jalayaan

New York pattan par Italy ka jalayaan amerigo vespukki (1976)

jalayaan ya paani ka jahaaj (ship), paani par tairate hue gati karne mein saksham ek bahut bada dibba hota hai. jalayaan, naav (bot) se is maamale mein bhinn bhinn hai ki jalayaan, naav ki tulana mein bahut bade hote hain.

jalayaan jheelon, samudron evam nadiyon mein chalte hain. inhein anek prakaar se upayog mein laaya jaata hai; jaise - logon ko laane-lejaane ke liye, saamaan dhone ke liye, machhali pakadane ke liye, manoranjan ke liye, taton ki dekharekh evam suraksha ke liye tatha yuddh ke liye.

jahaaj samudra ke aavaagaman tatha door deshon ki yaatra ke liye jin bruhad naukaaon ka upayog praacheenakaal se hota aaya hai unhein jahaaj kehte hai. pehle jahaaj apekshaakrut chhote hote the tatha lakdi ke bante the. praavidhik tatha vaigyaanik unnati ke aadhunik kaal mein bahut bade, mukhyat: lohe se bane tatha injanon se chalanevaale jahaaj bante hain.

anukram

aadhunik jahaajon ka vargeekaran

jis jahaaj se jo bhi kaam liya jaata hai. usi ke anusaar usaki abhiklpana (dijin) aur nirmaan kiya jaata hai. at: kaarya ke anusaar jahaajon ko teen vargon mein baaaintate hain :

(1) yaataayaat ke jahaaj,
(2) yuddh sambandhi jahaaj, tatha
(3) tatavarti aur nadyupayogi naukaaeain.

inke bhi kai upavarg hote hain, jinka neeche kramaanusaar aage varnan kiya gaya hai-

yaataayaatopayogi (Transportation) jahaaj

emaesasi oscar : vishv ka sabse bada kanatenar jahaaj (2015 mein)
  • (k) yaatri jahaaj (Passenger Liners) duniyaaain ke ek bandargaah se doosare tak yaatriyon ko le jaane ka kaam karte hain. inke dvaara maal bahut hi kam dhoya jaata hai, kyonki inke adhikaansh bhaagon mein yaatriyon ke aavaas tatha sukh suvidha ki sabhi prakaar ki rachanaaeain bani hoti hain.
  • (kh) vyaapaari jahaaj (Merchant Ships) adhiktar halaka maal dhone ke kaam mein hi aaya karte hain. at: inmein yaatriyon ke aavaas kaksh bahut thode hote hain. saamaan ko uthaane dharane ke liye inapar kuchh kren bhi lage rahate hain.
  • (g) maal jahaaj (Cargo Ships) aksar bhaari maal dhone ke liye banaae jaate hain. bikhra hua maal, jais anaaj, koyala, dhaatuon ke ayask aadi, jinhein khulaamaal (Bulk cargo) kehte hain, dek ke oopar bane bade bade kueainnuma godaamon mein bharne ke baad unka dhakkan band kar diya jaata hai. baindha hua saamaan, jise paik maal (General cargo) kehte hain, godaamon mein chun diya jaata hai. yantraadi bahudha dek par bhi laade jaate hain, jise dekamaal (Deck cargo) kehte hain. saamaan khaali ho jaane par aise jahaaj jab halke ho jaate hain tab unke nimnatam (peinde ke) bhaag mein bane vishesh kakshon mein mitti, rodi, paani aadi bhar diya jaata hai, jisse ki ve samudra mein theek satah par baithakar tair sakein. is prakaar ke bojhe ko neeram (Ballast) kehte hain.
  • (gh) tanki jahaaj (Tankers) inmein petrol, irdhann, tel, gud ka sheera aadi bharakar le jaaya jaata hai. at: inki rachana mein adhiktar tankiyon ka hi bhaag rahata hai aur taral padaarthon ko nikaalne ke liye jahaaain tahaaain panp bhi lage hote hain. in jahaajon mein engine sabse pichhle bhaag mein lagaaya jaata hai, jisse petrol aadi mein aag lagne ki aashanka na rahe. inmein kren bilkul naheen hote, balki inke aage ke sire se peechhe ke sire tak ek lamba pul avashya banaaya jaata hai, jisse samudra ki laharon ka paani dek par aa jaane ke samay kaaryakarta ek sire se doosare sire tak aa ja sakein.

yuddh sambandhi jahaaj

dviteeya vishvayuddh mein prayukt Germany ka 'aidamirl graaf spi' naamak cruiser
  • (k) yuddhopayogi, sainik jahaajon (Warships) par bhaari bhaari topein lagi rahane, chaal bahut tej hone tatha chaaron taraf se kavacheeya pleton ka aavaran chadha rahane s inke dhaaainchon par bhaari pratibl pada karte hain. keindreeya bhaag mein chimni ke aas paas hi samast aavashyak adhirchanaaeain bana di jaati hain, jisse chaaron taraf ke khaali bhaagon mein topon ke goalon ke jaane ke liye nirbaadh jagah rah sake.
  • (kh) vaayuyaan baahak (Aircraft Carrier) inke sapaat dek par naana prakaar ke bam, rocket, taarapeedo aur jal surangon se susajjit vaayuyaan rakhe jaate hain, jo yaheen se ud udkar shatru par door door tak sab prakaar ke hamle kar sakte hain. in jahaajon par apni suraksha ke liye bhi kuchh topein lagi rahati hain, lekin fir bhi ye jahaaj bade yuddhapoton ki sanraksha mein hi kaam karte hain.
  • (g) bade vidhvansak jahaajon (Fleetr Destroyers) ka kaam shatru ki panadubbiyon se bade yuddhapoton ki raksha karna, shatru par taarapeedon se hamla karna tatha apne jangi bede ke aage aage chalak agradoot ka sa kaam karna hota hai. aakaar mein chhote hone ke kaaran saaf mausam mein to ye jahaaj achhi tej gati se chal sakte hain, lekin toofaani mausim mein inhein badi satarkata baratani padti hai.
  • (gh) panadubbiyaaain (Submarines) shatru ke yuddhapoton, maal jahaajon tatha senaavaahak jahaajon par chhit put hamle karke unhein pareshaan kar sakti hain. ye paani mein dubaki lagaakar apne jangi bedon se bahut aage tak jaakar vahaaain ki khabarein bhi le aati hain.
  • (ङ) surang nivaarak (Mine Sweeper) jahaaj shatru dvaara bichhaai gayi visfotak samudri surangon ko apne jangi bede ke aage aage saaf karte chalte hain. apni suraksha ke liye inapar kuchh topein bhi lagi hoti hain.
  • (ch) kroojr jahaaj (Cruiser) yuddhapoton se chhote hone par bhi sab prakaar ke yuddhon mein svatantrata poorvak bhaag le sakte hain. inmein aakramanaatmak tatha paitara badalne ki vyavastha rahati hai evam inki gati bahut achhi hoti hai. inke tareton (turrets) par maadhyam naap ki topein lagi hoti hain, jo sab rituon mein achha kaam karti hain.
  • (chh) inke atirikt shatru ko haani pahuainchaane ke liye uske samudra ke nikat surangein bichhaanevaale (Mine Layers) jahaaj bhi banaae jaate hain. surangein bichhaane ka kaam havaai jahaajon, jangi jahaajon aur panadubbiyon aadi se bhi liya ja sakta hai. jangi naubedon ke saath yuddh saamagri aur tel pahuainchaanevaale tatha senaavaahak jahaaj bhi raha karte hain.

tatavarti tatha nadi mein upayogi naukaaeain

is varg mein doobate hue jahaajon ko nikaalanevaale pot (Dredgers and Tugs) samudri taar bichhaane tatha unki marammat karanevaale (Cable Ships), tatavarti yaatropayogi chhote jahaaj (Steamers), bhojan saamagri le jaanevaale (Frozen Meat Carriers), matsya naukaaeain (Trawlers) aur ghaat-yaan-naukaaeain (Ferries) aadi mukhya hain.

jahaaj ke dhaaainchon par padnevaale pratibl (stresses)

pratyek jahaaj ke dhaaainche ki abhiklpana (design) is prakaar se ki jaati hai ki uske injanon, pranoditron athva paidal vheelon, sahaayak yantron tatha panchon aadi ke chalne ke kaaran aur visheshakar samudri laharon ke kaaran jo vikrutiyaaain tatha pratibl padein, unhein vah sah le. jahaajon ke chalte samay jab saamane ki hava ka mukaabila karna hota hai. us samay yadi jahaaj ki chaudaai ke baraabar lambi laharein uthane lagti hain, to kai ber koi ek hi badi lahar beech mein jahaaj ko adhar mein utha le sakti hai. tab jahaaj ke aage aur peechhe k sire theek usi prakar se latakate raheinge jaise ki kisi ladi hui shahateer ko beech mein se sahaara dekar utha liya ho. jahaaj ka is dasha ko uttalan (oopar ko utha liya jaana, hogging) kehte hain. kabhi kabhi aisa bhi hota hai ki jahaaj ka aage aur peechhe ka sira to laharon par tik jaata hai aur beech ka sthaan khaali ho jaata hai, theek vaisa hi jaise koi ladi hui shahateer donon siron par tiki ho. is paristhiti mein jahaaj ke dhaaainche par padnevaale pratiblon ko avatalan (sagging) kehte hai. kabhi kabhi in donon paristhitiyon ka mishran bhi ho jaata hai, jismein padnevaale pratibl kartan (shear stress) kahalaate hain. jab hava tirchhi chalti hai tab kabhi kabhi jahaaj ke dhaaainche mein marod pratibl (twisting strains) padte hain. jab bagali hava chalti hai tab paarshveeya vikrutiyaaain utpann hoti hain. iske atirikt paani mein doobe rahanevaale bhaag par samudri paani ka bhi atyadhik daab padkar dhaaainche ko chipkaane ki pravrutti dikhaata hai. sabse adhik tatha vikt prakaar ki vikrutiyaaain to aage aur peechhe ke siron par us samay paida hoti hain jab jahaaj mein maal ke visham ladaan aur laharon ke prabhaav tatha paani ke utplaavak bal ke kaaran jagah jagah par naman ghoorn (bending moments) paida hone lagte hain.

laharon dvaara padnevaali vikrutiyon ki ganana karte samay maan liya jaata hai ki pratyek lahar ki lanbaai jahaaj ki chaudaai ke baraabar aur unki ooainchaai lanbaai ke vein bhaag ke uraabar hai.

jahaaj ke dhaaainche ki abhiklpana karte samay uske pratyek avayav (jo dhale ispaat ka hota hai athva mulaayam ispaat ki chhadon, engal aayaranon, channelon, gardaron aur pleton aadi ko aapas mein ribton dvaara baithaakar athva vibhinn prakaar ke jodon dvaara kasakar banaaya jaata hai) ki rachana aisi karte hain ki usapar jo bhi pratibl pade, sab mein samavibhaajit hokar is prakaar se samast dhaaainche mein fail jaae ki pratyek avayav par aanevaale jhatakon ko avayav milkar sah lein.

jahaaj ke dhaaainche ke pradhaan avayav

jalayaan ke mukhya bhaag : 1: Smokestack or Funnel; 2: Stern; 3: propelar tatha radar(Rudder); 4: Portside (the right side is known as starboard); 5: Anchor; 6: Bulbous bow; 7: Bow; 8: dek (Deck); 9: Superstructure
lakdi se nirmit ek puraane jalayaan ka panjar (frem)

jahaaj ka pathaan (nautal, keel) sabse neeche rahanevaala buniyaadi avayav hai, jiske sahaare samast dhaaaincha khada kiya jaata hai. ise lohe ya dhale ispaat dvaara teen prakaar se banaaya jaata hai- ikahari moti chhadon, chapati pattiyon athva pleton dvaara.

mariya (Keelson) ek se adhik tatha vibhinn aakaar ke banaae jaate hain. inmein se jo pramukh hota hai vah jahaaj ke peinde ki madhya rekha par khada lagaya jaata hai. sab milkar samast peinde ko sahaara dete hain. pathaan ke aage ke sire mallajod (Scarph) dvaara.

oopar ko utha hua jo avayav dhale hue ispaat ka banaakar joda jaata hai vah dunbaal (Stern) kahalaata hai. isi mein khaaainche banaakar beechavaala mariya aur baahari khol ke plate baithaakar jad diye jaate hain. peechhe ki taraf dhale ispaat ka jo khada avayav isi prakaar joda jaata hai vah dunbaal stambh ya kudaas (Sternpost) kahalaata hai. radar ko sahaara dene ke liye aur yadi ek ya teen pranoditr (propeller) yukt jahaaj hon to madhyavarti pranoditr ke ghoomane ke liye bhi isi mein jagah banaai jaati hai.

jahaaj ke samast dhaaainche ki rachana panjarnuma hoti hai. panjar ke samast ang engal, aayaran aur pattiyon dvaara hi banaae jaate hain. ye panjar dohare hote hain, ek bheetari aur doosra baahari. jin sthaanon par jahaaj ka nichla farsh tikta hai, ve baahari aur bheetari panjaron ke beech mein khade lagaae jaate hain inhein mariya athva flors bhi kehte hain. inke kaaran peinda bahut hi drudh ho jaata hai. jahaaj ki donon bagaliyon ke panjaron ko drudhta pradaan karne ke liye, unke beech mein lanb pattiyaaain tatha aadi sthoonaaeain (dharanein) laga di jaati hain. lanb pattiyaaain jahaaj ke panjar se aingal pleton ke saath riveton dvaara jad di jaati hain. sampoorn jahaaj ka panjar kai khandon mein banaakar pratyek panjar ke oopari sire par bhi ek ek dharan laga di jaati hai, jo oopari dek ke plate ko sahaara deti hai.

jin jahaajon mein ek se adhik dek hote hain, unamein pratyek dek ko sainbhaalane ke liye pratyek khand mein ek ek sthoona lagaai jaati hai. oopari dek sadaiv ispaat ki pleton ka banaaya jaata hai aur usapar lakdi ke takhte baitha diye jaate hain. neeche ke dek lakdi ke takhton se hi banaae jaate hain. kuchh jahaajon mein neeche ke dek bhi ispaat ki pleton se banaate hain. yeh sab upayog par nirbhar karta hai. jahaaj ke panjar ki aadi dharanon ke beech, unhein sahaara dene ke liye ek ek khanbha bhi ispaat ka laga diya jaata hai. jin jahaajon ki chaudaai adhik hoti hai unke madhya khanbhe ke donon or ek khanbha aur laga diya jaata hai. maalavaahak jahaajon ke godaamon mein adhik khuli jagah ki aavashyakta pada karti hai. at: unamein khanbhe na lagaakar anya prakaar ki yuktiyon se kaam liya jaata hai.

nitl pattikaaeain-

nitl pattikaaeain
bheete ya 'balk heds'

ye jahaaj ke baahari aavaran se baahar ki or nikli rahati hain tatha jahaaj ki lunthanagati (rolling) ko avarodhit (daimp) karne ke uddeshya se lagaayi jaateen hain. inke kaaran jahaaj ke khol (hull) ki lunthanagati mein kaafi avarodh hota hai, jisse lunthanagati bilkul to naheen rukane paati, parantu kaafi kam ho jaati hai.

jahaaj ke peinde par poori lanbaai bhar mein, ispaat ke pleton ko braikaton dvaara jadkar, unase bheetein (bulk-heads) banaakar jalaabhedya kamre bana diye jaate hain, jinki ooainchaai dotale peinde se lekar samudri paani ki satah tak hoti hai. ye kamre bade upayogi hote hain, kyonki jab ki durghatanaavash jahaaj ke aavaran mein kaheen chhed ho jaata hain, tab samudri paani keval uske niktavarti kamre mein hi bharakar rah jaata hai aur shesh jahaaj surakshit rahata hai. kai baar jahaaj ki lanbaai ki disha mein lade hue maal ka santulan theek karne ke liye kisi upayukt kamre mein jaan boojhakar bhi paani bhar diya jaata hai. kai puraane prakaar ke jahaajon mein to ye kamre is prakaar ke bane hote the ki ek se doosare mein jaane ke liye unki chhat mein bane chhed mein chadhkar doosare ke chhed mein utarana hota tha. aadhunik jahaajon mein unki deevaaron mein hi darvaaje laga diye jaate hain. ye chhed aur darvaaje rabar ki pattiyaaain tatha klainp lagaakar bilkul jalaabhedya bana diye jaate hain.

vyaapaari jahaajon mein adhik se adhik teen dek hote hain. ek dekavaale jahaaj ki ooainchaai pathaan se dek tatha 15 foot, do dek vaale jahaaj ki ooainchaai pathaan se oopari dek tak 24 foot aur tan dekavaale ki 35 foot ke lagbhag rahati hai. lekin bade samudri poton aur maal jahaajon ki samagr ooainchaai isse adhik ho jaati hai.

jahaajon ka baahari aavaran - yeh ispaat ki chaadaron ka bana hota hai aur usaki motaai, jahaaj ke parimaan, usamein bhare jaanevaale maal tatha jis bhaag mein vah jada jaata hai vahaaain ke paani ke dabaav ke anupaat se nishchit ki jaati hai. jahaaj ke peinde aur adavaal se neeche ke plate, jinhein peraj (Gunwale) bhi kehte hain sabse mote rakhe jaate hain. mandaan tatha kudaas ki niktavarti pletein bhi kaafi moti hoti hain. inki adhik se adhik motaai ek inch hoti hai. aavaran pleton ki motaai inch ke 20vein bhaag mein naapane ki pratha hai.

jahaaj ki chaudaai

jahaaj ke madhya bhaag mein neeche ki taraf sabse adhik chaudaai rahati hai, jise "dharan naap" (moulded breadth) kehte hain. iske oopar ki taraf chaudaai kramash: kam hoti jaati hai, jise jahaaj ke madhya bhaag ka bheetari jhukaav (Tumble home) kehte hain. ise oopar ke dek se ek hi taraf ko naapa jaata hai. aage tatha peechhe ke siron ke nikat, neeche ki or, jahaaj ki chaudaai kramash: kam hoti jaati hai, jisse vahaaain ke parichhed ki aakruti V aakaar ki ho jaati hai. is neeche se oopar badhti chaudaai ko jahaaj ka apasaran (flare athva flam) kehte hain.

yaatri jahaaj

inmein unka mukhya dhaaaincha, dohara panjar aur lanb pattiyaaain aadi madhya dek tak hi samaapt ho jaati hain. vihaar dek (Promenade deck) tatha nauka dek (Boat deck) ki adhirchana oopari dhaaainche ke roop mein uparale aur khule dek par kar di jaati hai. bade yaatri jahaaj maal jahaajon ki apeksha adhik bhaari hone ke saath hi samudra ki satah se adhik ooainche bhi tairate raha karte hain. at: unhein adhik drudh tatha saavadhaani se banaana padta hai, jisse koi durghatana ho jaane par bhi samudri paani unamein pravesh na kar sake.

yuddhapoton ki banaavat

taarapeedo naukaaon tatha yuddhapoton ke panjaron ki banaavat to usi dhang ki hoti hai jaisi yaatri jahaajon ki lekin unhein itna drudh banaaya jaata hai ki ve bade bade injanon ki chaal, topon ke daage jaane, athva jahaaj ki chaal ko baaranbaar aage peechhe karke paitara badalate samay honevaale kanpanon ke prabhaav ki sah sakein. inki pathaan chapate pleton se banaakar uske aage peechhe ke siron ko mandaan aur kudaal ki jhiriyon mein daalkar mod diya jaata hai. fir unhein mall jod dvaara pakka bhi kar diya jaata hai. baahari aur bheetari pathaan pleton ko panjar ke saath takkari jod (butt joint) dvaara kasakar, neeche ki taraf baahari aavaran pleton ki koron ko pathaan ke saath hi jad dete hain. hathiyaaron ke godaamon mein engine aur yantron ki ooainchaai ki satah tak suraksha ke liye ispaat ka mota kavach plate laga diya jaata hai. sabse aage ki potabheet (bulk-head) tatha dunbaal (stern) ke beech kuchh khaali jagah chhod di jaati hai, jise takkar peetabheet (Collision Bulkhead) kehte hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • nausena
  • nauvahan
  • potanirmaan
  • Hindustan shipyaard limited
  • bhaarati shipyaard limited

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