janajaati

janajaati (tribe) vah saamaajik samudaaya hai jo raajya ke vikaas ke poorv astitv mein tha ya jo ab bhi raajya ke baahar hain. janajaati vaas‍aatav mein Bhaarat ke aadivaasiyon ke liye is‍aatemaal hone wala ek vaidhaanik pad hai. Bhaarat ke samvidhaan mein anusoochit janajaati pad ka prayog hua hai aur inke liye vishesh praavadhaan laagoo kiye gaye hain.

anukram

parichay

Bhaarat mein kabeeli janasankhya ke vishay mein spasht aur sulajhe vichaaron ka abhaav raha hai. 'kabeela' shabd ki paribhaasha ke vishay mein bhi vidvaanon mein mataikya naheen hai. falasvaroop janaganana riporton mein bhi jahaaain kuchh kabeelon ko jatiyon ki soochi mein rakha gaya hai, bahut si neechi jaatiyon ko bhi kabeelon mein sammilit kar liya gaya hai. is sambandh mein ek janaganana se doosari janaganana mein bhi vishmata pai jaati hai. ek janaganana ke anusaar samast bhaarateeya kabeelon ka dharm 'aatmaavaad' ki shreni mein aata hai kintu usaki agali janaganana mein hi kabeeli dharm ki sarvatha pruthak shreni bana di gayi hai. vaastav mein mool prashn yeh hai ki 'kabeela' kehte kise hain? is shabd ki ab tak di gayi paribhaashaon se adhik nyaayasangat sambhavat: nootan kintu gunaatmak paribhaasha hai. is naveen paribhaasha ke anusaar kabeela nishchit bhaugolik seema ke bheetar vaas karanevaala aisa antarvivaahi saamaajik samooh hai jismein kaaryon ka vishishteekaran naheen paaya jaata. samaan bhaasha ya boli dvaara sangathit aur kabeel adhikaariyon dvaara prashaasit yeh samooh anya kabeelon aur jaatiyon se saamaajik doori maanata hai kintu jaativyavastha ki bhaaainti saamaajik dvesh jaisi bhaavana se achhoota hai. kabeele ko apni paranparaaeain, vishvaas evam reetiyaaain hoti hain aur prajaateeya tatha bhaagaulik sangrathan se udbhoot sajaateeyata ki bhaavana kabeele ke sadasyon mein baahya prabhaavon se pratirksha ko janm deti hai. kabeela anusoochit ho sakta hai aur naheen bhi. kabeele mein par-sanskruti-dhaaran ki prakriya ya to poornaroopen sampann ho chuki hoti hai ya aanshik roop mein hi.

bhaarateeya janajaatiyaaain

Bhaarat ki kul janaganana me aadivaasi 8.61% hai, [1]. prajaateeya aadhaar par bhaarateeya kabeelon ko teen shreniyon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai. pratham shreni mein mangoleeya mool ke naaga, kooki, gaaro tatha asami kabeele ya almoda jile ke bhotiya aadi kabeele aate hain. doosari shreni ke antargat munda, santhaal, korava aadi pura-ostreleeya kabeele aur teesari shreni mein vishuddh aarya mool ke nichle himaalayavaasi khas kabeele ya hind-aarya-rakt ki pradhaanata liye kintu mishrit prakaar ke bheel aadi kabeele rakhe ja sakte hain. bhaashaashaastreeya drushti se bhaarateeya kabeelon ka vargeekaran teen pruthak bhaashaaparivaar ke samoohon mein kiya ja sakta hai. ye samooh kramash: munda, tibbati-barmi aur Dravid bhaashaaparivaaron ke hain. kuchh kabeele apni mool boli tyaagakar hindi bolne lage hain. kuchh munda kabeele is shreni mein aate hain. mool roop se munda bhaashaaparivaar ki boli bolanevaale Gujarat ke bheelon ne bhi apne adhivaasaanusaar gujaraati ya maraathi apna li hai. nishchit bhaugolik seemaaon mein base in kabeelon ke atirikt nat, bhaaaintoo, saaainsi, karavaal aur kanjar aadi aise khaanaabadosh kabeele hain jo haal tak aparaadhopajeevi the kintu jinhein kathor niyantran aur kathin niyamon se mukt kar diya gaya hai. sabhi shreniyon ke in kabeelon ki kul janasankhya lagbhag teen karod hai kintu anek kabeelon ke jaatinaam aur jaatigt vyavasaaya apna liye hain. iseeliye haal ki janaganana ne inki sankhya lagbhag do karod thaharaai hai. punarvaas ki samasya ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue saanskrutik padaanusaar kabeelon ko teen shreniyon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai :

(1) saanskrutik drushti se graamya va nagarasamoohon se door kabeele, arthaat‌ ve jo praaya: sanparkaviheen hain,

(2) nagarasanskruti se prabhaavit ve kabeele jinmein sanparkon ke falasvaroop samasyaaon ka beejaaropan hua hai aur

(3) graamya tatha nagarasamoohon ke sampark mein aae ve kabeele jinmein aisi samasyaaeain ya to uthi hi naheen, athva safal par-sanskruti-dharan (akalchareshan) ke kaaran ab naheen raheen.

saanskrutik sanparkon ke prasang mein bhaarateeya kabeelon ko anukoolak (adaiptiv) aur saatmeekaarak (aiseemileted), in do shreniyon mein baaainta ja sakta hai. anukoolak kabeele teen prakaar ke ho sakte hain-sahabhoji, samajeevi aur par-sanskruti-dhaarak. sahabhojita ka arth padosi samoohon ke saath samaan aarthik kaaryon mein bhaag lena hai. samajeevita shabd ka prayog kabeelon ki aarthik aur saanskrutik aatmanirbharata ke arth mein kiya gaya hai. par-sanskruti'dharan ka taatparya saanskrutik lakshanon ki ektarfa sveekruti se hai, arthaat‌ par-sanskruti-dhaarak kabeele ve hain jo apne sabhya padosi samoohon ke reeti rivaaj grahan karte hain. is vargeekaran mein un kabeelon ki ganana naheen hui jo baahya sanskrutiyon ke sampark se achhoote chhoot gaye hain. kintu vaastavikta yeh hai ki Bhaarat mein saanskrutik sanparkon ka 'shoonya bindu' (zero point) hai hi naheen. doosare shabdon mein, sabhi kabeele apne se adhik unnat sanskrutiyon ke sampark mein aae hain aur parinaamasvaroop ya to samasyaagrasit hain athva sampark sthiti se samaayojan sthaapit kar apekshaakrut santoshaprad jeevan vyateet kar rahe hain.

adhikaansh bhaarateeya kabeelon ka nivaas vanon mein hai aur ve vanya praakrutik saadhanon par hi nirbhar karte hain. kocheen ke kadaar, traavanakor ke malaayaantaram‌, Madras ke paliyaan aur vaayanaad ke paniyn aise hi kabeele hain. kuchh kabeelon ki arthavyavastha khaadya padaarthon ki sanchayan aur pichhdi krushi ke beech ki hai. in kabeelon mein pramukh madhya pradesh ke kamaar aur isi raajya mein maaaindala kshetr ke vaiga tatha dakshin mein bisn pahaadiyon ke Reddy hain. uparyukt donon shreniyon ke kabeelon par shaasan ki van sambandhi neetiyon ka gahra prabhaav padta hai. bhaarateeya kabeelon ki teesari aarthik shreni mein desh ki adhikaansh kabeeli janasankhya ko rakha ja sakta hai. yeh shreni un kabeeliyon ki hai jinke jeevakopaarjan ka mukhya saadhan krushi hai kintu jinhonne vanon ki niktata ke kaaran sanchayan vyavasaaya ko doosare mukhya dhandhon ke roop mein apna liya hai. uttar-poorvi evam madhya Bhaarat ke praaya: sabhi kabeele is shreni mein aate hain.

kamaar dampatti khet se lautate hue

british shaasan mein janajaati-vyavastha

british sarkaar ne kabeeli janasankhya ke prati nirhastakshep ki neeti apnaakar use apne bhaagya par chhod diya tha. iske vipreet vartamaan shaasan ki neeti sakriya hastakshep ki hai. Bhaarat sarkaar kabeelon ke prati upaadeya aur gatimaan neeti apnaane ke liye vachanabaddh hai. kintu yeh samajh lena aavashyak hai ki kabeelon ka star ek kshetr se doosare kshetr mein bhinn ho jaata hai aur kushal neetinirdhaaran ke poorv sthaaneeya dashaaon ka poorn gyaan apekshit hai. vigat bhoolein bhavishya ki pathapradarshak hoti hain. ab tak shaasan ki or se kabeeli punarvaas jaise vishaal kaarya ke daarshanik aadhaar ka spasht vivechan prastut naheen kiya gaya hai aur yeh tab tak sambhav naheen jab tak bhaarateeya kabeelon ke vishay mein samuchit jaankaari praapt naheen ho jaati. kabeeli kaaryakramon ke paramparaagat sanskrut ke sanrakshan aur suchaaru evam sangathit roop se parivrtanon ke beejaaropan par samaan roop se bal diya ja rahata hai. kabeeli janta mein navodit saamaajik saamaajik chetna aur sarkaari prayatnon dvaara laabhaanvit hone ki aakaanksha bhaarateeya kabeeli samasyaaon ke prasang mein do nae dishaasanket hain. kabeelon ko unki vartamaan pichhdi dasha se ubaarakar unhein graamya sanskrutiyon ke anuroop banaane ka kaarya atyant satarkataapoorvak sampann kiya jaana chaahiye. yadi pragati ki yojana is prakaar ki gayi to bhaavi bhaarateeya sanskruti mein jeevanayaapan ke keval do praaroop honge-graamya aur naagrik, evam samaaj vaigyaaniko ka daayitv hoga ki ve in do praaroopon ke beech ki khaai ko drudh pulon dvaara paatane ka prayatn karein.

british shaasan ne bhi samay-samay par aadivaasi janasankhya ki or dhyaan diya tha. kabhi-kabhi sarkaar ke paas hinsaatmak vidrohi ki ki soochana pahuainchati thi. aise adhikaansh vidrohon ka mool praaya: teen kaaranon mein hota tha :

(1) kabeeli bhoomi se kabeeliyon ka nishkaasan,
(2) kabeeli praakrutik saadhanon ka baahari logon dvaara upayog aur
(3) saahookaaron aur videshi khilaunon aur aabhooshanon ke vikretaaon dvaara shoshan. shaasan ki or se in kathinaaiyon ko door karne ki samuchit vyavastha naheen thi aur yadi kabhi kabeeliyon ke kasht ki sunavaai hoti bhi thi to vah kinheen udaar aur sahaanubhootipoorn shaasakon ki vyaktigat ruchi ke falasvaroop.

isaai mishnariyon ko apne kaaryakalaapon mein shaasan ka poorn sahayog praapt hota tha aur shaasan ki or se unhein anek adhikaar bhi mile hue the. is prakaar kabeeli samasya se sarkaar chintaamukt thi aur mishnari manamaane hastakshep ki neeti ka anusaran kar rahe the. kintu jab pahaadiya logon ne hindu jameendaaron ke viruddh vidroh ka naara lagaaya to british sarkaar ne shaantisthaapana ke liye apni sena bheji. vidrohi netaaon ko sanadein dekar pratihinsa ki jvaala shaant ki gayi. shaantisthaapana ke hit mein pahaadiya kshetr ke chaaron or avakaashapraapt aur saamarthyaheen sainikon ko basane ke liye protsaahit kiya gaya. kaalaantar se vyavahaar aur dandavidhiyaaain bhi kabeeli netaaon ke adhikaar kshetr mein aa gain. nyaaya aur anushaasan mein sudhaar hua aur shaasan ne kabeele ko vishesh vyavahaar ke yogya samjha. falasvaroop san‌ 1782 mein raajamahal pahaadiyaaain saadhaaran nyaayaalayon ke kshetraadhikaar se nikaal li gain. san‌ 1796 mein pahaadiyaaain kshetr ka naya naamakaran 'damaani-ko' hua aur iske prashaasan ke liye nai nyaayavidhi sveekrut hui. yeh sampoorn kshetr ek samaharta ke prashaasanaadhikaar mein aa jiske shaasan mein Bhaarat ke anya bhaagon mein prachalit vidhi se koi sambandh naheen tha. isi samay chhota Nagpur aur santhaal paragana mein bhi asantosh ki aag sulag rahi thi. jameendaaron ne kai baar shaasan se sashastr hastakshep ki maaaing ki thi. san‌ 1886 mein vikhyaat santhaal vidroh bhadak utha. santhaal paragana ko ek pruthak jila bana diya aur san‌ 1855 ke 38vein vinimay ke anusaar viniym ke anusaar yeh 'aviniymit' kshetr ghoshit kar diya gaya. fort William, fort seint George aur Mumbai ki prabandhakaarini parishdon ke tatvaadhaan mein anek nae adhiniyam paarit hue. san‌ 1861 ke India kaaunsil aikt ke anusaar sthaaneeya praadhikaaron dvaara banaae gaye 'aviniymit' sambandhi niyamon ko maanyata de di gayi. san‌ 1870 ke Bhaarat sarkaar adhiniyam dvaara saparishd mahaashaasak ko aise kshetron ke liye niyam banaane ka adhikaar praapt hua jahaaain british Bhaarat ke anya bhaagon mein prachalit vyavahaar tatha dand prakriya seemit roop mein laagoo hoti thi. san‌ 1874 mein bhaarateeya vidhaan mandal mein sveekrut 14vein jila anusoochit adhiniyam dvaara sthaaneeya shaasan ko adhiniyam mein nirdisht kshetron mein vidhi laagoo karne ke nae adhikaar praapt hue. sthaaneeya shaasan ko adhikaar mila ki vah un kaanoonon ka spashteekaran kare jo british Bhaarat ke anya bhaagon ki bhaaainti in kshetron mein laagoo naheen hote the. yadi aavashyakta padne par sanshodhit athva seemit roop mein british Bhaarat ke anya bhaagon mein prachalit koi kaanoon in kshetron mein laagoo kiya to usaki adhisoochana kendra ko dena anivaarya tha. kintu is vishisht shaasanavyavastha ne bhi kabeeli kathinaaiyon ko hal naheen kiya. pahaadi kabeelon mein bhoo-svaamitv-haran rokane ke nimitt Madras sarkaar ne san‌ 1917 mein ek kaanoon banaakar kabeeliyon ko upalabdh udhaar par byaaj ki dar nishchit karne ka prayatn kiya. san‌ 1876 mein hi santhaal paragana mein vyaktigat roop se athva adaalaton ke aadesh dvaara bhoomi ka vikraya aur hastaantaran avaidh ghoshit kar diya gaya tha. montaford samiti ne 1919 ke adhiniyam ki 52veen dhaara mein kabeelon ke prati shaasan ki sthiti ko sveekaar kar liya. is dhaara ke anusaar pichhde kshetron ka do bhaagon mein vibhaajan kiya gaya-

  • (1) poornat: apavartij kshetr aur
  • (2) anshat: apavirjat kshetr.

san‌ 1935 ke rakshaatmak upaayon dvaara kabeeli janasankhya mein sudhaar ki cheshta ki gayi. naveen bhaarateeya samvidhaan mein kabeelon ke pati shaasan ke rakshanaatmak uttaradaayitv par aur adhik jor diya gaya hai. unki sthiti mein sudhaar ke liye nae upaaya dhooaindhe gaye hain aur unke utthaan ki disha mein shaasan abhootapoorv roop se kriyaasheel hai. in kshetron mein shiksha, saamudaayik vikaas, saamaajik kalyaan tatha paarivaarik svachhata aadi ke liye samuchit prabandh ho rahe hain. kabeelon ke prati vishesh vyavahaar ki neeti ke atirikt shaasan ne raajakeeya sevaaon mein bhi kabeeliyon ke liye kuchh sthaan surakshit kar diye hain. is kaarya ke liye anusoochit kabeelon evam jaatiyon ka vibhaag banaaya gaya hai jiski adhyakshata ek aayukt karta hai. yeh vibhaag un samasyaaon se joojh raha hai jo kabeeliyon ko trust kiye hue hain. kabeeli punarvaas ke in prayatnon ki asafalata ke vishay mein itna sheegra kuchh bhi kehna sambhav naheen. kintu ismein sandeh naheen ki yeh prayatn kabeelon ki vartamaan dasha mein sudhaar aur unhein samajhne ki ichha se prerit hue hain.

samvaidhaanik sthiti

Bhaarat mein anusoochit janajaatiyon se sambandhit kai praavadhaan hain. mukh‍aayat: in‍aahein do bhaagon mein baanta ja sakta hai- suraksha tatha vikaas. anusoochit janajaatiyon ki suraksha sambandhi praavadhaan samvidhaan ke anuch‍aachhed 15(4), 16(4), 19(5), 23, 29, 46, 164, 330, 332, 334, 335 va 338, 339(1), 371(k) (kh) va (g), paanchavi soochi va chhathi soochi mein nihit hain. anusoochit janajaatiyon ke vikaas se sambandhit praavadhaan mukh‍aaya roop se anuch‍aachhed 275(1) pratham upabandh tatha 339 (2) mein nihit hain.

is samay Bhaarat mein anusoochit janajaatiyon ki sankh‍aaya 700 se oopar hai. kisi bhi samudaaya ko anusoochit janajaati ki shreni mein shaamil karne ke aadhaar hain-

  • aadim lakshan
  • vishish‍aat sans‍aakruti
  • bhaugolik pruthak‍aakaran
  • samaaj ke ek bade bhaag se sampark mein sankoch
  • pichhdaapan.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

aadivaasi patra-patrikaaen