janm

jeevon ke shareer bahut chhoti-chhoti kaashikaaon se bane hain. saralatam ek-koshikaai (unicellular) jeev ko lein. koshika ki raasaayanik sanrachana ham jaante hain. koshikaaऍn proteen (protein) se bani hain aur unke andar naabhik mein naabhikeeya aml (nuclear acid) hai. ye proteen keval 20 prakaar ke emino am‍aal (amino acids) ki shrrunkhala-kramabaddhata se bante hain aur is prakaar 20 emino aml se tarah-tarah ke proteen sanyojit hote hain. ameriki aur roosi vaijnyaaanikaan ne prayog se siddh kiya ki methane (methane), amoniya (ammonia) aur okseejan (oxygen) ko kaaainch ke khokhale lattoo ke andar band kar vidyut chingaari dvaara emino aml ka nirmaan kiya ja sakta hai. unhonne kehna praarambh kiya ki atyant praacheen kaal mein jeevaviheen pruthvi par methane, amoniya tatha okseejan se bhare vaataavaran mein baadalon ke beech bijli ki gadgadaahat se emino aml bane, jinse proteen yojit hue.

apne praacheen granthon mein soorya ko jeevan ka daata kaha gaya hai. iseese prerit hokar Bhaarat mein (jo jeevotpatti ke shodhakaarya mein sabse aage tha) prayog hue ki jab paani par soorya ka prakaash fauramaildihaaid (formaldehyde) ki upasthiti mein padta hai to emino aml bante hain. ismein fauramaildihaaid utprerak (catalyst) ka kaarya karti hai. iske liye kisi vishesh prakaar ke vaayumandal mein vidyuteeya prakshepan ki aavashyakta naheen.

ab koshika ka naabhikeeya aml ? imali ke beej se imali ka hi ped utpann hoga, pashu ka bachcha vaisa hi pashu banega, yeh naabhikeeya aml ki maaya hai. yahi naabhikeeya aml jeen (gene) ke naabhik ko banaata hai, jisse shareer evam mastishk ki rachana tatha vanshaanukram mein praapt honevaale guna—aasabhi puraani peedhi se nai peedhi ko praapt hote hain. jab prajanan ke kram mein ek koshika do koshika mein vibhkt hoti hai to dono koshikaayein janak koshika ki bhaaainti hongi, yeh naabhikeeya aml ke kaaran hai. paaainch prakaar ke naabhikeeya aml ko lekar seedhi ki tarah anu sanrachana se jitne prakaar ke naabhikeeya aml chaahein, bana sakte hain. naabhikeeya aml mein antarnihit gun hai ki vah uchit paristhiti mein apne ko vibhkt kar do samaan gunadharmi svatantr astitv dhaarana karta hai. doosare yeh ki kis prakaar ka proteen bane, yeh bhi naabhikeeya aml nirdhaarit karta hai. ek se usi prakaar ke anek jeev banane ke jaadoo ka rahasya isi mein hai.

kya kisi doorasth grah ke devataaon ne, prabuddh jeevo ne ye paaainch naabhikeeya aml ke mool yaugik (compound) is pruthvi par bo diye the?

ek koshika mein lagbhag nau arab (9x10^9) parmaanu (atom) hote hain. kaise sambhav hua ki itne paramaanuon ne ek saath aakar ek jeevit koshika ka nirmaan kiya. vibhinn avasthaaon mein bhinn-bhinn prakaar ke proteen ya naabhikeeya aml banane ke pashchaat bhi yeh prashn shesh rahata hai ki inhonne kis paristhiti mein sanyukt hokar jeevan sambhav kiya.

Bhaarat mein dau॰ Krishna bahaadur ne prakaash-raasaayanik prakriya (photo-chemical process) dvaara jeevaanu banaae. fauramaildihaaid ki utprerak upasthiti mein soorya ki kirnon se proteen tatha naabhikeeya aml ek koshikeeya jeevaanu me sanyojit hue. ye jeevaanu apne liye poshak aahaar andar lekar, use pachaakar aur koshika ka bhaag banaakar badhte hain. jeev vigyaan (biology) mein is prakaar svavardhan ki kriya ko ham upaapachaya (metabolism) kehte hain. ye jeevaanu andar se badhte hain, rasaayanashaala mein ghol ke andar tainge hue sundar kaantimya rava (crystal) ki bhaaainti baahar se naheen. jeevaanu badhkar ek se do bhi ho jaate hain, arthaat prajanan (reproduction) bhi hota hai. aur aise jeevaanu keval kaarban ke hi naheen, taaainba, silikn (silicon) aadi se bhi nirmit kiye, jinmein jeevan ke uparyukt gun the.

kehte hain ki jeev ke andar ek chetna hoti hai. vah chaitanya kya hai? yadi aainguli mein sui chubhi to aainguli turant peechhe khinchati hai, baahya uddeepan ke samaksh jhukati hai. maan lo ki ek santulit tantr hai. usamein ek baahari baadha I to ek ichha, ek chaah utpann hui ki baadha door ho. niraakaran karne ke liye kisi seema tak us santulit tantr mein parivartan (badal) bhi hota hai. yadi yahi chaitanya hai to yeh manushya evam jantuon mein hai hi. kuchh kaheinge, vanaspatiyon, ped-paudhon mein bhi hai. par ek parmaanu ki sochein—ausamein hain naabhik ke chaaron or ghoomate vidyut kan. paas ke kisi shakti-kshetr (fore-field) ki chhaaya ke roop mein koi baahya baadha aane par yeh anu apne andar kuchh parivartan laata hai aur aanshik roop mein hi kyon na ho, kabhi-kabhi use niraakrut kar leta hai. baahari dabaav ko kisi seema tak nishprabh karne ki ichha evam kshamataa—aaaakhir yahi to chaitanya hai. yeh chaitanya sarvavyaapi hai. maharshi Arvind ke shabdon mein, 'charaachar ke jeev (vanaspati aur jantu) aur jad, sabhi mein nihit yahi sarvavyaapi chaitanya (cosmic consciousness) hai.'

par jeevan jadta se bhinn hai, aaj yeh antar spasht dikhta hai. sabhi jeev upaapachaya dvaara arthaat baahar se yogya aahaar lekar pachaate hue shareer ka bhaag banaakar, svavardhan karte tatha oorja praapt karte hain. jad vastuon mein is prakaar andar se badhne ki prakriya naheen dikhti. fir mote taur par sabhi jeev apni tarah ke anya jeev paida karte hain. nira ek- koshik sookshmadarsheeya jeev bhi; jaise ameeba (amoeba) badhne ke baad do ya anek apne hi tarah ke ek-koshik jeevon mein baint jaata hai. kabhi-kabhi anek avasthaaon se gujarakar jeev praudhta ko praapt hote hain aur tabhi prajanan se pun: kram chalta hai. kisi-na-kisi roop mein prajanan jeevan ki vrutti hai, maano jeev-srushti isi ke liye ho. par ye donon guna‍ jeevaanu mein bhi hain. yadi yahi vruttimoolak paribhaasha (functional definition) jeevan ki lein to jeevaanu usaki praathamik kadi hai.

koshika mein ye vruttiyaaain kyon utpann hui ? iska uttar darshan, bhautiki tatha rasaayan ke us sandhi-sthal par hai jahaan jeev vigyaan praarambh hota hai. yahaan sabhi vigyaan dhuaindhale hokar ek-doosare mein milte hain, maanon sab ekaakaar hon. iske liye do buniyaadi bhaarateeya abhidhaaranaaeain hain—(1) yeh padaarth (matter) maatr ka gun hai ki usaki tikaaoo ikaai mein apni punaraavrutti karaneki pravrutti hai. puroosh sookt ne punaraavrutti ko srushti ka niyam kaha hai. (2) har jeevit tantr mein ek anukoolanasheelata hai; jo baadhaaऍn aati hain unka aanshik roop mein niraakaran, apne ko paristhiti ke anukool banaakar, vah kar sakta hai. in gunon ka ek dooragaami parinaam jeev ki vikaas-yaatra hai. chaitanya sarvavyaapi hai aur jeev tatha jad sabamein vidyamaan hai, yeh vishuddh bhaarateeya darshan saamyavaadiyon ko akharata tha. uparyukt donon bhaarataya abhidhaaranaaon ne, jo jeevaanu ka vyavahaar evam jeev ki vikaas-yaatra ka kaaran bataati hain, unhein jhakajhor daala.

yeh vishvaas anek sabhyataaon mein raha hai ki ishvar ne srushti ki rachana ki. bhaarateeya darshan mein ishvar ki anek kalpanaaऍn hain. aisa samajhna ki ve saari kalpanaaऍn srushtikrta ishvar ki hain, theek na hoga. ishvar ke vishvaas ke saath jise aneeshvaravaadi darshan kah sakte hain, yahaaain panapata raha. kanaad rishi ne kaha ki yeh saari srushti parmaanu se bani hai.

saankhya darshan ko bhi ek drushti se aneeshvaravaadi darshan kah sakte hain. saankhya ki maanyata hai ki puroosh evam prakruti do alag tatv hain aur donon ke sanyog se srushti utpann hui. puroosh nishkriya hai aur prakruti chanchal; vah maaya hai aur haav-bhaav badalti rahati hai. par bina puroosh ke yeh sansaar, yeh charaachar srushti naheen ho sakti. upama di gayi ki puroosh soorya hai to prakruti chandrama, arthaat usi ke tej se prakaashavaan. mere ek mitr is antar ko bataane ke liye ek roopak sunaate the. unhonne kaha ki unke bachapan mein bijli na thi aur gas lainp, jiske prakaash mein sabha ho sake, anivaarya tha. par gas lainp nishkriya tha. na vah taali bajaata tha, na vaah-vaah karta tha, na kaaryavaahi mein bhaag leta tha, na prerana de sakta tha aur na paraamarsh. par yadi sabha mein maar-peet bhi karni ho to gas lainp ki aavashyakta thi, kaheen apne samarthak hi aaindhere mein na pit jaaऍn. yeh gas lainp ya prakaash saankhya darshan ka 'puroosh' hai. vah nishkriya hai, kuchh karta naheen. par uske bina sabha bhi to naheen ho sakti thi.

isi prakaar prasiddh nau upanishdon mein paaainch upanishdon ko, jis arth mein baaibil ne srushtikrta ishvar ki mahima kahi, us arth mein aneeshvaravaadi kah sakte hain. jo granth ishvar ko srushtikrta ke roop mein maanate hain unamein ek prasiddh vaakya aata hai, 'ekoahan bahusyaami'. ishvar ke man mein ichha utpann hui ki main ek hooain, anek banooain aur isliye apni hi anek anukrutiyaaain banaai—aaaisa arth usamein lagaate hain. par ek se anek banane ka to jeev ka gun hai. yahi naheen, yeh to padaarth maatr ki bhi svaabhaavik pravrutti hai.

bhaarateeya darshan ke anusaar yeh srushti kisi ki rachana naheen hai, jaisa ki isaai ya musalim vishvaas hai. yadi ishvar ne yeh bramhaand racha to ishvar tha hi, arthaat kuchh srushti thi. isliye ishvar swayam hi bhautik tatv athva padaarth tha, aisa kehna padega. (use kisne banaaya?) isi se kaha ki yeh akhil bramhaand keval usaki abhivyakti athva prakateekaran (manifestation) hai, rachana athva nirmit (creation) naheen. usi prakaar jaise aabhooshan svarn ka aakaar vishesh mein prakateekaran maatr hai. isi roop mein bhaarateeya darshan ne srushti ko dekha.

dhaarmik pravrutti ke logon ko yeh vichaar ki jeevan is pruthvi par svaabhaavik aur anivaarya raasaayanik- bhautik prakriya dvaara bina kisi chamatkaari shakti ke utpann hua, isliye pratikool padta hai ki ve jeev ka sambandh aatma se jodte hain. unka vishvaas hai ki bina aatma ke jeevan sambhav naheen aur isliye koi paramaatma hai jismein antatogatva sab aatmaaऍn vileen ho jaati hain. par jad prakruti ka svaabhaavik saundarya, vah sfatik (crystal), vah himaalaya ki barfaani chotiyon par svarn-kireet rakhata soorya, vah ush:kaal ki laalima ya kanyaakumaari ka teen mahaasaagaron ke sandhi-sthal ka sooryaast, athva jheel ke tarangit jal par khelati prakaash-rashmiyaaain- ye sab keede-makodon se ya Cancer ki fafooaind se ya amarabel ya kisi kshudr jaanavar se nimn star ki hain kya? ped-paudhe aur unamein uge kukuramutte mein aatma hai kya ? ek baat jo musalmaan ya isaai naheen maanate. srushti mein is prakaar ke jeevit tatha jad vastuon mein bhedabhaav bhala kyon ?

shaayad ham sochein, sabhi jeevadhaariyon ka ant hota hai. 'kehi jag kaal na khaaya.' vanaspati aur jantu sabhi mrutyu ko praapt hote hain aur unka shareer nasht ho jaata hai. parantu yadi ek-koshik jeev bada hokar apne hi prakaar ke do ya adhik jeevon mein baint jaata hai to is ghatna ko pehle jeev ki mrutyu kaheinge kya ? vaise to santati bhi maata-pita ke jeevan ka vistaar hi hai, unka jeevanaansh ek nae shareer mein pravesh karta hai.

jeev ki utpatti (janm)