jaitoon

jaitoon ke fal
yoonaan mein jaitoon ke vruksh

jaitoon aaingreji naam oliv (olive), vaanaspatik naam 'oleaa europaiaa', (Olea europaea); prajaati oliya, jaati thooropiya; kul oliyesi; ek vruksh hai, jiska utpattisthaan pashchim Asia hai. yeh prasiddh hai ki yoonaan ke aitika (Athens) praant ki pahaadiyon mein, choonedaar chattaanon dvaara bani hui mitti mein, jaitoon ke vruksh sarvapratham paida kiye gaye. ye ab bhoomadhya saagar ke aas-paas ke deshon, jaise Spain, Portugal, Tunisia aur tarki aadi mein bhali bhaaainti paida kiye jaate hain. yoonaan ke parvateeya praanton mein jaitoon ki kheti vyaapaarik abhipraaya se ki jaati hai. Africa ke kep upanivesh, cheen tatha nyoojeelaind mein bhi iski kheti safalta poorvak ki jaati hai. amareeka ke California praant mein jaitoon ke baag lagaae gaye hain.

Europe mein jaitoon ke do prakaar ke vruksh paae jaate hain. ek jangali kaaaintedaar aur doosra bina kaaainte ka hota hai. jangali vruksh chhota ya jhaadi ki bhaaainti hota hai aur usaki daaliyon par kaaainte hote hain. pattiyaaain vipreet, deerghavat‌ aur nukeeli hoti hain. iske pushp safed hote hain tatha pratyek pushp mein chaar vidrit baahyadalapunj (calyx) tatha dalapunj (corolla), do punkesar tatha dvishaakh vartinkaagr (stigma) hote hain. baagon mein lagaae gaye vruksh ooainche, sugathit aur bina kaaainte ke hote hain. inki kai kismein hain. is vruksh ke fal se vyaapaarik mahatva ka tel praapt kiya jaata hai. iske fal mein sookhe padaarth ke aadhaar par 50 se 60 prati shat tak tel rahata hai. ise bhali bhaaainti kuchal kar, dabaakar ya daabak se tel nikaalate hain. fal ka achaar banaaya jaata hai. ye tikt hote hain. namak ke paani me fal ka rakhane s tiktata door ho jaati hai.

jaitoon ke nae paudhe kalam dvaara praapt kiye jaate hain. praudh daaliyon ke 6 inch ke tukade kaat kar October ya ravari mein kartan (Cutting) lagaate hain. jab jadein nikal aati hain tab unhein ropan kyaari mein laga dete hain. do varsh baad sthaayi sthaan mein 30-40 foot ki doori par laga kar baag taiyaar karte hain. 5 varsh baad vruksh fal dene lagte hain. sarvaadhik fal 15-20 varsh ki avastha hone par hi praapt hote hain. prati varsh vrukshon ki daaliyon ki kataai-chhaintaai ki jaati hai. naaitrojan ki khaad iske liya sabse upayogi hai.

baahari kadiyaaain