jalavidyut oorja

three George baandh - vishv ka sabse bada jalavidyut station

girte hue ya bahate hue jal ki urja se jo vidyut utpann ki jaati hai use jalavidyut (Hydroelectricity) kehte hain. san 2005 mein vishv bhar mein lagbhag 816 GWe (jigaavaat elektrikl) jalavidyut utpann ki jaati thi jo ki vishv ki sampoorn vidyut urja ka lagbhag 20% hai.

anukram

jal vidyut ke laabh

  • oorja ka ek naveekaran yogya srot – durlabh indhan sansaadhanon ki raksha karta hai.
  • pradooshan rahit aur isliye paryaavaran anukool.
  • deerghakaalik – varsh 1897 mein Darjiling mein poorn ki gayi pehli jal vidyut pariyojana abhi tak prachaalanarat hai.
  • oorja ke anya sroton ki tulana mein utpaadan, prachaalan tatha anurakshan ki laagat kam hai.
  • sheegra praarambh tatha rookane ki kshamata aur bhaar ko tvarit sveekaar/asveekaar karna ise adhiktam maang ko poora karne aur pranaali ki vish‍aavasaneeyata tatha sthirta mein vruddhi karne ke liye upayukt banaata hai.
  • taapeeya (35 pratishat) aur gas (lagbhag 50 pratishat) ki tulana mein uchchatar dakshata (90 pratishat se adhik).
  • utpaadan ki laagat praarambhik sthaapan ke pash‍aachaat mudraasfeeti ke prabhaavon se mukt hoti hai.
  • bhandaaran aadhaarit jal vidyut yojanaaen aksar sinchaai, baadh niyantran, peyajal aapoorti, nauvahan, manoranjan, paryatan, matsya paalan aadi hetu sahaayak laabh muhaiya karavaati hai.
  • sudoor kshetron mein avasthit hone ke kaaran yeh bheetar ke pichhde kshetron ke vikaas mein parint hoti hain (shiksha, chikitsa, sadke, sanchaar, door sanchaar aadi).

Bhaarat mein jalavidyut ki anumaanit kshamata

Bhaarat mein vidyamaan aarthik roop se dohan yogya tatha arthaksham jal sanbhaavyata 66 pratishat bhaar kaarak par 84,000 megawatt aankalit ki gayi hai (1,48,701 megawatt sthaapit kshamata). iske atirikt, chhote, laghu tatha sookshm jal vidyut yojanaaon se sthaapit kshamata ke 6780 megawatt ka aankalan kiya gaya hai. 94,000 megawatt ki sanchit sthaapit kshamata ke saath pamp ki gayi bhandaaran yojanaaon hetu 56 sthalon ki bhi pehchaan ki gayi hai. tathaapi, abhi tak is sanbhaavyata ke keval 19.9 pratashit ka hi dohan kiya ja saka hai.

parichay

vidyut, jal se utpann (Hydroelectric) jal se praapt ki gayi vidyutashakti ko jalavidyut kehte hain. vidyut shakti ke janan ki vidhiyon mein jalavidyut bahut mahatvapoorn hain. vishv ki sampoorn vidyut shakti ka ek tihaai bhaag jalavidyut ke roop mein praapt hota hai.

yon to kisi bhi roop mein upalabdh oorja ko vidyutashakti ke janan ke liye prayukt kiya ja sakta hai. jalaprapaat mein girte hue paani mein nihit oorja ka upayog praacheen kaal se hi panachakki ko chalaane mein kiya jaata raha hai, parantu is oorja ka vidyutashakti ke liye upayog beesaveen shataabdi ki hi den hai.

na keval girte hue jal mein nihit oorja ka upayog shakti janan ke liye kiya ja sakta hai, varan bahate hue paani mein nihit gatij oorja (kinetic energy) ka upayog bhi shakti janan ke liye kiya ja sakta hai. iske liye sabse pehle aise sthaan ka chunaav karna hota hai, jahaaain baaaindh baaaindhakar prachur maatra mein paani jama kiya ja sake aur usamein nihit shakti ko vidyut shakti ke janan ke liye jal ko aavashyakataanusaar nalon athva khuli nahar ke dvaara bijleegharon mein prayukt kiya ja sake. upayukt sthaan ki talaash ke liye varsha tatha jameen donon ka adhyayan karna hota hai. baaaindh aisi jagah banaaya jaata hai jahaaain nyoonatam moolya mein bana baaaindh adhiktam paani jama kar sake. iske liye sthaan ki praakrutik dasha aisi honi chaahiye ki koi nadi ghaati mein hoti hui pahaadon ke beech sainkare maarg se gujarati ho, jisse sakare sthaan par baaaindh banaakar nadi ke oopari bhaag ko ek bade jalaashaya mein parivrtit kiya ja sake. baaaindh ke oopar ek aur agrataal (forebay) banaaya jaata hai, jahaaain se paani khuli nahar athva nalon dvaara bijleeghar tak le jaaya jaata hai. yeh paani bijleeghar mein sthit bade bade tarabaainon ko chalaata hai, jinse yojit janitron mein vidyut shakti ka janan hota hai. tarabaain, cement kankreet ke bane draaftatyoob (draft tube) ke mukh par avasthit hota hai. paani guide ven (guide vanes) mein hota hua tarabaain ke bledon (blades) ko ghumaata hai aur is prakaar apne nihit oorja ka tarabaain ke chalaane mein upayog karta hai. chalte hue tarabaain ki yaantrik oorja vidyut oorja mein roopaantarit kar di jaati hai aur is prakaar jal mein nihit oorja jalavidyut ka roop le leti hai. tarabaain mein is prakaar paani mein nihit shakti ka upayog ho jaane ke pashchaat, paani draaft-tube mein se hota hua visrjani kulya (tail race) mein jaata hai, jahaaain se vah fir nadi mein ja milta hai. draaft-tube ki banaavat aisi hoti hai ki paani ki shesh oorja dheere dheere samaapt ho jaae, jisse baahar aane par nadi ke kinaaron ko kshatigrast na kare. paani mein nihit oorja, uske aayatan tatha sheersh (head) par nirbhar karti hai. sheersh ke anuroop jalavidyut yojanaaon ko teen bhaagon mein baaainta ja sakta hai :

1. uchch sheersh yojana (High Head Scheme) - lagbhag 200 meter se adhik.

2. madhyam sheersh yojana (Medium Head Scheme) - 50 meter se 200 meter tak.

3. nimn sheersh yojana (Low Head Scheme) - 50 meter se kam.

yojana ka aakaar evam praroop donon hi sheersh ke oopar nirbhar karta hai aur usi ke anusaar uske tarabaainon ka praroop bhi. is prakaar uchch sheersh ke liye Francis (Francis) tarabaain evam pestan chakr (Pelton wheel) upayukt hote hain. madhyam sheersh ke liye shraavak pravaahavaale (inward flow) daab tarabaain prayukt kiye jaate hain. nimn sheersh ke liye nodak (Propellor) praroop ka tarabaain adhik upayukt hota hai.

uchch sheershavaali yojanaaon mein, saadhaaranataya, paani ka aayatan adhik naheen hota. isliye paani ko nalon dvaara le jaakar tarabaain ke tund (nozzle) se ranar (runner) ki vaaltiyon par chhoda jaata hai, jisse paani mein nihit oorja ranar ko chalaane mein samarth hoti hai. tund dvaara paani ke pavaah aur gati ka niyantran karne se tatha baaltiyon par chhode jaanevaale paani ke kon ka vichran karne se tarabaain ke nirgat (output) ka niyantran kiya ja sakta hai aur is tarah janit honevaali vidyutashakti ka bhi niyantran ho sakta hai. baaltiyon ke kon ka vichran karna bhi sambhav hai aur donon niyantranon ko svat: chaalit (automatic) roop se bhi kiya ja sakta hai.

nodak praroop ke tarabaain ke ranar mein keval teen ya chaar pankh hi hote hain. ye bhaari ispaat ke bane hote hain. kam sheershavaali yojanaaon mein bahudha paani ka aayatan bahut adhik hota hai (jisse vidyutshakti ki janan vyaavahaarik ho sake). at: inmein paani ko nalon mein le jaana sambhav naheen hota aur khuli naali ka upayog karna hota hai. bhaar ke anuroop nirgat praapt karne ke liye tarabaain mein jaanevaale paani ki maatra ka vichran karna aavashyak hota hai, jo dwaar khulaai (gate opening) dvaara sanpaadit kiya jaata hai. ye dwaar guide pichhafalak ki bhaaainti hote hain aur inki sthiti paani ka niyantran karti hai. bhaari hone ke kaaran ye dwaar dravachaalit daab (hydraulic pressure) dvaara pravartit kiye jaate hain. jis prakaar peltan chakr ke guide pichhafalak, athva baaltiyon, ke kon ka vichran kiya jaata hai, usi prakaar inhein bhi svat: chaalit roop se pravartit kiya ja sakta hai. svat: chaalit vichran sarvo motor (servo motor) dvaara kiya jaata hai. yeh chhota sa motor hota hai, jo dravachaalit daabak ka vichran karta hai. iska nivesh (input) tarabaain ke nirgat ka hi ek ansh hota hai, at: uske anusaar vichran karta hai. is prakaar is motor dvaara kiya gaya kaarya tarabaain ke nirgat par, jo uske oopar bhaar ke anuroop hota hai, nirbhar karta hai aur svat: chaalit roop se dravachaalit daabak ko ghata badhaakar usi ke anusaar guide pichhafalak (vane), athva dvaara khulaai, ka niyantran kar deta hai, athva baaltiyon ke kon ka vyavasthaapan kar deta hai.

nodak praroop ki tarabaain mein kaiplen (Kaplan) praroop ka tarabaain mukhya hai. iski visheshata iski majaboot aur uchch dakshata hai. iski doosari visheshata yeh hai ki bhaar vichran se dakshata par bahut kam prabhaav hota hai, jiske kaaran vichranasheel bhaar ke liye yeh tarabaain bahut hi upayukt hota hai.

madhyam sheersh yojanaaon mein, saamaanyat:, mishrit pravaahavaala (mixed flow) tarabaain adhik prayukt hota hai, parantu sheersh ke anuroop hi usaka chayan adhik nirbhar karta hai. paani ko tarabaain mein le jaane ke liye sthir guide len (pivoted guide vanes) ka prayog kiya jaata hai. iske nirgat ka vichran unke kon ke vichran se kiya jaata hai.

kam sheershavaala tarabaain, saadhaaranataya, khule shashaift ke oopar sthit hota hai. ye sarpil (spiral) praroop ke aavaran (casing) se ghire hote hain, jisse paani ko ek samaan roop se guide pichhafalak dvaara le jaaya ja sake. uchch sheershavaale tarabaain mein yeh aavaran dhaatu (saamaanyat: lohe) ka bana hota hai. tarabaain kshaitij evam oordhvaadhar donon prakaar ke ho sakte hain. parantu saamaanyat:, oordhvaadhar hi adhik prayog mein aata hai. inmein beyaring (bearing) vishisht prakaar ka hota hai, jise machine par pratishthit paarshv aaghaat (side thrust) bhi vahan karna hota hai. isliye inhein aaghaat veyaring (Thrust Bearing) kehte hain.

veyaring tatha doosare gatimaan bhaagon ka snehan (lubrication) bhi apne-aap mein ek kathin samasya hoti hai. iske liye daab snehan (Pressure Lubrication) vidhi ka upayog kiya jaata hai. ismein snehak tail ko dabaakar snehan kiye jaanevaale sthaanon mein bheja jaata hai. tel panp (oil pump) dvaara daab utpann ki jaati hai. daab ghat jaane par, machine ke apne aap band ho jaane ki vyavastha bhi hoti hai, jisse aisi paristhiti mein use kshati na pahuainche. snehak tail ko saaf karne ke liye ek tel filtar hota hai aur snehan ke pashchaat garam ho jaanevaale tel ka thandha karne ke liye tel sheetak ki bhi vyavastha rahati hai.

shakti

jalavidyut yojanaaon mein sabse adhik mahatva unki sthiti ka hai. inki sthiti, mukhyat:, praakrutik evam bhautik kaaranon par nirbhar karti hai. mote taur par kisi jalavidyut yojana se 1,000 ghan foot prati second ke pravaah se 150 foot ka sheersh upalabdh hone par lagbhag 10 megawatt ki shakti upalabdh hogi. jalaashaya ka anumaan bhi is aadhaar par lagaaya ja sakta hai, ki 1.13 varg meal ke kshetrafal mein 1 foot paani keval 1 ghan foot prati second ka pravaah utpann karta hai. at: 1,000 ghan foot prati second ka pravaah paane ke liye jalaashaya mein 113 varg meal ke kshetrafal mein ausat se 10 foot gahra paani hona chaahiye. kisi bhi jalavidyut yojana ko vyaavahaarik hone ke liye vah aavashyak hai ki adhik se adhik sheersh evam pravaah ho. kam sheershavaali yojanaaeain tabhi vyaavahaarik ho sakti hain, jab paani ka pravaah paryaapt ho. uchch sheershavaali yojanaaeain kam pravaah par bhi vyaavahaarik ho sakti hai.

sthiti

bijleeghar ki sthiti baaaindh ke nikat hona anivaarya naheen hai. jalaashaya pahaad par ho sakta hai aur adhik sheersh paane ke liye bijleeghar pahaad ki talahati mein banaaya ja sakta hai. aisi dasha mein paani ki badi badi nalikaaon dvaara bijleeghar tak pahuainchaaya jaata hai. uchch sheersh waali yojanaaeain saamaanyat: isi praroop ki hoti hain.

bahut se sthaanon par pahaadi ko kaatkar surang ke dvaara paani ko pahaadi ke doosari aur bijleeghar tak pahuainchaaya jaata hai. bijleeghar ka pruthveetal par hona bhi anivaarya naheen. bahut se bijleeghar pruthvi ke andar bhi hote hain aur us tak lift (lift) dvaara hi pahuaincha ja sakta hai. maithan mein bhi aisa hi bhoomigat bijleeghar (underground power station) banaaya gaya hai. aise bijli ghar svachaalit praroop ke haate hain aur doorasth niyantran dvaara pruthveetal se chaalit hote hain. yadyapi ye bijleeghar mukhyat: praakrutik kaaranon se hi pruthvi ke andar banaae jaate hain, tathaapi ye saamarik drushtikon se surakshit hone ke kaaran bahut mahatvapoorn hote hain.

kam sheershavaali yojanaaeain hamaare desh mein bahut hain. ganga evam shaarada naharon ke oopar bahut se bijleeghar banaae gaye hain, jinmein keval 20 se 30 foot ke sheersh ka hi upayog kiya gaya hai. ye yojanaaeain paani ka pravaah adhik hone ke kaaran (kaheen-kaheen 10,000 ghan foot prati second bhi) vyaavahaarik ho saki hain.

jalavidyut yojanaaeain, mukhyat:, Norway, sveedan, svitsaralaind, Germany, France, kainaada, roos evam amareeka mein hain. Bhaarat bhi jalavidyut yojanaaon mein bahut peechhe naheen hai aur yahaaain ki kuchh yojanaaeain vishv ki mahaanatam yojanaaon mein gini jaati hain, jaise, bhaakhara-nangal, Damodar ghaati, rihand, hiraakund, naagaarjun saagar, koyana, shivsamudram, periyaar aadi.

bahut si jalavidyut yojanaaeain bahooddesheeya bhi hoti hain. mukhyat: inke saath sinchaai evam baadh rodhak yojanaaeain bhi shaamil rahati hain, jisse kshetr ka sarvaangeen vikaas kiya ja sake. amareeka mein Tennessee ghaati nigam ke aadhaar par Bhaarat mein bhi Damodar ghaati nigam ki sthaapana ki gayi. pichhle bees varshon mein bahut si mahatvapoorn jalavidyut yojanaaeain bani hain aur sabhi jagah jalavidyut sambhaavnaaon ka adhyayan kar yojanaaeain banaai ja rahi hain.

jalavidyut yojana mein, yadyapi, aarambh mein bahut adhik vyaya hota hai, tathaapi tab bhi parichaalan vyaya (operating expense) kam hone ke kaaran adhikaansh yojanaaeain aarthik drushtikon se safal hoti hain. inke sanyatr (plant) ka jeevan bhi apekshaakrut bahut adhik hota hai. inka mukhya dosh vaastav mein inki upabhokta sthaanon se doori hai. ye yojanaaeain jahaaain chaahein vahaaain ke liye naheen banaai ja sakateen. udaaharanaarth, yadi shakti ki maaaing kalakatte mein hai, to vahaaain jalavidyut yojana kaaryaanvit karna sambhav naheen. himaalaya se niklanevaali nadiyon mein apaar jalashakti nihit hai, parantu vahaaain shakti ki maaaing naheen hai. is prakaar jalavidyut yojana dvaara janit vidyut shakti ko bahudha bahut doori tak preshit (transmit) karna hota hai. at:, jalavidyut yojana ka saapeksh roop se adhyayan karne ke liye preshanatantr ka vyaya bhi lagaana aavashyak hai. tab bhi adhikaanshat: jalavidyut hi sasti padti hai.

Bhaarat mein jalavidyut

inhein bhi dekhein

  • pavan urja
  • naveekaraneeya urja (Renewable energy)
  • parmaanu urja (Nuclear power)
  • saur urja (Solar energy)
  • vishaal jalavidyut gruhon ki soochi
  • NHPC limited

baahari kadiyaaain