jal

jal
जल अणु के आयाम और ज्यामितीय संरचनाThis space-filled model shows the molecular structure of water.

paani sabhi jeevon ke liye ek mahatvapoorn vilaayak hai
aur pruthvi ki satah par bahutaayat me milne wala yaugik hai.

soochana env gun
saadhaaran naam jal, paani
IUPAC naam okseeden
vaikalpik naam ekva, daaihaaidrojan mono oksaaid,
haaidrojan haaidrauksaaid, (aur)
anu sootr H2O
CAS sankhya 7732-18-5
InChI InChI=1/H2O/h1H2
molar dravyamaan 18.0153 g/mol
ghanatv aur roop 0.998 g/cm³ (drav 20 °aC par, 1 atm)
0.917 g/cm³ (thos 0 °aC par, 1 atm)
galanaank 0 °aC (273.15 K) (32 °aF)
kvathanaank 99.974 °aC (373.124 K) (211.95 °aF)
vishishth ushma kshamata 4.184 J/(g·aK) (drav 20 °aC par)
74.539 J/ (mol·aK) (drav 25 °aC par)
Supplementary data page
Disclaimer and references

jal ya paani ek aam raasaayanik padaarth hai jiska anu do haaidrojan parmaanu aur ek okseejan parmaanu se bana hai - H2O. yeh saare praaniyon ke jeevan ka aadhaar hai. aamtaur par jal shabd ka pprayog drav avastha ke liye upayog mein laaya jaata hai par yeh thos avastha (barf) aur gaiseeya avastha (bhaap ya jal vaashp) mein bhi paaya jaata hai. paani jal-aatmeeya satahon par taral-kristal ke roop mein bhi paaya jaata hai.[1][2]

pruthvi ka lagbhag 71% satah ko 1.460 peeta tan (peeti) (1021 kilogram) jal se aachhadit hai jo adhiktar mahaasaagaron aur anya bade jal nikaayon ka hissa hota hai iske atirikt, 1.6% bhoomigat jal ekveefar aur 0.001% jal vaashp aur baadal (inka gathan hava me jal ke nilambit thos aur drav kanon se hota hai) ke roop me paaya jaata hai.[3] khaare jal ke mahaasaagaron me pruthvi ka kul 97%, himnadon aur dhruveeya barf chotion me 2.4% aur anya sroton jaise nadiyon, jheelon aur taalaabon me 0.6% jal paaya jaata hai. pruthvi par jal ki ek bahut chhoti maatra, paani ki tankion, jaivik nikaayon, vinirmit utpaadon ke bheetar aur khaadya bhandaar me nihit hai. barfeeli chotion, himnad, ekveefar ya jheelon ka jal kai baar dharati par jeevan ke liye saaf jal upalabdh karaata hai.

jal lagaataar ek chakr me ghoomta rahata hai jise jalachakr kehte hai, isame vaashpeekaran ya traanspireshan, varsha aur bah kar saagar me pahainchana shaamil hai. hava jal vaashp ko sthal ke upar usi dar se uda le jaati hai jis gati se yeh bahakar saagar me pahainchata hai lagbhag 36 Tt (1012kilogram) prati varsh. bhoomi par 107 Tt varsha ke alaava, vaashpeekaran 71 Tt prati varsh ka atirikt yogadaan deta hai. saaf aur taaja peyajal maanaveeya aur anya jeevan ke liye aavashyak hai, lekin duniya ke kai bhaagon mein khaaskar vikaasasheel deshon me bhayankar jalasankat hai aur anumaan hai ki 2025 tak vishv ki aadhi janasankhya is jalasankat se do-chaar hogi..[4] jal vishv arthavyavastha mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaata hai, kyoki yeh raasaayanik padaarthon ki ek vistrut shrrunkhala ke liye vilaayak ke roop mein kaarya karta hai aur audyogik prasheetan aur parivhan ko sugam banaata hai. meethe jal ki lagbhag 70% maatra ki khapat krushi me hoti hai.[5]

anukram

jal ke prakaar

jal ki teen avasthaayein: drav, thos (barf) aur hava me (adrushya) vaashp. baadal jal vaashp ki sanghanit boondon se bante hain

jal teen avasthaaon mein paaya jaata hai, yeh un kuchh padaarthon me se hai jo pruthvi par praakrutik roop se sabhi teen avasthaaon mein milte hain. jal pruthvi par kai alag alag roopon me milta hai: aasmaan mein jal vaashp aur baadal; samudra mein samudri jal aur kabhi kabhi himshail; pahaadon mein himnad aur nadiyaan ; aur taral roop me bhoomi par ekveefar ke roop mein.

jal me kai padaarthon ko ghola ja sakta hai jo ise ek alag svaad aur gandh pradaan karte hai. vaastav mein, maanav aur anya jaanvaron samay ke saath ek drushti viksit ho gayi hai jiske maadhyam se vo jal ke peene ko yogyata ka moolyaankan karne mein saksham hote hain aur vah bahut namakeen ya sada hua jal naheen peete hain. manushya thande se gunaguna jal peena pasand karte hain; thande jal me rogaanuon ki sankhya kaafi kam hone ki sambhaavana hoti hai. shuddh paani H2O svaad me feeka hota hai jabki sote (jharane) ke paani ya lavanit jal (mineral vaatar) ka svaad iname mile khanij lavanon ke kaaran hota hai. sote (jharane) ke paani ya lavanit jal ki gunavatta se abhipraaya iname vishaile tatvon, pradooshakon aur rogaanuon ki anupasthiti se hota hai.

rasaayanik aur bhautik gun

jalaanuon me haaidrojan bandh ka ek triaayaami nidrsh
paare ki tulana me jal ki keshikeeya kriya

jal ek rasaayanik padaarth hai jiska rasaayanik sootr H2O hai: jal ke ek anu me do haaidrojan ke parmaanu sahasanyojak bandh ke dvaara ek okseejan ke parmaanu se jude rahate hain.

jal ke pramukh rasaayanik aur bhautik gun hain:

jal saamaanya taapamaan aur dabaav mein ek feeka, bina gandh wala taral hai. jal aur barf ka rang bahut hi halke neela hota hai, haalaanki jal kam maatra mein rangaheen lagta hai. barf bhi rangaheen lagti hai aur jal vaashp moolat: ek gas ke roop mein adrushya hota hai.[6]

okseejan ki vaidyutarinaatmakata haaidrojan ki tulana mein uchch hoti hai jo jal ko ek dhruveeya anu banaati hai. okseejan kuchh rinaaveshit hoti hai, jabki haaidrojan kuchh dhanaaveshit hoti hai jo anu ko dvidhruveeya banaati hai. pratyek anu ke vibhinn dvidhruvon ke beech paarasparik sampark ek shuddh aakarshan bal ko janm deta hai jo jal ko uchch prusht tanaav pradaan karta hai.

  • ek anya mahatvapoorn bal jiske kaaran jal anu ek doosare se chipk jaate hain, haaidrojan bandh hai.[7]
  • jal ka kvathanaank (aur anya sabhi taral padaarth ka bhi) seedhe bairomeetar ka dabaav se sambandhit hota hai. udaaharan ke liye, evarest parvat ke sheersh par, jal 68 °aC par ubal jaata hai jabki samudratal par yeh 100 °aC hota hai. iske vipreet gahre samudra me bhoo-ushmeeya chhidron ke nikat jal ka taapamaan saikadon degree tak pahuainch sakta hai aur iske baavajood yeh dravaavastha me rahata hai.
  • jal ka uchch prusht tanaav, jal ke anuon ke beech kamjor ant:kriyaaon ke kaaran hota hai (vaan dar vaals bal) kyonki yeh ek dhruveeya anu hai. prusht tanaav dvaara utpann yeh aabhaasi pratyaastha (loch), keshika tarangon ko chalaati hai.
  • apni dhruveeya prakruti ke kaaran jal me uchch aasanjak gun bhi hote hai.
  • keshika kriya, jal ko gurutvaakarshan se vipreet disha me ek sankeern nali me chadhne ko kehte hain. jal ke is gun ka prayog sabhi sanvahani paudhon dvaara kiya jaata hai.
  • jal ek bahut prabal vilaayak hai, jise sarv-vilaayak bhi kaha jaata hai. vo padaarth jo jal me bhali bhaaainti ghul jaate hai jaise lavan, sharkara, aml, kshaar aur kuchh gaisein vishesh roop se okseejan, kaarban daaioksaaid unhe haaidrofilik (jal ko pyaar karne vaale) kaha jaata hai, jabki doosari or jo padaarth achhi tarah se jal ke saath mishran naheen bana paate hai jaise vasa aur tel, haaidrofobik (jal se darane vaale) kahalaate hain.
  • koshika ke sabhi pramukh ghatak (proteen, DNA aur bahusharkaraaid) bhi jal mein ghul jaate hain.
  • shuddh jal ki vidyut chaalakata kam hoti hai, lekin jab isame aayanik padaarth sodiym kloraaid mila dete hai tab yeh aashcharyajanak roop se badh jaati hai.
  • amoniya ke alaava, jal ki vishisht ushma kshamata kisi bhi anya gyaat rasaayan se adhik hoti hai, saath hi uchch vaashpeekaran ooshma (40.65 kJ mol−1) bhi hoti hai, yeh donon iske anuon ke beech vyaapak haaidrojan bandhon ka parinaam hai. jal ke yeh do asaamaanya gun ise taapamaan mein huye utaar-chadhaav ka bafran kar pruthvi ki jalavaayu ko niyamit karne paatrata pradaan karte hain.
  • jal ka ghanatv adhiktam 3.98 °aC par hota hai.[8] jamane par jal ka ghanatv kam ho jaata hai aur yeh iska aayatan 9% badh jaata hai. yeh gun ek asaamaanya ghatna ko janm deta jiske kaaran: barf jal ke upar tairati hai aur jal me rahane vaale jeev aanshik roop se jame hue ek taalaab ke andar rah sakte hain kyonki taalaab ke tal par jal ka taapamaan 4 °aC ke aaspaas hota hai.
edeeaar lebal, jal se bhayaanak pratikriya karne waali vastuon ke parivhan hetu
  • jal kai taral padaarth ke saath mishraya hota hai, jaise ithenaul, sabhi anupaaton mein yeh ek ekal samaroop taral banaata hai. doosari or, jal aur tel amishraya hote hain aur milaane parat banaate hai aur in paraton me sabse upar waali parat ka ghanatv sabse kam hota hai. gas ke roop mein, jal vaashp poori tarah hava ke saath mishraya hai.
  • jal anya kai vilaayakon ke saath ek ejiotrop banaata hai.
  • jal ko haaidrojan aur aakseejan mein vidyutapaghatan dvaara vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai.
  • haaidrojan ki ek oksaaid ke roop mein, jab haaidrojan ya haaidrojan-yaugikon jalate hain ya okseejan ya okseejan-yaugikon ke saath pratikriya karte hain tab jal ka srujan hota hai. jal ek indhan naheen hai. yeh haaidrojan ke dahan ka antim utpaad hai. jal ko vidyutapaghatan dvaara vaapas haaidrojan aur aakseejan mein vibhaajan karne ke liye aavashyak oorja, haaidrojan aur okseejan ko punarsanyojan se utsarjit oorja se adhik hoti hai.
  • vah tatv jo haaidrojan se adhik vaidyutadhanaatmak (electropositive) hote hain jaise lithiym, sodiym, kailshiym, poteshiym aur seejayam, vo jal se haaidrojan ko visthaapit kar haaidroksaaid (jaleeyaoksaaid) banaate hain. ek jvalanasheel gas hone ke naate, haaidrojan ka utsarjan khatarnaak hota hai aur jal ki in vaidyutadhanaatmak tatvon ke saath pratikriya bahut visfotak hoti hai.

jal sansaadhan

aur ise bhi dekhein Bhaarat ke jal sansaadhan

jal ka upayog jab maanav karta hai to yeh uske liye sansaadhan ho jaata hai. dainik kaaryon se lekar krushi mein aur vividh uddyogon mein jal ka upayog hota hai. jal maanav jeevan ke liye itna mahatvapoorn sansaadhan hai ki yeh muhaavara hi prachalit hai ki jal hi jeevan hai.

sandarbh

  1. Henniker, J. C. (1949). "The Depth of the Surface Zone of a Liquid". Reviews of Modern Physics (Reviews of Modern Physics) 21 (2): 322–341. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.21.322.
  2. Pollack, Gerald. "Water Science". University of Washington, Pollack Laboratory. http://faculty.washington.edu/ghp/researcthemes/water-science. abhigman tithi: 2011-02-05. "Water has three phases – gas, liquid, and solid; but recent findings from our laboratory imply the presence of a surprisingly extensive fourth phase that occurs at interfaces."
  3. Water Vapor in the Climate System, Special Report, [AGU], December 1995 (linked 4/2007). Vital Water UNEP.
  4. Kulshreshtha, S.N (1998). [Scholar?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&sa=G&oi=qs&q=%2210.1023+a+1007957229865%22+author:s-kulshreshtha "A Global Outlook for Water Resources to the Year 2025"]. Water Resources Management 12 (3): 167–184. doi:10.1023/A:1007957229865. Scholar?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&sa=G&oi=qs&q=%2210.1023+a+1007957229865%22+author:s-kulshreshtha. abhigman tithi: 2008-06-09.
  5. Baroni, L.; Cenci, L.; Tettamanti, M.; Berati, M. (2007). "Evaluating the environmental impact of various dietary patterns combined with different food production systems". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61: 279–286. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602522.
  6. Braun, Charles L.; Sergei N. Smirnov (1993). "Why is water blue?" (HTML). J. Chem. Educ. 70 (8): 612. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~etrnsfer/water.htm.
  7. Campbell, Neil A.; Brad Williamson; Robin J. Heyden (2006). Biology: Exploring Life. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-13-250882-6. http://www.phschool.com/el_marketing.html.
  8. Kotz, J. C., Treichel, P., & Weaver, G. C. (2005). Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity. Thomson Brooks/Cole.

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