jantar mantar (Jaipur)

जन्तर-मन्तर, जयपुर

Jaipur ka jantar mantar savaai jayasinh dvaara 1724 se 1734 ke beech nirmit ek khagoleeya vedhashaala hai. yeh yoonesko ke 'vishv dharohar soochi' mein sammilit hai. is vedhashaala mein 14 pramukh yantr hain jo samay maapane, grahan ki bhavishyavaani karne, kisi taare ki gati evam sthiti jaanane, saur mandal ke grahon ke dikpaat jaanane aadi mein sahaayak hain. in yantron ko dekhne se pata chalta hai ki Bhaarat ke logon ko ganit evam khagoliki ke jatil sankalpanaaon (kaunsepts) ka itna gahan gyaan tha ki ve in sankalpanaaon ko ek 'shaikshanik vedhashaala' ka roop de sake taaki koi bhi unhein jaan sake aur usaka aanand le sake.[1]

Jaipur mein puraane raajamahal 'chandramahal' se judi ek aashcharyajanak madhyakaaleen upalabdhi hai- jantar mantar! praacheen khagoleeya yantron aur jatil ganiteeya sanrachanaaon ke maadhyam se jyotisheeya aur khagoleeya ghatnaaon ka vishleshan aur sateek bhavishyavaani karne ke liye duniya bhar mein prasiddh is apratim vedhashaala ka nirmaan Jaipur nagar ke sansthaapak aamer ke raaja savaai jayasinh (dviteeya) ne 1728 mein apni niji dekharekh mein shuroo karavaaya tha, jo san 1734mein poora hua tha. savaai jayasinh ek khagol vaigyaanik bhi the, jinke yogadaan aur vyaktitv ki prashansa Jawahar laal Nehru ne apni prasiddh pustak 'diskavari of India' ('Bhaarat : ek khoj') mein sammaanapoorvak ki hai. savaai jayasinh ne is vedhashaala ke nirmaan se pehle vishv ke kai deshon mein apne saanskrutik doot bhej kar vahaan se khagol-vigyaan ke praacheen aur mahatvapoorn granthon ki paandulipiyaaain mangavaain theen aur unhein apne potheekhaane (pustakaalaya) mein sanrakshit kar apne adhyayan ke liye unka anuvaad bhi karavaaya tha. mahaaraaja savaai jaya Singh dviteeya ne hindu khagolashaastr mein aadhaar par desh bhar mein paanch vedhashaalaaon ka nirmaan karaaya tha. ye vedhashaalaaen Jaipur, Delhi, ujjain, banaaras aur Mathura mein banvaai gayi. in vedhashaalaaon ke nirmaan mein unhonne us samay ke prakhyaat khagoshaastriyon ki madad li thi. sabse pehle mahaaraja savaai jayasinh (dviteeya) ne ujjain mein samraat yantr ka nirmaan karavaaya, uske baad Delhi sthit vedhashaala (jantar-mantar) aur uske das varshon baad Jaipur mein jantar-mantar ka nirmaan karavaaya tha. desh ki sabhi paanch vedhashaalaaon mein Jaipur ki vedhashaala sabse badi hai. is vedhashaala ke nirmaan ke liye 1724 mein kaarya praarambh kiya gaya aur 1734 mein yeh nirmaan kaarya poora hua.[2] yeh baaki ke jantar mantron se aakaar mein to vishaal hai hi, shilp aur yantron ki drushti se bhi iska kai mukaabala naheen hai. savaai jayasinh nirmit paanch vedhashaalaaon mein aaj keval Delhi aur Jaipur ke jantar mantar hi shesh bache hain, baaki kaal ke gaal mein sama gaye hain.

anukram

vishv dharohar soochi mein shaamil

laghu samraat yantr

yoonesko ne 1 August 2010 ko jantar-mantar samet duniya bhar ke saat smaarakon ko " vishv dharohar soochi " mein shaamil karne ki jo ghoshana ki thi, unamein Jaipur ka jantar mantar bhi ek hai.[3] Brazil ki rajdhani braaseeliya mein world heritej committee ke 34 vein antarraashtreeya sammalen mein is vedhashaala ko vishv-viraasat smaarak shreni mein shaamil kiya ja chuka hai. is sammaan ki peechhe jo mukhya kaaran ginaae gaye the, unamein sabse bada kaaran yeh tha ki itne varsh gujar jaane ke baavajood is vedhashaala ke sabhi praacheen yantr aaj bhi theek avastha mein hain; jinke maadhyam se mausam, sthaaneeya samay, grah nakshatron aur grahan adi khagoleeya parightanaaon ki ekdam sateek ganana aaj bhi ki ja sakti hai. Jaipur sthit jantar-mantar ko san 2010 mein vishv viraasat ka darja praapt hua. vishv viraasat mein apna naam shaamil karaane wala jantar-mantar Rajasthan ka pehla aur Bhaarat ki 23veen saanskrutik dharohar hai. itihaas ki ek bemisaal dharohar ke nirmaan ka shreya mahaaraaja savaai jaya Singh dviteeya ko jaata hai.

282 saal pehle lakdi, choone, patthar aur dhaatu se nirmit yantron ke maadhyam se aakaasheeya ghatnaaon ke adhyayan ki bhaarateeya vidya ko 'adbhut' maanate hue is smaarak ko vishv dharohar soochi mein shaamil kiya gaya hai. inheen yantron ke ganana ke aadhaar par aaj bhi Jaipur ke sthaaneeya panchaang ka prakaashan hota hai aur har baras aashaadh poornima ko khagolashaastriyon dvaara 'pavan dhaarana' prakriya se aane waali varsha ki bhavishyavaani ki jaati hai.

yahaan ke yantron mein- 'samraat-yantr' (jo ek vishaal sooryaghadi hai), 'jayaprakaash-yantr' aur 'Ram-yantr' sarvaadhik prasiddh hain, jinmein se 'samraat-yantr' sarvaadhik ooncha (dharati se kareeb 90 foot) hai, jiske maadhyam se paryaapt shuddhata se samay bataaya ja sakta hai.

vishv dharohar soochi mein shaamil jantar-mantar Rajasthan pradesh ka pehla aur desh ka 28 vaan smaarak ho gaya hai. bharatapur ka ghana pakshi abhayaaranya yoonesko ki saanskrutik shreni ki vishv dharohar soochi mein pehle se shaamil hai. isse is naayab vedhashaala ko nai antarraashtreeya pehchaan milegi hi, smaarak ke rakharakhaav ke liye 40 hajaar dollar ka alag fund bhi milega.

pramukh yantr

Jaipur ke jantar mantar ke kuchh yantron ka vihangam drushya

Jaipur ke jantar mantar mein sthit pramukh yantr hain- bruhat samraat yantr, laghu samraat yantr, jayaprakaash yantr, raamayantr, dhruvayantr, dakshinaayantr, naadeevalayayantr, raashivlaya, dishaayantr, laghukraanti yantr, deerghakraanti yantr, raajayantr, un‍aanataansh yantr, aur digansh yantr. inke alaava yahaan mahatvapoorn jyotisheeya gananaaon aur khagoleeya ankan ke liye kraantivrut yantr, yantr raaj aadi yantron ka bhi prayog kiya jaata raha tha.

unnataansh yantr

jantar mantar ke pravesh dwaar ke theek baanye or ek golakaar chabootare ke dono or do stambhon ke beech latake dhaatu ke vishaal gole ko unnataansh yantr ke naam se jaana jaata hai. yeh yantr aakaash mein pind ke unnataansh aur koneeya oonchaai maapane ke kaam aata tha.

dakshinodak bhitti yantr

unnataansh yantr ke poorv mein uttar se dakshin dishaaon ke chhor par faili ek deevaaranuma imaarat dakshinodat bhittiyantr hai. saamane ke bhaag mein deevaar ke madhya se dono or seedhiyaan bani hain jo deevaar ke oopari bhaag tak jaati hain. jabki deevaar ka prushth bhaag sapaat hai. yeh yantr madhyaann samay mein soorya ke unnataansh aur un ke dvaara soorya kraanti va dinmaan aadi jaanane ke kaam aata tha.

disha yantr

yeh ek saral yantr hai. jantar mantar parisar mein beechon beech ek bade vargaakaar samatal dharaatal par laal patthar se vishaal vrut bana hai aur kendra se chaaron dishaaon mein ek samakon kraus bana hai. yeh disha yantr hai jisse saamaanya taur par dishaaon ka gyaan hota hai.

samraat yantr
samraat yantr

jantar mantar mein sabse vishaal yantr samraat yantr hai. apni bhavyata aur vishaalata ke kaaran hi ise samraat yantr kaha gaya. yantr ki bhavyata ka andaaja isi se ho jaata hai ki dharaatal se iske sheersh ki oonchaai 90 feet hai. samraat yantr mein sheersh par ek chhatari bhi bani hui hai. yeh yantr grah nakshatron ki kraanti, vishuvaansh aur samay gyaan ke liye sthaapit kiya gaya tha.

shashthaansh yantr

shashthaansh yantr, samraat yantr ka hi ek bhaag hai. yeh valayaakaar yantr samraat yantr ke aadhaar se poorv aur pashchim dishaaon mein chandrama ke aakaar mein sthit hai. yeh yantr bhi grahon-nakshatron ki sthiti aur ansh ka gyaan karne ke liye prayukt hota tha.

jayaprakaash yantr
jayaprakaash yantr 'k' aur jayaprakaash yantr 'kh'

jaya prakaash yantron ka aavishkaar swayam mahaaraaja jayasinh ne kiya. katore ke aakaar ke in yantron ki banaavat bejod hai. jantar mantar parisar mein ye yantr samraat yantr aur disha yantr ke beech sthit hain. inmein kinaare ko kshitij maankar aadhe khagol ka khagoleeya paridrshan aur pratyek padaarth ke gyaan ke liye kiya gaya tha. saath hi in yantron se soorya ki kisi raashi mein avasthiti ka pata bhi chalta hai. ye dono yantr paraspar poorak hain.

naadeevalaya yantr
naadeevalaya yantr

yeh yantr praveshadvaar ke daayein bhaag mein sthit hai. yeh do golaakaar falakon mein banta hua hai. inke kendra bindu se chaaron or darshaai vibhinn rekhaaon se soorya ki sthiti aur sthaaneeya samay ka sateek anumaan lagaaya ja sakta hai.

dhruvadarshak pattika

dhruvadarshak pattika dhruv taare ki sthiti aur disha gyaan karne ke liye prayukt hone wala saral yantr hai. uttar dakshin disha ki or deevaaranuma yeh pattika dakshin se uttar ki or kramash: uthi hui hai. iske dakshini sire par netr lagaakar dekhne par uttari sire par ghruv taare ki sthiti spasht hoti hai.

laghu samraat yantr

laghu samraat yantr ghruv darshak pattika ke pashchim mein sthit yantr hai. ise dhoop ghadi bhi kaha jaata hai. is yantr se sthaaneeya samay ki sateek ganana hoti hai. laal patthar se nirmit yeh yantr samraat yantr ka hi chhota roop hai iseeliye yeh laghusamraat yantr ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.

raashivlaya yantr
raashi valaya yantr

inki sankhya 12 hai jo 12 raashiyon ko ingit karte hain. pratyek raashi aur unamein grah-nakshatron ki avasthiti ko darshaate in baarah yantron ki khaas visheshata in sabki banaavat hai. dekhne mein ye sabhi yantr ek jaise hain lekin aakaash mein raashiyon ki sthiti ko ingit karte in yantron ki banaavat bhinn bhinn hai.

chakr yantr

lohe ke do vishaal chakron se bane in yantron se khagoleeya pindon ke dikpaat aur taatkaalik ke bhaugolik nirdeshakon ka maapan kiya jaata tha. yeh raashivlaya yantron ke uttar mein sthit hai.

raamayantr

Ram yantr mein stambhon ke vrutt ke beech kendra tak digriyon ke falak darshaae gaye hain. in falakon se bhi mahatvapoorn khagoleeya gananaaen ki jaati theen. raamayantr jantar mantar ki pashchimi deevaar ke paas sthit do yantr hain. in yantron ke do laghu roop bhi jantar mantar mein inheen yantron ke paas sthit hain.

digansh yantr

is yantr ke dvaara pindon ke digansh ka gyaan kiya jaata tha. digansh yantr nikaas dwaar ke paas sthit hai. yeh yantr vrutaakaar praacheer mein chhote vrutton ke roop mein nirmit hai.

raajayantr

aaj bhi milti hai sateek jaankaari

is vedhashaala mein khade kiye gaye yantro mein samraat, jayaprakaash aur Ram yantr bhi hain, jinmein se samraat yantr sabse bada hai jiska upayog vaayu parikshan ke liye kiya jaata hai. samraat yantr ki oonchaai 140 fit hai, jiske oopari sire par aakaasheeya dhruv ko ingit kiya gaya hai, saath hi is par samay bataane ke nishaan banaae gaye hain jo aaj bhi ghante, minute aur chauthaai minute tak ki sateek jaankaari dete hain.[4]

yantron ke aaj bhi sahi-salaamat hone ke kaaran mila vishv viraasat ka darja

jantar-mantra mein sthit yantr aaj bhi sahi salaamat avastha mein hai jinke dvaara har saal varsha ka poorvaabhaas tatha mausam sambandhi jaanakaariyaan ekatrit ki jaati hai. mukhya roop se yantron ke sahi salaamat hone ke kaaran hi yoonesko ne ise vishv viraasat ka darja diya.[5]

nirmaan ke pehle mangavaai thi videshi paandulipiyaan

mahaaraaja savaai jaya Singh dviteeya ne Jaipur ki vedhashaala ka nirmaan karavaane se pehle vibhinn deshon mein apne shaanti doot bheje aur vahaan se khagol shaastr par paandulipiyaan mangavaai, jinse unhonne khagol vigyaan ko samjha aur saath un paandulipiyon ka anuvaad bhi karavaaya.[6]

vedhashaala se ki gayi gananaaon ke baad taiyaar hota hai Jaipur ka kailendar

Jaipur ki vedhashaala mein upasthit yantron ke dvaara ki gayi gananaaon ke aadhaar par aaj bhi yahaan ka panchaang taiyaar kiya jaata hai.[7]

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain