudolf Christoph Eucken
  • 1910 Paul Heyse
  • 1912 Gerhart Hauptmann
  • 1919 Carl Spitteler
  • 1929 taamas maan (Thomas Mann)
  • 1946 haraman hes (Hermann Hesse)
  • 1966 Nelly Sachs
  • 1972 Heinrich Böall
  • 1981 Elias Canetti
  • 1999 Güanter Grass
  • 2004 Elfriede Jelinek
  • 2009 Herta Müaller

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

  • saar sansaar - hindi mein vishv-saahitya ki maasik patrika ; jarman saahitya par vishesh bal
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