jaliyaaainvaala baag hatyaakaand

jaaliyaaainvaala baag smaarak

jaaliyaaainvaala baag hatyaakaand Bhaarat ke Punjab praant ke amrutasar mein svarn mandir ke nikat jaliyaaainvaala baag mein 13 April 1919 (baisaakhi ke din) hua tha. raulet act ka virodh karne ke liye ek sabha ho rahi thi jismein general daayar naamak ek aaingrej officer ne akaaran us sabha mein upasthit bheed par goliyaaain chalava Dean jismein 1000 se adhik vyakti mare aur 2000 se adhik ghaayal hue.[1]

amrutasar ke deputy commissioner kaaryaalaya mein 484 shaheedon ki soochi hai, jabki jaliyaanvaala baag mein kul 388 shaheedon ki soochi hai. british raaj ke abhilekh is ghatna mein 200 logon ke ghaayal hone aur 379 logon ke shaheed hone ki baat sveekaar karte hai jinmein se 337 purush, 41 naabaalig ladke aur ek 6-saptaah ka bachcha tha. anaadhikaarik aaainkadon ke anusaar 1000 se adhik log maare gaye aur 2000 se adhik ghaayal hue.

yadi kisi ek ghatna ne bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam par sabse adhik prabhaav daala tha to vah ghatna yeh jaghanya hatyaakaand hi tha. maana jaata hai ki yeh ghatna hi Bhaarat mein british shaasan ke ant ki shuruaat bani.

1997 mein mahaaraani elijaabeth ne is smaarak par mrutakon ko shraddhaanjali di thi. 2013 mein british pradhaanamantri David kaimaraun bhi is smaarak par aae the. vijitrs book mein unhonnein likha ki "british itihaas ki yeh ek sharmanaak ghatna thi."[2]

anukram

ghatnaakram

aitihaasik diwas

13 April 1919 ko baisaakhi ka din tha. baisaakhi vaise to poore Bhaarat ka ek pramukh tyohaar hai parantu visheshakar Punjab aur Haryana ke kisaan sardiyon ki rabi ki fasal kaat lene ke baad nae saal ki khushiyaaain manaate hain. isi din, 13 April 1699 ko dasvein aur antim guru govind Singh ne khaalasa panth ki sthaapana ki thi. iseeliye baisaakhi Punjab aur aas-paas ke pradeshon ka sabse bada tyohaar hai aur sikh ise saamoohik janmadivs ke roop mein manaate hain. amrutasar mein us din ek mela saikadon saal se lagta chala aa raha tha jismein us din bhi hajaaron log door-door se aae the.

angrejon ki mansha

pratham vishv yuddh (1914-1918) mein bhaarateeya netaaon aur janta ne khul kar britishon ka saath diya tha. 13 lakh bhaarateeya sainik aur sevak Europe, afreeka aur midl East mein britishon ki taraf se tainaat kiye gaye the jinmein se 43,000 bhaarateeya sainik yuddh mein shaheed hue the. yuddh samaapt hone par bhaarateeya neta aur janta british sarkaar se sahayog aur narami ke ravaiye ki aasha kar rahe the parantu british sarkaar ne mauntegoo-chemsaford sudhaar laagoo kar diye jo is bhaavana ke vipreet the.

lekin pratham vishv yuddh ke dauraan Punjab ke kshetr mein britishon ka virodh kuchh adhik badh gaya tha jise Bhaarat pratirksha vidhaan (1915) laagoo kar ke kuchal diya gaya tha. uske baad 1918 mein ek british judge Sydney raulet ki adhyakshata mein ek sedeeshan samiti niyukt ki gayi thi jiski jimmedaari ye adhyayan karna tha ki Bhaarat mein, visheshakar Punjab aur Bengal mein britishon ka virodh kin videshi shaktiyon ki sahaayata se ho raha tha. is samiti ke sujhaavon ke anusaar Bhaarat pratirksha vidhaan (1915) ka vistaar kar ke Bhaarat mein raulat act laagoo kiya gaya tha, jo aajaadi ke liye chal rahe aandolan par rok lagaane ke liye tha, jiske antargat british sarkaar ko aur adhik adhikaar diye gaye the jisse vah press par censorship laga sakti thi, netaaon ko bina mukadamein ke jail mein rakh sakti thi, logon ko bina vaurant ke girftaar kar sakti thi, un par vishesh tribyoonalon aur band kamron mein bina javaabadehi diye hue mukadama chala sakti thi, aadi. iske virodh mein poora Bhaarat uth khada hua aur desh bhar mein log girftaariyaan de rahe the.

gaaaindhi ji

Gandhi tab tak dakshin afreeka se Bhaarat aa chuke the aur dheere-dheere unki lokapriyta badh rahi thi. unhonne rolet act ka virodh karne ka aahvaan kiya jise kuchalane ke liye british sarkaar ne aur adhik netaaon aur janta ko rolet act ke antargat girftaar kar liya aur kadi sajaaeain Dean. isse janta ka aakrosh badha aur logon ne rel aur daak-taar-sanchaar sevaaon ko baadhit kiya. aandolan April ke pehle saptaah mein apne charam par pahuainch raha tha. Lahore aur amrutasar ki sadkein logon se bhari rahati theen. kareeb 5,000 log jaliyaanvaala baag mein ikatthe the. british sarkaar ke kai adhikaariyon ko yeh 1857 ke gadar ki punaraavrutti jaisi paristhiti lag rahi thi jise na hone dene ke liye aur kuchalane ke liye vo kuchh bhi karne ke liye taiyaar the.

angrejon ke atyaachaar

aandolan ke do netaaon satyapaal aur saifuddeen kichloo ko giraftaar kar kaalaapaani ki saja de di gayi. 10 April 1919 ko amrutasar ke up commissioner ke ghar par in donon netaaon ko riha karne ki maaaing pesh ki gayi. parantu britishon ne shaantipriya aur sabhya tareeke se virodh prakat kar rahi janta par goliyaaain chalava Dean jisse tanaav bahut badh gaya aur us din kai bankon, sarkaari bhavanon, taaun hall, railway station mein aagajni ki gayi. is prakaar hui hinsa mein 5 Europeeya naagrikon ki hatya hui. iske virodh mein british sipaahi bhaarateeya janta par jahaaain-tahaaain goliyaaain chalaate rahe jismein 8 se 20 bhaarateeyon ki mrutyu hui. agale do dinon mein amrutasar to shaaaint raha par hinsa Punjab ke kai kshetron mein fail gayi aur 3 anya Europeeya naagrikon ki hatya hui. ise kuchalane ke liye britishon ne Punjab ke adhiktar bhaag par maarshal law laagoo kar diya.

kaand ka vivran

kaand ke maheenon baad 1919 mein baag ka drushya

baisaakhi ke din 13 April 1919 ko amrutasar ke jaliyaanvaala baag mein ek sabha rakhi gayi, jismein kuchh neta bhaashan dene vaale the. shahar mein curfew laga hua tha, fir bhi ismein sainkadon log aise bhi the, jo baisaakhi ke mauke par parivaar ke saath mela dekhne aur shahar ghoomane aae the aur sabha ki khabar sun kar vahaan ja pahunche the. jab neta baag mein padi rodiyon ke dher par khade ho kar bhaashan de rahe the, tabhi Brigadier general rejeenauld daayar 90 british sainikon ko lekar vahaan pahuainch gaya. un sab ke haathon mein bhari hui raaifalein theen. netaaon ne sainikon ko dekha, to unhonne vahaan maujood logon se shaant baithe rahane ke liye kaha.

goleebaari

sainikon ne baag ko gher kar bina koi chetaavani diye nihatthe logon par goliyaaain chalaani shuru kar Dean. 10 minute mein kul 1650 round goliyaan chalaai gain. jaliyaanvaala baag us samay makaanon ke peechhe pada ek khaali maidaan tha. vahaaain tak jaane ya baahar nikalne ke liye keval ek sankara raasta tha aur chaaron or makaan the. bhaagane ka koi raasta naheen tha. kuchh log jaan bachaane ke liye maidaan mein maujood ekamaatr kuen mein kood gaye, par dekhte hi dekhte vah kuaan bhi laashon se pat gaya. jaliyaanvaala baag kabhi jalali naamak aadmi ki samapatati thi.

hataahat

shaheedi kuaan

baag mein lagi pattika par likha hai ki 120 shav to sirf kue se hi mile. shahar mein ka‌aarfyoo laga tha jisse ghaayalon ko ilaaj ke liye bhi kaheen le jaaya naheen ja saka. logon ne tadp-tadp kar vaheen dam tod diya. amrutasar ke deputy commissioner kaaryaalaya mein 484 shaheedon ki soochi hai, jabki jaliyaanvaala baag mein kul 388 shaheedon ki soochi hai. british raaj ke abhilekh is ghatna mein 200 logon ke ghaayal hone aur 379 logon ke shaheed hone ki baat sveekaar karte hai jinmein se 337 purush, 41 naabaalig ladke aur ek 6-saptaah ka bachcha tha. anaadhikaarik aaainkadon ke anusaar 1000 se adhik log maare gaye aur 2000 se adhik ghaayal hue. aadhikaarik roop se marne vaalon ki sankhya 379 bataai gayi jabki pandit madan mohan maalaveeya ke anusaar kam se kam 1300 log maare gaye. svaami shraddhaanand ke anusaar marne vaalon ki sankhya 1500 se adhik thi jabki amrutasar ke tatkaaleen civil surgeon Doctor smith ke anusaar marne vaalon ki sankhya 1800 se adhik thi.

kartoot bayaani

mukhyaalaya vaapas pahuainch kar Brigadier general rejeenauld daayar ne apne varishth adhikaariyon ko teleegraam kiya ki us par bhaarateeyon ki ek fauj ne hamla kiya tha jisse bachane ke liye usako goliyaaain chalaani padi. british leftinent Governor maayakal O daayar ne iske uttar mein Brigadier general rejeenauld daayar ko teleegraam kiya ki tumane sahi kadam uthaaya. main tumhaare nirnaya ko anumodit karta hooain. fir british leftinent Governor maayakal O daayar ne amrutasar aur anya kshetron mein maarshal law lagaane ki maaaing ki jise vaayasarauya Lord chemsaford nein sveekrut kar diya.

jaaainch

is hatyaakaand ki vishvavyaapi ninda hui jiske dabaav mein Bhaarat ke liye sekretari of state edavin mauntegoo ne 1919 ke ant mein iski jaaainch ke liye hantar commission niyukt kiya. commission ke saamane Brigadier general rejeenauld daayar ne sveekaar kiya ki vah goli chala kar logon ko maar dene ka nirnaya pehle se hi le kar vahaaain gaya tha aur vah un logon par chalaane ke liye do topein bhi le gaya tha jo ki us sankare raaste se naheen ja pai theen. hantar commission ki report aane par 1920 mein Brigadier general rejeenauld daayar ko padaavanat kar ke Colonel bana diya gaya aur akriya soochi mein rakh diya gaya. use Bhaarat mein post na dene ka nirnaya liya gaya aur use svaasthya kaaranon se Britain vaapas bhej diya gaya. house of kaumans ne usaka ninda prastaav paarit kiya parantu house of Lord ne is hatyaakaand ki prashansa karte huye usaka prashasti prastaav paarit kiya. vishvavyaapi ninda ke dabaav mein baad ko british sarkaar ne usaka ninda prastaav paarit kiya aur 1920 mein Brigadier general rejeenauld daayar ko isteefa dena pada. 1927 mein praakrutik kaaranon se usaki mrutyu hui.

virodh

smaarak
chitr:Jallianwala Bagh Entrance.JPG
vartamaan praveshadvaar
chitr:Jallianwala Bagh Bullet Marks.JPG
sanrakshit deevaar par goliyon ke nishaan

gurudev raveendr naath Tagore ne is hatyaakaand ke virodh-svaroop apni naaitahud ko vaapas kar diya. aajaadi ke liye logon ka hausala aisi bhayaavah ghatna ke baad bhi past naheen hua. balki sach to yeh hai ki is ghatna ke baad aajaadi haasil karne ki chaahat logon mein aur jor se ufaan maarane lagi. haalaanki un dinon sanchaar aur aapasi samvaad ke vartamaan saadhanon ki kalpana bhi naheen ki ja sakti thi, fir bhi yeh khabar poore desh mein aag ki tarah fail gayi. aajaadi ki chaah na keval Punjab, balki poore desh ke bachche-bachche ke sir chadh kar bolne lagi. us daur ke hajaaron bhaarateeyon ne jaliyaanvaala baag ki mitti ko maathe se lagaakar desh ko aajaad karaane ka drudh sankalp liya. Punjab tab tak mukhya Bhaarat se kuchh alag chala karta tha parantu is ghatna se Punjab poori tarah se bhaarateeya svatantrata aandolan mein sammilit ho gaya. iske falasvaroop Gandhi ne 1920 mein asahayog aandolan praarambh kiya.

pratighaat

jab jaliyaanvaala baag mein yeh hatyaakaand ho raha tha, us samay udhamasinh vaheen maujood the aur unhein bhi goli lagi thi. unhonne tay kiya ki vah iska badla leinge. 13 March 1940 ko unhonne London ke kaiksatan hall mein is ghatna ke samay british leftinent Governor Michael O Dwyer ko goli chala ke maar daala. ref>"daayar ko maarkar oodhamasinh ne liya tha badla" (hindi mein) (echateeem). vebaduniya. http://hindi.webdunia.com/news/news/national/0807/30/1080730024_1.htm. abhigman tithi: 23 April 2009. </ref> oodhamasinh ko 31 July 1940 ko faaainsi par chadha diya gaya. Gandhi aur javaaharalaal Nehru ne oodhamasinh dvaara ki gayi is hatya ki ninda curry thi.

is hatyaakaand ne tab 12 varsh ki umr ke bhagat Singh ki soch par gahra prabhaav daala tha. iski soochana milte hi bhagat Singh apne school se 12 meal paidal chalakar jaaliyaavaala baag pahunch gaye the.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Home Political Deposit, September, 1920, No 23, National Archives of India, New Delhi; Report of Commissioners, Vol I, New Delhi
  2. dw.de-jaliyaanvaala baag "sharmanaak" ghatna
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baahari kadiyaaain



sandarbh