janasankhya

1994 mein vishv ki janasankhya ka vitran.
vishv ki kul janasainkhya mein ek arab logon ke judne mein lagne wala samay. (jismein bhavishya ki ganana bhi shaamil hai) vaikalpik chart bhi dekhein.

jeev vigyaan mein, vishesh prajaati ke ant: jeev prajanan ke sangrah ko janasankhya kehte hain; samaajashaastr mein ise manushyon ka sangrah kehte hain. janasainkhya ke andar aane wala pratyek vyakti kuchh pahaloo ek dusare se baantate hain jo ki saankhyikeeya roop se alag ho sakta hai, lekin agar aamtaur par dekhein to ye antar itne aspasht hote hain ki inke aadhaar par koi nirdhaaran naheen kiya ja sakta.

janasaankhyiki ka prayog vipnan mein vyaapak roop se hota hai, ye aarthik ikaaiyon, jaise ki khudara vyaapaariyon, sambhaavit graahakon se sambandhit hain. udaaharan ke liye, ek kaufi ki dukaan hai jo ki yuvaaon ko apna graahak banaana chaahata hai, aisa karne ke liye vo kshetron ki janasaankhyiki ko dekhta hai taaki vo yuva darshakon ko aakarshit karne mein saksham ho paae.

anukram

vishv janasankhya

14 June 2016sanyukt raajya America ki janaganana bureau dvaara vishv ki janasankhya anumaanit taur par 7.304arabon mein hai.[1]

sanyukt raajya America ki janaganana bureau dvaara prakaashit patron ke anusaar, vishv ki janasankhya 24 fravari 2006 ko 6.5 arab (6,50,00,00,000) ke aankade tak pahuainch gayi thi. sanyukt raashtra janasankhya kosh ne October 12, 1999 ko sabse kreebi din ke taur par naamit kiya hai jis din vishv ki janasainkhya 6 arab tak pahuainch gayi thi. yeh 1987 mein vishv janasankhya ke 5 arab tak pahuainchane ke lagbhag 12 saal baad aur 1993 mein vishv janasankhya ke 5.5 arab tak pahuainne ke 6 saal baad hua. haalaaainki, Nigeria aur cheen jaise kuchh deshon ki janasankhya lagbhag lakh[2] ke paas bhi gyaat naheen hai, isliye is prakaar ke anumaanon mein bahut zyaada trutiyon ke hone ki gunjaaish hai.[3]

1700 veen shataabdi ke baad jaise jaise audyogik kraanti tej gati se badhti gayi vaise vaise janasankhya vruddhi mein bhi kaafi badhat dekhne ko mili[4]. pichhle 50 varshon mein janasankhya vruddhi ki dar aur bhi zyaada tej huyi hai[4] aur iski mukhya vajah hai chikitsa jagat mein huyi tarakki aur krushi utpaadakata mein hone waali mahatvapoorn badhat, khaas taur se varsh 1960 se 1995[5] ke beech harit kraanti ke kaaran hui pragati.[6] san 2007 mein sanyukt raashtra janasankhya prabhaag ne anumaan lagaaya ki varsh 2055 mein duniya ki aabaadi 10 arab ke aaainkade ko paar kar jaaegi.[7] bhavishya mein, ummeed hai ki duniya ki aabaadi mein vruddhi shikhar tak pahunchegi aur uske baad aarthik kaaranon, svaasthya chintaaon, bhoomi ke andhaadhundh prayog aur usaki kami aur paryaavaraneeya sankaton ke kaaran aabaadi kam hone lagegi. is baat ki bhi 85% sambhaavana hai ki is sadi ke ant se pehle duniya ki aabaadi badhni band ho jaayegi. 60% sambhaavana hai ki duniya ki janasankhya varsh 2100 se pehle 10 arab logon se adhik naheen hogi aur kareeb 15% sambhaavana hai ki sadi ke ant mein vishv ki janasankhya aaj ki tithi mein vishv ki kul janasankhya se kam ho jaaegi. vibhinn kshetron ke liye, sarvaadhik janasankhya ke taareekh aur aakaar mein kaafi bhinnata hogi.[8]

janasankhya niyantran

janm dar ko kam karke janasankhya vruddhi mein katauti karne ko hi aam taur par janasainkhya niyantran maana jaata hai| praacheen grees dastaavejon mein mile uttarajeevita ke record janasainkhya niyantran ke abhyaas evam prayog ke sabse pehle udaaharan hain| ismein shaamil hai upaniveshan aandolan, jisme bhoomadhya aur kaala saagar ke ird-gird yoonaani chaukiyon ka nirmaan kiya gaya taaki alag- alag raajyon ki adhik janasainkhya ko basane ke liye paryaapt jagah muhaiya karaai ja sake| kuchh yoonaani nagar raajyon mein janasainkhya kam karne ke liye shishu hatya aur garbhapaat ko protsaahan diya gaya|[9]

anivaarya janasankhya niyantran ka ek mahatvapoorn udaaharan hai peepals ripblik of China ki ek hi bachche ki neeti jismein ek se jyaada bachche hona bahut bura maana jaata hai| is neeti ke parinaam svarup jabaran garbhapaat, jabaran nasabandi aur jabaran shishu hatya jaise aaropon ko badhaava mila| desh ke ling anupaat mein 114 ladkon ki tulana mein sirf 100 ladkiyon ka janm ye pradarshit karta hai ki shishu hatya praay: ling ke chunaav ke anusaar ki jaati hai|

yeh baat upayogi hogi agar prajanan niyantran karne ko vyakti ke vyaktigat nirnaya ke roop mein aur janasankhya niyantran ko sarkaari ya raajya star ki janasankhya vruddhi ki viniyman neeti ke roop mein dekha jaae| prajanan niyantran ki sambhaavana tab ho sakti hai jab koi vyakti ya dampati ya parivaar apne bachche paida karne ke samay ko ghataane ya use niyantrit karne ke liye koi kadam uthaaye| ansale kole dvaara diye gaye sanroopan mein, prajanan mein lagaataar kami karne ke liye teen poorvapratibandh diye gaye hain: (1) prajanan ke maanya tatv ke roop mein pariklit chunaav ko sveekruti (bhaagya ya avsar ya daiveeya ichha ki tulana mein), (2) kam kiye gaye prajanan se gyaat laabh aur (3) niyantran ke prabhaavi tareekon ka gyaan aur unka prayog karne ka kushal abhyaas.[10] praakrutik prajanan par vishvaas karne vaale samaaj ke vipreet vo samaaj jo ki prajanan ko seemit karne ki ichha rakhate hain aur aisa karne ke liye unke paas sansaadhan bhi upalabdh hain| vo in sansaadhanon ka prayog bachchon ke janm mein vilamb, bachchon ke janm ke beech antar rakhane, ya unke janm ko rokane ke liye kar sakte hain| sanbhog (ya shaadi) mein deri, ya garbhanirodh karne ke praakrutik ya krutrim tareeke ko apanaana jyaada maamalon mein vyaktigat ya paarivaarik nirnaya hota hai, iska raajya neeti ya saamaajik taur par hone vaale anumodanon se koi sarokaar naheen hota hai| doosari or, vo vyakti, jo prajanan ke maamale mein khud par niyantran rakh sakte hain, aise log bachche paida karne ki prakriya ko jyaada yojanaabaddh banaane ya use safal banaane ki prakriya ko aur tej kar sakte hain|

saamaajik star par, prajanan mein giraavat hona mahilaaon ki badhati hui dharmanirpeksh shiksha ka ek anivaarya parinaam hai| haalaaainki, yeh zaroori naheen hai ki madhyam se uchch star tak ke prajanan niyantran mein prajanan dar ko kam karna shaamil ho| yahaan tak ki jab aise alag alag samaaj ki tulana ho jo prajanan niyantran ko achhi khaasi tarah apna chuke hai, to baraabar prajanan niyantran yogyata rakhane vaale samaaj bhi kaafi alag alag prajanan star (janm lene vaale bachchon ki sankhya ke sandarbh mein) de sakte hain, jo ki is baat se juda hota hai ki chhote ya bade parivaar ke liye ya bachchon ki sankhya ke liye vyaktigat aur saanskrutik pasand kya hai|[11]

prajanan kshamata par niyantran ke vipreet, jo mukhya roop se ek vyaktigat star ka nirnaya hai, sarkaar janasainkhya niyantran karne ke kai prayaas kar sakti hai jaise garbhanirodhak saadhanon tak logon ki pahuainch badhaakar ya anya janasankhya neetiyon aur kaaryakramon ke dvaara.[12] jaisa ki oopar paribhaashit hai, sarkaar ya saamaajik star par 'janasankhya niyantran' ko laagoo karne mein "prajanan niyantran" shaamil naheen hai, kyonki ek raajya samaaj ki janasankhya ko tab bhi niyantrit kar sakta hai jabki samaaj mein prajanan niyantran ka prayog bahut kam kiya jaata ho| janasankhya niyantran ke ek pahaloo ke roop mein aabaadi badhaane waali neetiyon ko angeekrut karna bhi zaroori hai aur zaroori hai ki ye samjha jaae ki sarkaar janasainkhya niyantran ke roop mein sirf janasakhya vruddhi ko rokana naheen chaahati| janasankhya vruddhi ko protsaahit karne ke liye sarkaar na keval apravaas ka samarthan kar sakti hai balki janm samarthak neetiyon jaise ki kar laabh, vitteeya puraskaar, chhuttiyon ke dauraan vetan dena jaari rakhane aur bachchon ki dekh rekh mein madad karne dvaara bhi logon ko atirikt bachche paida karne ke liye protsaahit kar sakti hai|[13] udaaharan ke liye haal ke saalon mein is tarah ki neetiyon France aur sveedan mein apnaai gayeen| janasankhya vruddhi badhne ke isi lakshya ke saath, kai baar sarkaar ne garbhapaat aur janm niyantran ke aadhunik saadhanon ke prayog ko bhi niyantrit karne ki koshish ki hai| iska ek udaaharan hai maang kiye jaane par garbhanirodhak saadhanon aur garbhapaat ke liye varsh 1966 mein romaaniyaamein laga pratibndh|

paaristhitiki mein, kai baar janasankhya niyantran poori tarah sirf parabhakshan, beemaari, parajeevi aur paryaavaran sambandhi kaarakon dvaara kiya jaata hai| ek nirantar vaataavaran mein, janasankhya niyantran bhojan, paani aur suraksha ki upalabdhata dvaara hi niyantrit hota hai| ek nishchit kshetr adhiktam kul kitni prajaatiyon ya kul kitne jeevit sadasyon ko sahaara de sakta hai use us jagah ki dhaaran kshamata kehte hain| kai baar ismein paudhon aur pashuon par maanav prabhaav bhi ismein shaamil hota hai|[14] kisi vishesh ritoo mein bhojan aur aashray ki jyaada upalabdhata vaale kshetr ki or pashuon ka palaayan janasankhya niyantran ke ek praakrutik tareeke ke roop mein dekha ja sakta hai| jis kshetr se palaayan hota hai vo agali baar ke liye pashuon ke bade samooh hetu bhojan aapoorti jutaane ya paida karne ke liye chhod diya jaata hai| aapravaasabhi dekhein

Bhaarat ek aur aisa udaaharan hai jahaaain sarkaar ne desh ki aabaadi kam karne ke liye kai upaaya kiye hain| teji se badhati janasainkhya aarthik vruddhi aur jeevan star par dushprabhaav daalegi, is baat ki chinta ke chalte 1950 ke dashak ke aakhir aur 1960 ke dashak ke shuroo mein Bhaarat ne ek aadhikaarik parivaar niyojan kaaryakram laagoo kiya; vishv mein aisa karne vaale ye pehla desh tha|

inhein bhi dekhein

  • shoonya janasankhya vruddhi
  • vishv janasankhya
  • 1907 ki janasankhya
  • jaivik prasaar
  • jaivik ghaateeya vruddhi
  • apakv janm dar
  • apakv mrutyu dar
  • janasaankhyikeeya arthashaastr
  • janasaankhyiki
  • nirbharata anupaat
  • jeevan pratyaasha
  • prajanan dar par aadhaarit deshon ki soochi
  • janasankhya par aadhaarit deshon ki soochi
  • janasankhya ghanatv par aadhaarit deshon ki soochi
  • dhaarmik aabaadi ki soochi
  • maadhya kaal
  • shuddh pravaasan dar
  • 5 varsh se kam umr mein hui mrutyu
  • shuddh pravaasan
  • shuddh prajanan dar
  • naragaaleev ke siddhaant
  • atyaadhik janasankhya
  • janasankhya parivartan
  • janasankhya ghanatv
  • janasankhya paaristhitiki
  • janasankhya vruddhi dar
  • praakrutik vruddhi ki dar
  • ling anupaat
  • graameen kshetr
  • prajanan dar
  • shahari janasankhya
  • duniya ke sabse bade shahar

nots

  1. ameriki janaganana bureau - vishv Pope klok projekshan
  2. "Cities in Nigeria: 2005 Population Estimates — MongaBay.com". http://www.mongabay.com/igapo/2005_world_city_populations/Nigeria.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-07-01.
  3. "Country Profile: Nigeria". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1064557.stm. abhigman tithi: 2008-07-01.
  4. a aa 10,000 E.poo. ke baad ki aabaadi aur 1000 E.p. ke baad ki aabaadi ko rekhaankan ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya hai
  5. BBC news | Bhaarat ki harit kraanti ka ant?
  6. pehle khaadya / khaadya aur vikaas neeti sansthaan
  7. United Nations Population Division (March 13, 2007). World population will increase by 2.5 billion by 2050; people over 60 to increase by more than 1 billion. press release. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2007/pop952.doc.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-14. "The world population continues its path towards population ageing and is on track to surpass 9 billion persons by 2050."
  8. "The End of World Population Growth". http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v412/n6846/full/412543a0.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-04.
  9. Wikisource-logo.svg "Theories of Population". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  10. ansle J kaal, "janasaankhyikeeya sankraman," antarraashtreeya janasankhya sammelan ki kaaryavaahi, league, 1973, khand 1, peepi. 53-72.
  11. prajanan niyantran aur prajanan kshamata ke star ke beech antar ke udahaaran ke liye, baarabara A Anderson aur Brian di silver dekhein, "prajanan kshamata par niyantran ka ek saral upaaya," janasaankhyiki 29, number 3 (1992): 343-356 aur bi.A. Anderson aur bi.di. silver, "janm ke samay gair prajanan kshamata aur ling anupaat mein antar: jhinjiyaang se saakshya, "janasankhya adhyayan 49 (1995): 211-226| prajanan par niyantran ke model par kol aur unke sahayogiyon dvaara kiya gaya maulik kaarya| udahaaran ke liye dekhein, ansle J kaal aur James ti traasal, "model urvaraapan anusoochiya: maanav janasankhya mein prasav ki aayu ke dhaanche mein badlaav|" janasankhya soochakaank 40 (1974): 185-258.
  12. "janasankhya neeti" par ek charcha ke liye sarkaaron ke upalabdh vikalp paul demeni dekhein, "janasankhya neeti: ek sankshipt saaraansh, 'janasankhya parishad, neeti anusandhaan prabhaag, kaarya pepar number 173 (2003) [1].
  13. chaaralot hon, "aadhunik samaaj mein janasankhya neetiya: pronaataalist aur palaayan ki rananeetiya," Europeeya janasankhya ke journal / review yuropeene de demograafi 3, number 3-4 (July, 1988): 459-481.
  14. http://en.wikipedia.org/viki/hanting#vaaildalaaifa_mainejameint dekhein|

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