jaisalamer

jaisalamer
shahar
जैसलमेर का किला
jaisalamer ka kila
samay mandal: IST (UTC+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
raajya Rajasthan
jila jaisalamer
mahaapaur sang Singh bhaati
janasankhya
ghanatv
58,286 (2001 tak )
• 11,429 /kimi2 (29,601 /varg meal)
kshetrafal
ooainchaai (AMSL)
5.1 km² (2 sq mi)
• 225 meter (738 fee॰)

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 26°a55′aN 70°a54′aE / 26.92°aN 70.9°aE / 26.92; 70.9 jaisalamer Bhaarat ke Rajasthan praant ka ek shahar hai. Bhaarat ke sudoor pashchim mein sthit dhaar ke marusthal mein jaisalamer ki sthaapana bhaarateeya itihaas ke madhyakaal ke praarambh mein 1178 E. ke lagbhag yaduvanshi bhaati ke vanshaj raaval-jaisal dvaara ki gayi thi. raaval jaisal ke vanshajon ne yahaaain Bhaarat ke ganatantr mein parivartan hone tak bina vansh kram ko bhang kiye hue 770 varsh satat shaasan kiya, jo apne aap mein ek mahatvapoorn ghatna hai. jaisalamer raajya ne Bhaarat ke itihaas ke kai kaalon ko dekha va saha hai. saltanat kaal ke lagbhag 300 varsh ke itihaas mein gujarata hua yeh raajya mugal saamraajya mein bhi lagbhag 300 varshon tak apne astitv ko banaae rakhane mein saksham raha. Bhaarat mein angreji raajya ki sthaapana se lekar samaapti tak bhi is raajya ne apne vansh gaurav va mahatva ko yathaavat rakha. Bhaarat ki svatantrata ke pashchaat yeh bhaarateeya ganatantr mein vileen ho gaya. bhaarateeya ganatantr ke vileenakaran ke samay iska bhaugolik kshetrafal 16,062 varg meal ke vistrut bhoo-bhaag par faila hua tha. registaan ki visham paristhitiyon mein sthit hone ke kaaran yahaaain ki janasankhya beensaveen sadi ke praarambh mein maatr 76,255 thi.[1]


jaisalamer jile ka bhoo-bhaag praacheen kaal mein 'maadadhara' athva 'vallabhamandal' ke naam se prasiddh tha. mahaabhaarat ke yuddh ke baad badi sankhya mein Yadav is or agrasar hue va yahaan aa kar bas gaye. yahaan anek sundar haveliyaan aur jain mandiron ke samooh hain jo 12veen se 15veen shataab‍aadi ke beech banaae gaye the.[2]

anukram

bhaugolik sthiti

jaisalamer city ka drushya
Jaisalmer Fort sign.jpg

jaisalamer raajya Bhaarat ke pashchim bhaag mein sthit thaar ke registaan ke dakshin pashchimi kshetr mein faila hua tha. maanachitr mein jaisalamer raajya ki sthiti 20001 se 20002 uttari akshaansh va 69029 se 72020 poorv deshaantar hai. parantu itihaas ke ghatnaakram ke anusaar usaki seemaaeain sadaiv ghatati badhti rahati thi. jiske anusaar raajya ka kshetrafal bhi kabhi kam ya jyaada hota rahata tha. jaisalamer ka kshetr thaar ke registaan mein sthit hai. yahaaain door-door tak sthaai va asthaai ret ke oonche-oonche teele hain, jo ki hava, aandhiyon ke saath-saath apna sthaan bhi badalate rahate hain. inheen reteele teelon ke madhya kaheen-kaheen par pathareele pathaar va pahaadiyaaain bhi sthit hain. is sampoorn ilaake ka dhaal sindh nadi va kachh ke ran arthaat pashchim-dakshin ki or hai.

bhoogol

bhoomijaisalamer raajya ka sampoorn bhaag reteela va pathareela hone ke kaaran yahaaain ka taapamaan May-June mein adhiktam 47 seinteegred tatha December-January mein nyoonatam 05 seinteegred rahata hai. yahaaain sampoorn pradesh mein jal ka koi sthaai srot naheen hai. varsha hone par kai sthaanon par varsha ka meetha jal ekatr ho jaata hai. yahaaain adhikaansh kunon ka jal khaara hai tatha varsha ka ekatr kiya hua jal hi ekamaatr paani ka saadhan hai.

mausam

January-March tak yahaan thand padti hai aur taapamaan shoonya degree celcius tak pahunch jaata hai. April-June tak yeh khoob tapata hai aur ausat taapamaan 45 degree celcius rahata hai. is mausam mein jab madhyaahn mein soorya sir par hota hai aur usaki kirnon thaar ke registaan par padti hai to sunahari ret ko dekh aisa lagta hai maano chahunor sone ke kan bikhre pade hon. aise manamohak drushya ka aanand lene ke liye paryatak bheeshan garmi ki bhi paravaah naheen karte aur yahaan ghumakkadi karte firte hain. October se December tak monsoon aur thand ke beech ke mausam mein yahaan aap thand aur baarish donon tarah ke mausam ka aanand utha sakte hain.[3]

itihaas

painoraama mein bada baag

sainkari galiyon vaale jaisalamer ke ooainche-ooainche bhavya aaleeshaan bhavan aur haveliyaaain sailaaniyon ko madhyakaaleen raajashaahi ki yaad dilaati hain. shahar itne chhote kshetr mein faila hai ki sailaani yahaaain paidal ghoomate hue marubhoomi ke is sunahare mukut ko nihaar sakte hain. maana jaata hai ki jaisalamer ki sthaapana bhaati rajput, Rao jaisal ne 12 veen shataabdi mein ki thi. itihaas ki drushti se dekhein to jaisalamer shahar par khilji, Rathore, mugal, tugalak aadi ne kai baar aakraman kiya tha. iske baavajood jaisalamer ke shaahi bhavan rajput shaili ke sachche dyotak hain.

visheshataaen

jaisalamer raajya Bhaarat ke maanachitr mein aise sthal par sthit hai jahaaain iska itihaas mein ek vishisht mahatva hai. Bhaarat ke uttar-pashchimi seema par is raajya ka vistrut kshetrafal hone ke kaaran arabon tatha Turkey ke praarambhik hamlon ko yahaaain ke shaasakon ne na keval sahan kiya varan drudhta ke saath unhein peechhe dhakelakar shesh Rajasthan, Gujarat tatha madhya Bhaarat ko in baahari aakramanon se sadiyon tak surakshit rakha. Rajasthan ke do rajput raajya, mevaai aur jaisalamer anaya raajyon se praacheen maane jaate hain, jahaaain ek hi vansh ka lambe samay tak shaasan raha hai. haalaaainki mevaad ke itihaas ki tulana mein jaisalamer raajya ki khyaati bahut kam hui hai, iska mukhya kaaran yeh hai ki mugal-kaal mein bi jahaaain mevaad ke mahaaraanaaon ki svaadheenata bani rahi vaheen jaisalamer ke mahaaraavalon dvaara anya shaasak ki bhaaainti mugalon se melajol kar liya jo ant tak chalta raha. aarthik kshetr mein bhi yeh raajya ek saadhaaran aay wala pichhda kshetr raha jiske kaaran yahaaain ke shaasak kabhi shaktishaali sainya bal sangathit naheen kar sake. falasvarup iske padausi raajyon ne iske vistrut bhoo-bhaag ko daba kar nae raajyon ka sangathan kar liya jinmein Bikaner, khairapur, meerapur, bahaavalapur evam shikaarapur aadi raajya hain. jaisalamer ke itihaas ke saath praacheen yaduvansh tatha Mathura ke raaja yadu vansh ke vanshajon ka sindh, Punjab, Rajasthan ke bhoo-bhaag mein palaayan aur kai raajyon ki sthaapana aadi ke anekaanek aitihaasik va saanskrutik prasang jude hue hain.

sadiyon tak aavaagaman ke sugam saadhanon ke aabhaav mein yeh raajya desh ke anaya praanton se lagbhag kata sa raha. is kaaran baahar ke logon ke jaisalamer ke baare mein bahut kam jaankaari rahi hai. saamaanyat: logon ki kalpana mein yeh sthaan dhool va aaaindhiyon se ghira registaan maatr hai. parantu vastusthiti aisi naheen hai, itihaas evam kaal ke thapede khaate hue bhi yahaaain praacheen, sanskruti, kala, parampara va itihaas apne mool rup mein vidhmaan raha tatha yahaaain ke ret ke kan-kan mein pichhle aath sau varshon ke itihaas ki gaathaaeain bhari hui hain. jaisalamer raajya ne mool bhaarateeya sanskruti, lok shaili, saamaajik maanyataaeain, nirmaanakala, sangeetakala, saahitya, sthaapatya aadi ke moolarupann banaae rakha.

shaasak

jaisalamer raajya ki sthaapana bhaarateeya itihaas ke madhyakaal ke aarambh mein 1178i. ke lagbhag yaduvanshi bhaati ke vanshaj raaval-jaisal ke dvaara kiya gaya. bhaati moolat: is pradesh ke nivaasi naheen the. yeh apni jaati ki utpatti Mathura va dvaarika ke yaduvanshi itihaas purush Krishna se maanati hai. Krishna ke uparaant dvaarika ke jalamagn hone ke kaaran kuchh bache hue yadu log jaabulistaan, gajani, Kabul va Lahore ke aas-paas ke kshetron mein fail gaye the. kahaaain in logon ne baahubal se achhi khyaati arjit ki thi, parantu madya Asia se aane vaale turk aakramanakaariyon ke saamane ye jyaada naheen thahar sake va Lahore hote hue Punjab ki or agrasar hote hue bhataner naamak sthaan par apna raajya sthaapit kiya. us samay is bhoo-bhaag par sthaaneeya jaatiyon ka prabhaav tha. at: ye bhataner se pun: agrasar hokar sindh multaan ki or badhe. antogatva mumanavaah, maaroth, tapot, deraavar aadi sthaanon par apne mukaam karte hue thaar ke registaan sthit paramaaron ke kshetr mein lodrava naamak shahar ke shaasak ko paraajit yahaaain apni rajdhani sthaapit ki thi. is bhoo-bhaag mein sthit sthaaneeya jaatiyon jinmein paramaar, baraah, langa, bhoota, tatha solanki aadi pramukh the. inse satat sangharsh ke uparaant bhaati log is bhoo-bhaag ko apne aadheen kar sake the. vastut: bhaatiyon ke itihaas ka yeh sampoorn kaal satta ke liye sangharsh ka kaal naheen tha varan astitv ko banaae rakhane ke liye sangharsh tha, jismein ye log safal ho gaye.

sthaapatyakala

jaisalamer ka kila

jaisalamer ke saanskrutik itihaas mein yahaaain ke sthaapatya kala ka alag hi mahatva hai. kisi bhi sthaan vishesh par paae jaane vaale sthaapatya se vahaan rahane vaalon ke chintan, vichaar, vishvaas evam bauddhik kalpanaasheelata ka aabhaas hota hai. jaisalamer mein sthaapatya kala ka kram raajya ki sthaapana ke saath durg nirmaan se aarambh hua, jo nirantar chalta raha. yahaan ke sthaapatya ko raajakeeya tatha vyaktigat dono ka satat prashraya milta raha. is kshetr ke sthaapatya ki abhivyakti yahaan ke kilon, gadhiyon, raajabhavanon, mandiron, haveliyon, jalaashayon, chhatariyon va jan-saadhaaran ke prayog mein laaye jaane vaale makaanon aadi se hoti hai.

jaisalamer raajya me har 20-30 kilometer ke faasale par chhote-chhote durg drushtigochar hote hain, ye durg vigat 1000 varsho ke itihaas ke mook gavaah hain. madhyayugeen itihaas mein inka param mahatva tha. ye raajanaitik aavashyakataanusaar nirmit karaae jaate the. durg nirmaan mein sundarata ke sthaan par majabooti tatha suraksha ko dhyaan mein rakha jaata tha. parantu yahaan ke durg majabooti ke saath-saath sundarata ko bhi dhyaan man rakhakar banaaya gaya tha. durgo mein ek hi mukhya dvaara rakhane ke parampara rahi hai. durg mukhyat: pattharon dvaara nirmit hain, parantu kishnagadh, shaahagadh aadi durg iske apavaad hain. ye durg pakki inton ke bane hain. pratyek durg mein chaar ya isse adhik burj banaae jaate the. ye durg ko majabooti, sundarata va saamarik mahatva pradaan karte the.

mandir sthaapatya

jaisalamer durg, nagar va aas-paas ke kshetr man sthit ooainche shikharon, bhavya gunbadon vaale jain mandiron ka sthaapatya kala ki drushti se baङaa mahatva hai. jaisalamer sthir jain mandir mein jagati, garbhagruh, mukhyamandap, goodhmandap, rangamandan, stambh va shikhar aadi mein Gujarat ke solanki va badhel kaaleen mandiron ka spasht prabhaav drushtigochar hota hai.

jaisalamer ko kila

inhein bhi dekhein: jaisalamer durg

jaisalamer jile ka bhoo-bhaag praacheen kaal mein 'maadadhara' athva 'vallabhamandal' ke naam se prasiddh tha. itihaas ke anusaar mahaabhaarat yuddh ke pashchaat yaadavon ka Mathura se kaafi sankhya mein bahirgaman hua. ye raajathaan evam Gujarat ki or agrasar hue. jaisalamer ke bhootapoorv shaasakon ke poorvaj jo apne ko Bhagwan Krishna ke vanshaj maanate hain, sanbhavat: chhathi shataabdi mein jaisalamer ke bhoobhaag par aa base the. is jile mein yaadavon ke vanshaj bhaati raajapooton ki pratham rajdhani tanot, doosari laudrava tatha teesari jaisalamer mein rahi. Rajasthan ke prasiddh maroo shahar jaisalamer ki sthaapana 1156 E. mein bhaati raaja jaisal ne ki thi. jaisalamer, jile ka pramukh nagar hain jo nakkaasheedaar haveliyon, galiyon, praacheen jain mandiron, melon aur utsavon ke liye prasiddh hain. nikat hi sam gaaainv mein ret ke teelon ka paryatan ki drushti se vishesh mahatva hain. yahaaain ka sonaar kila Rajasthan ke shreshth dhaanvan durgon mein maana jaata hain.[4] jaisalamer ke kile ka nirmaan 1156 mein kiya gaya tha aur yeh raajas‍aathaan ka doosra sabse puraana raaj‍aaya hai. dhaai sau feet ooncha aur seint s‍aaton ke vishaal khan‍aadon se nirmit 30 feet oonchi deevaar vaale is kile mein 99 praacheer hain, jinmein se 92 ka nirmaan 1633 aur 1647 ke beech karaaya gaya tha. is kile ke andar maujood kune paani ka nirantar srot pradaan karte hain. raaval jaisal dvaara nirmit yeh kila jo 80 meter oonchi trikoot pahaadi par sthit hai, ismein mahalon ki baahari deevaarein, ghar aur mandir komal peele seint s‍aaton se bane hain. iski sankari galiyaan aur chaar vishaal pravesh dwaar hai jinmein se antim ek dwaar mukh‍aaya chauk ki or jaata hai jis par mahaaraaj ka puraana mahal hai. is kas‍aabe ki lagbhag ek chauthaai aabaadi isi kile ke andar rahati hai. yahaan ganesh pol, sooraj pol, bhoot pol aur hava pol ke jariye pahuncha ja sakta hai. yahaan anek sundar haveliyaan aur jain mandiron ke samooh hain jo 12veen se 15veen shataab‍aadi ke beech banaae gaye the.[2]

chitrakala

chitrakala ki drushti se jaisalamer ka vishisht sthaan raha hai. Bhaarat ke pashchim thaar marusthal kshetr mein vistrut yeh raajya yahaaain door tak maru ke teelon ka vistaar hai, vaheen kala sansaar ka khajaana bhi kam mahatvapoorn naheen hai. praacheen kaal se hi vyaapaarik svarnim maarg ke kendra mein hone ke kaaran jaisalamer aishvarya, dharm evam saanskrutik avadaan ke liye prasiddh raha hai. jaisalamer mein sthit sonaar kila, chintaamani paarshvanaath jain mandir (1402-1416 E.), sambhavanaath jain mandir (1436-1440 E.), shaantinaath kunthanaath jain mandir (1480 E.), chandraprabhu jain mandir tatha anek vaishanv mandir dharm ke saath-saath kala ke utkrusht udaaharan hain. 18veen-19veen shataabdi mein bani jaisalamer ki prasiddh haveliyaaain to sthaapatya kala ki bejod misaal hai. in haveliyon mein bane bhitti chitr kaafi sundar hain. saalim Singh Mehta ki haveli, patavon ki haveli, nathamal ki haveli tatha kile ke praasaad aur baadal mahal aadi ne jaisalamer ki kalaatmadaaya ko aaj sansaar bhar mein prasiddh kar diya hai.

bhaasha

jaisalamer mein boli mukhyat: Rajasthan ke maarava kshetr mein boli jaane waali maaravaadi ka ek bhaag hi hai. parantu jaisalamer kshetr mein boli jaanevaali bhaasha thali ya thaar ke registaan ki bhaasha hai. iska svarup raajya ke vibhinn sthaanon par bhinn-bhinn hai. udaaharan svarup lakha,myaajalaar ke ilaake mein maalaani ghaat va bhaashaaon ka mishran bola jaata hai. paragana sam, sahaagadh va ghotaadoo ki bhaasha mein thaat, va sindhi bhaasha ka mishran bol-chaal ki bhaasha hai. visnagadh,khuhadi, naachana aadi paraganon mein jo bahaavalapur, sindh se sanlagn hai, maaङ, beekaaneri va sindhi bhaasha ka mishran hai. isi prakaar laathi, pokaran, falaudi ke kshetr mein ghaat va ma bhaasha ka mishran hai. Rajasthan rajdhani mein boli jaane waali in sabhi boliyon ka mishran hai, jo ghaat, maaङ, sindhi, maalaani, punjabi, gujaraati bhaasha ka sundar mishran hai.

saahitya

maru sanskruti ka prateek jaisalamer kala va saahitya ka kendra raha hai. usane hamaari praacheen saanskrutik dharohar ko surakshit rakhane mein ek prahari ka kaarya kiya hai. jain shra1ti ki vikram sanvat 1500 khatar gachhaachaarya jin bhadrasoori ka nirdeshaanusaar va jaisalamer ke mahaaraaval chaachagadev ke samay Gujarat sthal paaran se jain granthon ka bahut baङaa bhandaara jaisalamer durg mein sthaanaantarit kiya gaya tha. anya jan shruti ke anusaar yeh sangrah chandraavali naamak nagar ka muslim aakraman mein poornat- dhvast hone par surakshit sthaan ki talaash mein yahaaain laaya gaya tha. is vishaal sangrah ko anek jain muni, dharmaachaaryon, shraavakon evam vidushi saadhviyon dvaara samay-samay par apni utkrusht rachanaaon dvaara badhaaya gaya. yahaaain rache gaye adhikaansh granthon par tatkaaleen shaasakon ke naam, vansh, samay aadi ka varnan kiya gaya hai. yahaan rakhe hue granthon ki kul sankhya 2683 hai, jismein 426 ta patra likhein hain. yahaan taaङapatr par upalabdh praacheenatam granth vikram sanvat 1117 ka hai. tatha haath se bane kaagaj par hastalikhit granth vikram sanvat 1270 ka hai. in granthon ki bhaasha praakrut, maagadhi, sanskrut, apabhransh tatha braj hai. yahaaain par jain granthon ke alaava kuchh jainattar saahitya ki bhi rachana hui, jinmein kaavya, vyaakaran, naatak, shrrungaar, saankhya, meemaansha, nyaaya, vishshaasr, aaryuved, yog ityaadi kai vishyon par utkrusht rachanaaon ka pramukh sthaan hai.

sangeet

lok sangeet ki drushti se jaisalamer kshetr ka ek vishisht sthaan raha hai. yahaaain par praacheen samay se ma raag gaaya jaata raha hai, jo is kshetr ka paryaayavaachi bhi kaha ja sakta hai. yahaaain ke janamaanas ne is shushk bhoo-dhra par man ko bahalaane hetu atyant hi saras va bhaavaprad geeton ki rachana ki. in geeton mein lok gaathaaon, kathaaon, paheli, subhaashit kaavya ke saath-saath varsha, saavan tatha anya mausam, pashu-pakshi va saamaajik sambandhon ki bhaavanaaon se otaprot hain. lokageet ke jaankaaron va visheshagyon ke maton ke anusaar jaisalamer ke lokageet bahut praacheen, paramparaagat aur vishuddh hai, jo bandhe-bandhaaye rup mein adyaparyant gaae jaate hain.

dharm

bhaaratavarsh ki bhoomi sadaiv se dharm pradhaan rahi hai, yahaaain par dharm ke bina jeevan ki kalpana bhi nahi ki ja sakti hai. jaisalamer raajya ka vistaar bhoo-bhaag bhi is bhaavana se mukt naheen raha. is kshetr ke sarvapratham Rao tanoo dvaara tanot naamak sthaan basaane tatha vahaaain devi ka mandir ka mandir banaane ka ullekh praapt hota hai. yeh devi ka mandir aaj bhi vidyamaan hai, jaisalamer mein vibhinn sanpradaayon ke prati bahut aastha rahi hai, inmein Ram snehi, naathapanth tatha vallabh sanpradaaya pramukh hain. mahaaraaval amarasinh ke samay raamaanandi panth ke mahant harivanshagiri ne amarasinh ko apne chamatkaaron prasann kiya va raaval devaraaj ke samay se raajs mein kisi anya panth ke pravesh par lagi rok ko hatavaaya tatha sthaan-sthaan par raamadvaaron ki sthaapana karaai. yahaaain jain dharm ki shvetaambar shaakha ne itni adhik prasiddhi praapt ki thi ki kaalaantar mein shvetaambar panthi jain samaaj ke liye jaisalanmer ek teerth sthal ban gaya. jaisalamer raajya mein praarambh se hi islaam dharm maanane vaale logon ka astitv raha hai, is kshetr mein paaye jaane vaale islaam dharm ke anuyaayi adhikaanshat: sthaaneeya jaatiyon dvaara balaat islaam dharm sveekrut karne vaalon mein se hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

chitr deergha


baahari kadiyaan

sandarbh

  1. "jaisalamer ka parichay" (hindi mein) (peeechapi). presanot. pp. 01. http://www.pressnote.in/travel/view_city.php?city=Jaisalmer. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  2. a aa raash‍aatreeya portal vishyavas‍aatu prabandhan dal. "jaisalamer ka kila" (hindi mein) (peeechapeeechateeemael). Bhaarat sarkaar. pp. 01. http://bharat.gov.in/knowindia/jaisalmer.php. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  3. "sonaar kila ka saundaryasthal (svarn nagari jaisalamer)" (hindi mein). gitsfaur you. pp. 01. http://www.gits4u.com/hindi/jaislmer.htm.
  4. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; .E0.A4.B0.E0.A4.A4.E0.A4.A8 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.

vistrut paath

  • Bhati, Hari Singh. 2002. ANNALS OF JAISALMER: A Pre-Mediaeval History. Kavi Prakashan, Bikaner.
  • Gahlot, Sukhvirsingh. 1992. RAJASTHAN: Historical & Cultural. J. S. Gahlot Research Institute, Jodhpur.
  • Somani, Ram Vallabh. 1993. History of Rajasthan. Jain Pustak Mandir, Jaipur.
  • Tod, James & Crooke, William. 1829. Annals & Antiquities of Rajasthan or the Central and Western Rajput States of India. 3 Vols. Reprint: Low Price Publications, Delhi. 1990. ISBN 81-85395-68-3 (set of 3 vols.)