jal pradooshan

Canada ke ek shahar mein jal pradooshan

jal pradooshan, se abhipraaya jal nikaayon jaise ki, jheelon, nadiyon, samudron aur bhoojal ke paani ke sandooshit hone se hai. jal pradooshan, in jal nikaayon ke paadapon aur jeevon ko prabhaavit karta hai aur sarvada yeh prabhaav na sirf in jeevon ya paadapon ke liye apitu sampoorn jaivik tantr ke liye vinaashakaari hota hai.

jal pradooshan ka mukhya kaaran maanav ya jaanvaron ki jaivik ya fir audyogik kriyaaon ke falasvaroop paida huye pradooshakon ko bina kisi samuchit upachaar ke seedhe jal dhaaraayon mein visrjit kar diya jaana hai.

anukram

parichay

audyogik kachara America ki new rivr, California mein bahata hua

jal pradooshan ek pramukh vaishvik samasya hai. iske liye sabhi staron par chal rahe moolyaankan aur jal sansaadhan neeti mein sanshodhan ki aavashyakta hai. kyonki jal pradooshan ke kaaran poore vishv mein kai prakaar ki beemaariyaaain aur logon ki maut bhi ho rahi hai.[1] iske kaaran lagbhag pratidin 14,000 logon ki maut ho rahi hai. jismein 580 log Bhaarat ke hain. cheen mein shaharon ka 90 pratishat jal pradooshit hota hai. varsh 2007 mein ek jaankaari ke anusaar cheen mein 50 lakh se adhik log surakshit peya jal ki pahuainch se door hain. yeh pareshaani sabse adhik viksit deshon mein hoti hai. udaaharan ke liye America mein 45 pratishat dhaara mein bahate jal, 47 pratishat jheel, 32 pratishat khaadi ke jal ke prati varg meal ko pradooshit jal ke shreni mein liya gaya hai. cheen mein raashtreeya vikaas vibhaag ke 2007 mein diye bayaan ke anusaar cheen ke saat nadi mein jahareela paani hai, jisse tvacha ko haani hota hai.

kaaran

praakrutik kaaran

varsha ke jal mein hava mein upasthit gaison aur dhool ke karnon ke mil jaane aadi se usaka jal jahaaain bhi jama hota hai, vah jal bhi pradooshit ho jaata hai. iske alaava jvaalaamukhi aadi bhi iske kuchh kaaran hain.

rogajanak

yeh kai rogon ke janak hote hain. is kaaran inhein rogajanak kehte hain. ismein vishaanu, jeevaanu, kavak, parajeevi aadi aate hain. yeh mukhyat: ek jagah jal ke ekatrit rahane par hote hain. iske alaava yeh sade gale khaadya padaarthon mein bhi paida ho jaate hain.

dooshit padaarth

ismein kaarbanik, akaarbanik sabhi prakaar ke padaarth jo nadiyon mein naheen hone chaahiye, is shreni mein aate hain. kapde ya bartan ki dhulaai ya jeevon ya manushyon ke saaboon se nahaane par usase saaboon paani aadi jal mein vilay ho jaata hai. khaane ya kisi bhi anya tarah ka padaarth bhi jal mein ghul kar use pradooshit kar deta hai.

petrol aadi padaarthon ka risaav samudri jal pradooshan ka bada kaaran hai. petrol ka aayaat-niryaat samudri maargon se kiya jaata hai. in jahaajon mein se kai baar risaav ho jaata hai ya kisi kaaran se jahaaj durghatana ka shikaar ho jaata hai. uske doobne aadi se ya tel ke samudra mein fail ne se jal pradooshan hota hai.

ooshmeeya pradooshan

breton mein kaarkhaane se garm tatvon ko seedhe nadi mein daalte hue.

kai bade kaarkhaane vastu aadi ko galaane hetu bahut garm karte hain. isi ke saath usamein kai aise padaarth bhi hote hain, jinhein kaarkhaane mein upayog naheen kiya ja sakta hai. use kaheen or daalne ke sthaan par yeh use nadi mein daal dete hain. jiske kaaran nadi ka paani pradooshit ho jaata hai. iske ooshma ke kaaran kai jaleeya jeevon jaise machhali aadi ki bhi maut ho jaati hai, jo nadiyon mein kachara khaakar use saaf rakhane ka bhi kaarya karti hain. ooshmeeya jal mein okseejan ghul naheen paata hai aur iske kaaran bhi kai jaleeya jeevon ka naash ho jaata hai.

taapeeya ya ooshmeeya pradooshan nadiyon aadi mein bahut hi thande jal pravaahit karne par bhi hota hai. isse sabse bada khatra garm rahane vaale nadiyon par hota hai.

maapan

jal pradooshan ko maapa bhi ja sakta hai. iske maapan hetu kai vidhiyaaain upalabdh hai.

raasaayanik pareekshan

jal ke kuchh namoone lekar raasaayanik prakriya dvaara yeh gyaat kiya ja sakta hai ki usamein kitni ashuddhata hai. kai prakaashit vidhiyaaain kaarbanik aur akaarbanik donon tarah ke yaugikon ke liye upalabdh hai. ismein mukhyat: pH, aur jeevon dvaara okseejan ki aavashyakta aadi hai.[2]

jaivik pareekshan

jaivik pareekshan mein ped-paudhe, jeev-jantu aadi ka upayog kiya jaata hai. ismein inke svaasthya aur badhne ki gati aadi ko dekh kar unke rahane ke sthaan aur paryaavaran ki jaankaari milti hai.

pradooshan par niyantran

jal shodhan

jal pradooshan par niyantran hetu naalon ka niyamit roop se saaf safaai karna chaahiye. graameen ilaakon mein jal nikaas hetu pakke naaliyon ki vyavastha naheen hoti hai. is kaaran iska jal kaheen bhi ast-vyast tareeke se chale jaata hai aur kisi nadi nahar aadi jaise srot tak pahuainch jaata hai. is kaaran naaliyon ko theek se banaana aur use jal ke kisi bhi srot se door rakhane aadi ka kaarya bhi karna chaahiye.

audyogik apashisht rokana

kai udyog vastu ke nirmaan ke baad shesh bachi saamagri jo kisi bhi kaarya mein naheen aati hai, use nadi aadi sthaanon mein daal dete hain. kai baar aas paas ke ilaakon mein bhi daalne par varsha ke jal ke saath yeh nadi ya anya jal ke sroton tak pahuainch jaata hai. is pradooshan ko rokane hetu udyogon dvaara sabhi prakaar ke shesh bache saamagri ko sahi dhang se nasht kiya jaana chaahiye. kuchh udyog safalataapoorvak is niyam ka paalan karte hain aur sabhi shesh bache padaarthon ka ya to pun: upayog karte hain ya use surakshit roop se nasht kar dete hain. iske alaava is tarah ke padaarthon ko kam karne hetu apne nirmaan vidhi mein bhi parivartan kiye hain. jisse is tarah ke padaarth bahut kam hi bachate hain.[3]

bhoomika

haalaanki praakrutik ghatnaaon jaise ki jvaalaamukhi, shaivaal fool (algae bloom),tufaan (storm) aur bhookamp se jal ki gunavata main bhaari badlaav aa jaate hain , jal tabhi pradooshit hota hai jab (water quality) anthropogenik sandooshan apang ho jaate hain aur vah maanav ke istemaal (jaise peene ke paani) ke liye upayogi nahi rahata ya usamein aisa badlaav hota hai ki usamein apne jaivik samudaayon ko samarthan dene ki kshamata nahi rahati jal pradooshan ke kai kaaran aur abhilkshan hain jal pradooshan ke mool kaaran aksar unke praathamik srot se aadhaarit hain sthal-srot pradooshan yeh aashay hai ki sandooshak jalamaarg ke maadhyam se ek asatat " bindu srot " mein pravesh karatein hai is shreni mein shaamil hain apashisht upachaar sanyantr, factory se outfalls sraav bhoomigat tank, aadi. doosari praathamik shreni jo gair sootri srot pradooshan ko, dooshan se aashay yeh deta hai ki, jaisa ki iske naam se pata chalta hai, ki yeh ek asatat srot se aarambh nahi hota .gair bindu srot pradooshan ek chhoti maatra mein sandooshak ke prabhaav se ekatr hue ek bade kshetr se hota hai gair bindu pradooshan srot ke udaaharan yeh hain ki poshak apavaah toofaanajal pravaah se oopar ek patra se krushi kshetr main aa jaate hain ya dhaatuon aur hydrocarbon ek uchch abhedya kshetr ke saath ek praathamik kaanoon ka dhyaan jal pradooshan ko rokane ke liye pichhle kai saalon se bhindu kshetr main hai. bindu roop prabhaavi dhang se niyantrit kiye gaye hai, adhik dhyaan gair bindu yogadaan srot par diya gaya hai, vishesh roop se naye shahar aur vikaas ko dekhte hue yeh nirnaya liya gaya hai

pramukh kaaran jo jal ko pradooshit karta hain vo hain raasaayaniko, rogajanak (pathogen) aur shaareerik ya samvedi parivartan haalaanki kai rasaayan aur tatv jo ki svaabhaavik roop (loha, mainganeej, aadi) se hote hai, ekaagrata ki kunji ka pata lagaane ke liye paani ke praakrutik ghatak aur sandooshak ko dekha jaata hai kai raasaayanik padaarthvaishaali hai (toxic).pathogeins maanav ya jaanvaron mein jalajanit beemaariyaaain (waterborne diseases) paida kar sakte hain paani ke bhautik rasaayan vigyaan badlaav mein shaamil amlata, vidyut chaalakata (electrical conductivity), taapamaan, aur eutrofikaashan .hain poshik tatv jo pahele (Eutrophication) durlabh the vahi tatv aaj kal utrofikaashan (fertilisation), fartilaaijeshan dvaara satah (surface water) ke paani ko poshak tattv (nutrients) dete hai (scarce) jal pradooshan vishv sandarbh mein ek badi samasya hai | yeh sujhaav diya gaya hai ki yeh duniya bhar ki pramukh mrutyu aur beemaariyon ka kaaran hai[4][5] aur yeh roj 14000 se adhik logon ki mrutyu ka kaaran banta hai.[5]

jal pradooshak

sandooshak mein shaamil ho sakte hain kaarbanik (organic) aur akaarbanik (inorganic) padaarth hai.

kaarbanik jal pradooshak :
  • keetanaashak (Insecticide) aur harbeesaad (herbicide), orgaanohalid (organohalide) aur rasaayan aadi ki ek vishaal shreni
  • jeevaanuon, aksar malajal se ya pashudhan (livestock) sanchaalan se hota hain
  • khaadya sansaadhan (Food processing) kooda, jismein rogajanak bhi shaamil hai
  • pravesh aur (logging) sanchaalan se ped (Tree) aur brash ka malaba aata hai
  • vi O si (VOCs) (vaashpasheel kaarbanik yaugik), jaise audyogik vilaayak (solvent), anuchit bhandaaran se
  • di ऍn pi L (DNAPL)(ghane gair jaleeya charan taral padaarth), jaise ki k loreenayuk t vilaayak (chlorinated solvent)s, jo ki jheel ki satah pe aa jaate hai kiyoon ki ve paani ke saath nahi mil paate kyooain ki ve bahut ghane hote hain
  • petrolium hydrocarbon jismein (gaisoleen, diesel, jet indhan, aur indhan tel) aur lubrikeints (motor tel) jo tel kshetr parichaalan, rifaainariyon, pipe line, khudara seva bhoomigat station ke bhandaaran tank, aur hastaantaran ke sanchaalan se aata hai vi O si s gaisoleen doori ki hydrocarbon ismein shaamil hain .
  • ditrjeint (Detergents)
  • vibhinn raasaayanik yaugikon (chemical compounds) jo ki vyaktigat roop svachhata (hygiene) aur angaraag (cosmetic) utpaad main paaye jaate hain
  • rogaanunaashan gaun utpaadan (Disinfection by-product)(di bi pi) raasaayanik rogaanunaashan (disinfected)peene ke paani (drinking water) main paaye jaate hain
akaarbanik jal pradooshak :

makroskopik, jo bade dhiktain se jal pradooshan kartaieain hai vah hain samudri malabe (marine debris) aur aisi vastuon ke roop main jo shaamil ho sakte hain :

  • nardal (Nurdle), chhote sarvavyaapak jalajanit plastic chharron
  • chattaan se takaraakar nauka ka naash ho jaana (Shipwreck)s, badi parityakt pot

parivhan aur raasaayanik pratikriyaaon ka jal pradooshak par asar

jyaadaatar jal pradooshan nadiyon dvaara mahaasaagaron main girne ki vajah se hota hai . vishv ke kuchh kshetron mein prabhaav ka pata lagaaya ja sakta hai . sau meal ki doori se munh ka prayog karte hue adhyayan ke dvaara jalavijnyaaan model parivhan ka istamaal karte hue (hydrology transport model)s.unnat computer model (computer model) jaise ki s dabloo ऍm ऍm (SWMM) ya di S S ai ऍm model (DSSAM Model) yeh istemaal kiye gaye hain aur jaleeya pranaali par pradooshak ka kya asar padta usaka pata lagaaya ja sake . , udaaharan ke liye . (filter feeding) pradooshan ka bhaagya jaanane ke liye filtar bhojan (copepods) kopepods jaisi prajaatiyon ka bhi (New York Bight) adhyayan kiya gaya hai . yeh uchchatam vish (toxin) seedhe hadasan nadi ke munh mein nahi aata hai, lekin 100 kilometer dakshin mein hai, kyonki plekataun ootak hone main kae din (plankton) lag jaate hain . krolis bal ke kaaran (coriolis force).hadasan unmochan dakshin tat ke saath baheta hain iske alaava dakshin meinokseejan rikteekaran ke shetr (oxygen depletion), rasaayanon ka upayog karne ke kaaran aur okseejan shaivaal fool (algae bloom)s, ke kaaran atirikt poshak (nutrient) se algal koshika mrutyu vightan hota raheta hai machhali aurseepadaar machali ke (shellfish) marne ki khabar bataai gayi hain yeh is liye hai kyooain ki vishaile tatv foodchain main chadh kar chhoti machhalikopepods (copepods) aur fir badi machhali chhoti machhali ko khaakar is tarah vishaile tatv foodchain main chalta raheta hai aur vaishaali tatv ek se doosare ke anaadar jaata raheta hai lagaataar food chain main pradooshan har kadam ke dvaara ekaagrit hota raheta hai, jaise ki bhaari dhaatoo (heavy metals) (udahaaran ke liye :paara (mercury)) aur kaarbanik pradooshak jo lagaataar failata raheta hain (persistent organic pollutants) jaise ki deedeeti (DDT) yeh baayomaagnifikaashan ke naam se jaana jaata hai jo kabhi kabhi adal badal kar ke baayoakkumulation se bhi istemaal ho sakta hai

badi jnyare mahaasaagaron main alpakaalik plastic ke malabe ko faasa lete hain (plastic debris).udaaharan ke liye (North Pacific Gyre) uttari prashaant jnyare ne great prashaant kachara paich ko ikhtta kar liya hai, jo abhi taiksas ke 100 gunon ke (Great Pacific Garbage Patch) aakaar ka ho gaya hai inmein se kai lambe samay se tukadoe hava ke kaaran samudri pakshiyon aur jaanvaron ke pet main aa jaate hai. is ke parinaam se paachan ke raaste mein rookaavat ati hain jise bhookh kam aur bhukhamari bhi ho sakti hai

kai rasaayan bhogan pratikreeyaasheel kshaya (decay) ya raasaayanik badlaav vishesh roop se lambe samay takbhoomigat (groundwater) jalaashayon main aa jaata hai. ek ullekhaneeya varg ke aise rasaayan hainchlorinaated hydrokaarbons (chlorinated hydrocarbons) jo hain trichloroethylene (trichloroethylene)(jo dhaatu ka prayog audyogik degreasing electronics aur vinirmaan main prayog hotein hain) tetrachloroethylene jo (tetrachloroethylene) safaai udyog mein istemaal hota hai (dhyaan dein ki naveenatam agrimon mein taral kaarban daaioksaaid jismein rasaayanon ke upayog ki jaroorat nahi padti).yah: donon rasaayan joh kaarsinogeins (carcinogens) swayam, pratikriyaaon ke vightan se aanshik hote hain, jisse nae khatarnaak rasaayan bante hai (jismein dichloroethylene aur vinyl kloraaid shaamil hai)

bhoojal pradooshan ko rokana, (Groundwater) bhoomigat pradooshan ki tulana mein bahut hi jaada mushkil hain kiyoon ki bhoojal bina dekhe akuifer ke dvaara (aquifer) bahut lamba raasta naap sakta hai gair -akuifers jo ki geeli mitti (clay) ko bahut hi saral tarike (avashoshan aur adsorpshan), , jaise ki filtereshan, dilushan, kemikl ya jaivik pratikriyaaon gatividhi se shuddh bana deti hai lekin kuchh maamalon main pradooshak mitti ko sandooshak mai bhi badal dete hain (soil contaminant).bhoojal jo daraaron aur kaaverns ke (caverns) maadhyam se aage bhaadta hai vho chhanit naheen kiya jaata aur aasaani se satah paani ke roop mein aa jaata hai. vaastav mein, yeh maanav dvaara gruh-anadhikrutapravesh ho sakta hai agar maanav pravrutti ka upayog karne ke liye praakrutik (sinkhole) sinkhole ke kaarst (Karst) sthalaakruti ko danp ke roop main istemaal karte hain

maadhyamik prabhaav vibhinn prakaar ke hote hain jo mool pradooshak grast se naheen, balki ek shart vyutpannase hai inmein se kuchh maadhyamik prabhaavahain :

namoonaakaran aur nigraani

paryaavaran vaigyaaniko ki (Environmental Scientists) paani autosamplers ki taiyaari .

namoonaakaran paani jaroorat padne par kai roop le sakta hai jo sateekata aur sandooshak ki visheshataaon par nirfar karta hai. bahut se sandooshak iveints laukik hai aur sabse jaada saamaanyata sangh varsha ke saath hai is kaaran ke liye garaab ' namoone ke roop mein sanketak istemaal kiya ja sakta hai, lekin ye hamesha kaafi nahi hote ki poori tarah se shareer mein paani ki chintaaon ko jaancha sake . vaigyaaniko jo is tarah ke aankade ikhta karte hain vah svat:namoona ko niyojit karte hai jo ki paani ko samay ya unmochan anusaar pamp vruddhi (discharge) karta hai

niyaamak dhaaaincha

you ke main saamaanya vidhi hai jo (common law) adhikaar (naagrik adhikaaron ke) ko bachaane ke liye desh bhar mein paani ki gunavatta ki maatra ko bacha ta hai 16 veen shataabdi mein jal pradooshan par thoda sa hi niyantran tha lekin ye sirf (pradooshan nivaaran) nadi adhiniyam 1951—aa1961 tak hi simit tha jiske baad jal pradooshan par vyavasthit tareeke se niyantran sthaapit kiya gaya .in pradooshan niyantran adhiniyam 1984 kaanoonon ko majaboot aur vistaar banaaya gaya tha jinhein aage ke kaaryon ki ek shrrunkhala ne . adyatan aur badal bhi diya gaya, jheel, nadi, samudra ya bhoomigat jal main taral padaarth bina kisi samuchit adhikaar ko bataaya bina ek aparaadh hai England aur vels mein is tarah ki anumati sirf paryaavaran agency (Environment Agency) aur Scotland ke dvaara S E pi ai dvaara ki ja sakti hai (SEPA).

amareeka main jal pradooshan ki chinta ko lekar ye parinaam hua ki 19 19 veen sadi ke uttaraarddh ke aadhe main pradooshan virodhi kaanoon banaaya gaya aur sangheeya kaanoon 1899 mein adhiniymit hua .yeh inkaar kar adhiniyam (Refuse Act) sangheeya nadiyon aur harbors adhiniyam 1899 (Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899) pratibndhit ke niptaan mein se kisi bhi baat se inkaar ya to desh ki naugamya nadiyon, jheelon, dhaaraaon, maargadarshan aur anya nikaayon ke paani, ya kisi ko is tarah ki sahaayak nadi ke paani mein, jab tak ek se ek ne pehli anumati praapt hai. jal pradooshan ko kam karne ka surgeon general ko moka jal pradooshan niyantran adhiniyam (Water Pollution Control Act),1948 mein paarit hokar mila

logo ki badhati jaagrukta aur chinta ko dekh kar jal pradooshan ko niyantran main len ke liye adhiniyam 1972 mein sanshodhan kiya. 1977 main sanshodhan is kaanoon ko saadhaaran naam svachh jal adhiniyam (Clean Water Act). se jaana jaata hai is adhiniyam ke buniyaadi tantr se sandooshak unmocha ko niyantran main rakha gaya apashisht maanakon ka udyog ke liye isne praadhikran ki sthaapana (United States Environmental Protection Agency) sanyukt raajya America paryaavaran suraksha agency ke liye praadhikran ki sthaapana ki saaf paani adhiniyam ne jal gunavatta nirdhaarit, satah ke paani sandooshak jarooraton ko bhi jaari rakhaaaage is adhiniyam ka pravardhan chal ta raha aur uske saath great jheel ligesi adhiniyam 2002 adhiniyman hua.[6]

2004 mein, sanyukt raajya America paryaavaran suraksha agency (United States Environmental Protection Agency) peene ke paani ki gunavatta ki jaanch ek airline ke vimaan par vaanijyik ki aur ek press jaari vigyapti shukravaar 28 March 2008 yeh paaya ki 15 pratishat paani main koliform bakteriya paaya gaya tha

sandarbh

  1. Pink, Daniel H. (April 19, 2006). "Investing in Tomorrow's Liquid Gold". Yahoo. Archived from the original on April 23, 2006. https://web.archive.org/20060423172532/http://finance.yahoo.com:80/columnist/article/trenddesk/3748.
  2. For example, see Clescerl, Leonore S.(Editor), Greenberg, Arnold E.(Editor), Eaton, Andrew D. (Editor). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (20th ed.) American Public Health Association, Washington, DC. ISBN 0-87553-235-7. This publication is also available on CD-ROM and online by subscription.
  3. EPA (1997) Profile of the Fossil Fuel Electric Power Generation Industry. (Report). Document No. EPA/310-R-97-007. p. 24
  4. a aa
  5. saarvajanik kaanoon 107 -303, 27 November 2002

yeh bhi dekhiye

baahari kadiyaaain